You asked the questions, you chose the episodes: Join us for your favorite Cosmic Queries of Season 5, answered by your own personal astrophysicist, Neil deGrasse Tyson, and guest hosts Bill Nye and Dr. Amy Mainzer.
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Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now. Welcome to start talk, radio on your host, Neil digressed, hasten I'm an astrophysicist and director of New York Cities, Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of natural history. The following show is a cosmic queries time, capsule, a collection of a season of star talk. Cosmic query shows that were selected by you her fans as your favorites of the year. First up comedian landlord reads your pressing questions about one of the four fundamental forces of the universe.
Gravity of all the questions that I look that not one of them is what its gravity look that works good cause. The whole idea about. Yes, I'm really intricate stuff into my gun. It does need more basic. Will you could start with one? What is gravity? Yes, that at that I am opening the field, the yes maternal, caused privileges. I am, and I'm putting my question out their first. What is gravity have no idea next question, there's a difference. We can describe gravity say what it does to other things we can. We can measure: it predict with it, but we start asking like what it is. No accident ask a deeper question I meant to you know you were meant to ask two questions. Only our life so to say what is it I think, Einstein in an Einsteinian answer. We say gravity is the curvature of space and time
and that an objects will follow the curvature of space time, and we we interpret that as a force of gravity. That's probably the best answer. I can give to a what is gravity question: why is there Gravity That's the best. I can do that. I think that that's a good start, and I can also say that I'm Stein noted that the great matter tells space how to curve space tells matter how to move
and again in a beautiful. It is not. I want to get that yeah. I saw no matter and it matter and energy quill curve the fabric of space who had as they curvature the tells other matter how to move in the curvature space itself, and so I Stein juxtapose those in a poetic phrase where he said matter tell space out a curve space top like it there it matter. I would manage l space out a curve. Space tells better how to move his beautiful night. That is beautiful, beautiful the sounds like the opening to dance lesson. How did we get so that measure? That is your cause privileges? Thank you. First, crushed Thou mats, that warmed up the crowd. I hope other than Mr Thyssen himself. What is called the great a tractor? Does its force affect us and, if so, how? I love that the great attract your I haven't been up on them
latest research on the great attractive, but I was around when it was discovered and the great attractive. If you look out into the universe, beyond our own galaxy. We live in the milky way and there's the Andromeda Galaxy and galaxies and avert cluster of that's what it what's defines the girdle clustered as a bunch of other galaxies. There and there's the general expansion of the universe, which we measure in the speed signatures of these galaxies. We got that yes, but you can also measure other movements of these galaxies by secondary methods, and when you do this, this research showed that there is a whole field of galaxies. All with an extra bit of motion in one particular direction was called the great a tractor.
Ok, it was mysterious, and so hence this had this mysterious name waiting. Call it the great you no sun, God or great Galaxy through the games, just the great a tractor, and so I know it doesn't affect us at all. I mean with it just Duff moving in the universe according to which the gravitational fields in which they and are embedded, we are on earth moving in the gravitational field of the sun, the sun is moving dragging the entire solar system with it in the ground. National field established by the galaxy, the Galaxy and Andromeda moving within our own mutual gravitational field. We will one day collide and the Andromeda and the milky way are moving within a general gravitational field of the Virgo super cluster of galaxies and just recently
a large your system of galaxies was discovered, of which the vertical super cluster is just apart. Oh dear no killing more insignificant every day, that's my job to fix that the job of the cosmic perspective is to convey All of us that we are a small part of a much larger universe. What's interesting about particle physics, is that gravity essentially irrelevant to everything that going on down there. It is as irrelevant to particle physics as good but he is irrelevant most insects using insects crawl. All across the ceiling, annoying LISA. Yet right, you do sake, YO, there's gravity should be following you, be in so others a difference scales in the universe. Different manifestations of the laws of physics will predominate so for an surface tension of liquid matters. More than anything.
That's why you have that the Jesus spider here see the cheeses, colleges, spiders, cute and walks on water. I thought because it down non combatants me to love was a thirty thirty. He wrote all these arguments about what constitutes a day, and you know what it is too bad weekend so that we can walk on water, and you say well if I try to I wonder if I'm not Jesus, I will fall through the surface of the water, because the insect is responding to the surface tension of the water which overrides the forces of gravity entirely entirely. That's why so? The world of the insect is very different from the world of us and that's why you can't take an insect and make a human size version of it and have it have any success, doing what it was as an insect. So alongside my movies, get that wrong. One hundred percent of a giant sunshine insiders the reason why there, no giant spiders think then have never really thick rhinoceros,
legs and we call them a rhinoceros. If you can't, you can't just scale it up the laws of physics, it's all the same laws of physics, but it manifest differently depending on your scale, see I was gonna, ask that, does that mean insects a different physics like each other, a little lab coaches different different, you, no results that we got their web site is, would probably would not yet discovered gravity rear. Yes, so now you're particle responding to your positive charge or negative chart naval electromagnetic forces, which are already orders of magnitude stronger than gravity forty orders of might forty powers of ten stronger. So in other words, you take an electron, proton and say well their mass right. How much are they attract each other gravitational? You calculate that right down that number. Now you do your equation for how much they attract one another, because they are of opposite electrical charge right down. That number do electrical charge force
attraction is tend to the fortieth power stronger than gravity so of Europe's article. You would never discover the gravity exists. Two of your favorite guests and start HAWK radio bill, neither science gun and NASA astronaut MIKE Mass Amino, took control of the show in this next segment. They were helped out in the studio by median CO host Eugene Merman? What's new on the subject of high temperature, even room temperature superconductors? Are we getting any closer to grasp how it works, and will this knowledge, in conjunction with three be printing, create a new in dust, real age sounds like he's, making a prediction of his own. Does that he's like? Am I right? What are you? thing he's a sage. Yeah we'll see very easy sage, three is fabulous. What's this? What's the state of US superconductors into? Why don't know that, though, we have superconductors that work at liquid helium
pictures. Everybody wants. Canada hold yeah forty four Kelvin, yes, forgetful of incense call. It is cold even colder than like Canada. So really bring added yeah, but wouldn't it be good if they work with liquid nitrogen, wouldn't they were good if they worked with frozen water? Yes, but it's a long way off as far as I know, but that doesn't mean it can't be done. What I would do where I king of the food is a vest. In these nanotubes in the getting carbon. Items to arrange themselves in these extraordinary tubes were the very, very low electrical resistance, but the deal a three day. Printing thing is yeah We ve already made rented carbon tubes ever do that, is that a thing in the future is very reasonable to me, but you re not a carbon to Brenner, but have you ever three printed I've, never that they have made in the other, affordable, now sort of yet another gables really yeah. We hope that in the armature lake of me,
a few thousand dollars less than two thousand hours allow men, you can make your own salt shakers. I can't wait to go home in Galicia, Geike, again plastic swords to bear. We can't that people can see this go. There's radio but Eugene's eyes of just. Let us please ready to get out of here and go by a treaty printer. Yet if one word a warped space to travel, a vast distance would people existing in the space that is being warped between take off and destination and dust if you notice anything unusual or they don't in the movies. The people in between the in between us, once hang, it felt so some people some planet. So where someone is someone else out there, that kind of Sharm by the idea that, of course, and sooner you into restarted space work, then of course you will understand that these things are big fun. You're trying to create a science fiction, television show, we really don't have time to people, not speaking English and you gotta get up and down from
hundred and travel around various quadrants in the galaxy Alex Ease, but these things are more theory. Call them. They are and so on. We will see how people do as they go between extraordinary destinations through proven theoretical spaces in the face with a notice. I think this person suspects, they might have seen something tat, would be noticed anything unusual right right this part, guys. Possibly we heard a voice, something unusual. My hamburgers you look a little bit different today than it did the other day. Is it since someone warp speed through dying? Well tat, I m. So your money is going on here. I think yeah. Is there a theoretical limit to the size of a son I keep seeing graphics. Burying our Sunda, larger and larger solar giants. Just how big can they get did you get to be a few hundred sort of sun diameter? you become a black hole? Really you become us.
Are that has so much gravity light doesn't escaped, but, like all is innocence, would you describe? It is over a million whales, yeah big, that wouldn't be inaccurate. What are they doing? What he's not allow accurate waited? Well, you ve got a big we're well over a million a backdoor of, I guess who the night teeth or something like the whale. That's hanging from my meals museum examples, given the New York City, the mechanism of natural history, so son, that was too big- would just become a black yeah. Well, that's what it apparently. It does they do great, no one! That's up now. I know how to make a black all, thanks, look out world most of the questions sent to us about scientific theories and discoveries, but in this cosmic queries we tackle the intersection between science and art with comedian.
Oh host Chuck nice. I would definitely like to hear Niels thoughts on the golden ratio and the role of mathematics in aesthetics in general. That lesson some question. Oh my gosh, so it has been suggested since antiquity that certain proportions are pleasing to the eye. No matter what your upbringing is. Perhaps none, no matter even no matter, Europe, green within a culture and perhaps no matter even what culture you'd derived from one of them is the goal, then a ratio yeah- and I think it's one plus the square root of five over to send some look it up over the break but cannot carried in my head. But what What it does is it tells you how wide something should be for how tall it is right and that's why certain painting certain pictures in their frame just feel a little awkward. They don't feel pleasing and you
and even put your finger on it, its carbon emotional force operating on you and until a hidden intellect She will force that's telling you. I like this picture better than that you might not even know why. I know why cause I'm looking at poor from Paris Just I just you have you have other ratios and there's the porn ratio gotta check it where my mind's is where go ahead, so like geometry geometry, in fact, literally means earth measurement. Geometry, oh man, it was applied to measuring distances is in an along earth's surface and earth is curved, so you get some some interesting
mathematical discussions when you bring mathematics to bear on earth measurement, but math, I think, is over valued as a force in art. Mechanic has in math. There is no room for emotion, the trail the journey isn't, and so the question is: is there something that's mathematically purer? That is all so emotionally rich, sheer satisfying and by the way people been thinking about this since for ever, and it started with the music of the spheres. They saw planets in orbit around the sun. Will that's a this rhythm today Add in the different orbits of different times. Is the ratio, of those. That means something mathematically that Whitworth four out of which you can make music and was imagine that music, you can make awesome music from the universe and for all the music I've heard that came from universe. It's not
if influences science? How come the international space station is so ugly. It's because art does it's, because art does not influence science, art influenced design of architecture and hardware, but it does not influence science. So those were engineers I had an opportunity to make. The bad is looking think they ever was orbiting the earth and out came some. They look like some. You know, erector set, and so I am a little disappointed now that you mention it, but I hope we want to bring in some does art, art and designers firm and go to Mars cause. I want that to be the bad ass. Looking thing that's ever come off, the was there ever a painting or sculpture during the renaissance or any other historical ties that captured and accurate depiction of the cosmos at
At times the yes, there is Jean Doze painting of the birth of Jesus, a very famous painting in which he puts comment. We all put carnage signify good things all history of our of civilization, where people have looked up and seen a comment, if you look at how they react, they say. Oh some bad is about I've been, and so he took a leap and sad well, the birth of Jesus is a good thing to Christians and a comment is just some in the sky and that comment is likely. Haley's comet that. He had seen in the sky at the time that he painted it, because if you date back the appearance of Haley's come every. Seventy six years it lines up with when he made that painting last. So that is real science in a real painting. Not only that ten sixty six, the
Are you tapestry? There is a dude pointing up at a comet. Game and ten sixty six coincided with William the Conqueror look at Today. Hey, I've got no secret for you when I consider singing all of the ads on this shell there Just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last startled and, Porthos at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free. You can, download. All current episodes into your favorite park has player and ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not after hear me saying if you support us at patriarch dot com last our talk
I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. Welcome back maybe I'm the overdrafts place this time, capsule show with featuring or fans favorite cosmic queries from season five appropriate for a time. Capsule, you selected our time, travel, cosmic trees, which feature the comedian and Saturday Night LIVE weekend up day host college. Just does the fact that there are no time travellers now prove the time travel woman Reinvented in future, the an excellent point, I've, always thought about that, because I said to myself. In fact, if you watch the tv, the CBS Succumb, the Big bang theory in the room contract and are you gotta, be totally in the children in the room contract that stipulated that if any one of them,
invent a time machine in the future. They have to go back to that moment that reading that phrase in the room contract to show up in the room going through the contracts they paused for a moment now. Ok, we have the one who events the time machine in the future. An alderman like, let's agreed in me back your ten years from now credits at the same time also exactly, and so I think, that's that's a pretty good argument and I dont have a rebuttal too, that we know what people are hiding it. What if people have come back but are not telling people for some reason give something what there's a quote. I think it was from road doll, but others perhaps have said that the only secret they can be kept when two people is when one of them is dead, let me assure you that if a time machine we're out their people would have figured that went out. It's been rumoured that the reason why the Titanic sank,
because in the future they invented a time machine and everyone wants to go back to the Titanic to see the iceberg when a lot of the Titanic segue while Madame convincing so there's the mountains. Are you looking for evidence regarding our hard hard core evidence? So that's a pretty good one! Yes and it made it might be that your time travel machine can only take him to the future, and then you don't have these paradoxes of killing you and mother and then you're never born yeah go back and acts in a future starting the out exactly at the question is if we could fooled two points of space time together, what would happen to the matter that was between those two points? all two points in space out, sir. Oh such a well, you can't because the two points in time will not correspond the two different places on the time access so
You can't have time: Tiggle zero in the same places, timetables five, because their different places on the access? If you folded them you folding them in a higher dimension and so they're kind of near each other if you stepped above them, higher dimension. It are not exactly the same. There are not actually in the same place and so just to make that clearer. If he took it sheet of paper, and I've got one right here. You ve not rate, now you can, you can listen to it, but I've got a sheet of paper have by eleven and I'm curling to edges, and I have to I just sort of touching each other. Now, yes- and I can say that in the same place, but no they are not. Actually, they are not actually now what I'll do as a punch, a hole through one to get to the other loot wormhole, not just warps, the fair, for space travel through a wormhole landed on the other side, no unfold a sheet of paper, and I just cross the sheet of paper instantly and what might have whilst taking me some some
unacceptably long period of time, such as what they do and STAR Trek invoke. The warp drive, they take their destination warp, their location close to it. They travel through this work in the fabric of space and time they unfolded and they cross the galaxy during the tv commercial. That's how that works, that's out after the great any in what would have otherwise taken, of course, the Galaxy hundreds of thousands of years, even at the speed of light it's a legitimate way to cheat the laws of relativity, so the deed I'm going up town as like the exact opposite of so he'd asked about Lee STAR Trek, the voyage home trick for which has been dub, save the whales by that's. The subtitle of that show us where they go back in time to the present day of the time of the film, so is making before I think it was already five, and so he wants to know. Is there an actual speed
which you can swing by slingshot, pass the sun, such as what they did in that show rank in the movie in order to go back in time right and it's, it's is king use the sun's Paul, but who is our safe enough distance that it wouldn't just pull you and yet? So? First of all you cannot do what they did in the show and then the moving regardless regarding, let's just with nip that one about gas? Ok so, and the only what you could do something like that is if you had vastly more powerful gravity than the sun and you needed a the fabric of space and time has to be so warped. That, in fact, is a colleague who study this. His name is rich got in fact, he's been on star talk before he wrote a book called time: travel in Einstein's universe, and he found a solution to Einstein's equations that allows backwards. Time travel with the kind of assuming shots, reject but not around the sun. That son does not disturb the fact space and time nearly enough well. Well,
The kind of thing there were two black holes veteran orbit around each other, and so you have to do a kind of a wiggly path array. On these black holes and you can end up in the past of your own world line before you had left to go on their trip well, yeah, it's it's a very well moment and so start track, more exciting to do it around the edge of the sun presumably ravages. Two black things you have in space, which is already black this season on startup, we had a few guest hosts take over the show one such host was doktor. Amy minds are an extra physicist from NASA's jet propulsion laboratory. She answered questions about cod. That's an asteroids with comedian Chuck nice. I have heard some day arrived,
that the water on earth could have been deposited here by comments, which is what you just said. These comments have to come from somewhere. So do you think they are rich? So where do you think they originate from and what is the source of their water? really involved in question there and that's a tough one for you right now is certainly not the tap clearly, they definitely have to come from somewhere far away it ain't avian. No, it is not area and definitely not so. We know that the com, it's come from a couple different sources in our solar system. They are? Some of them are way out there and we think they might even be halfway to the restart well, yeah, really far, really cold super called deep freeze, and that's that has been out? There is very, very old, it is ancient and it is again billions, Villiers, pity and basic aims of years. Oh, it's extremely old! So when it gets here every now and again, we don't know exactly how. But sometimes these objects, get kind of shuffled loose from
cloud that surrounds our solar system. We called the Ort cloud and occasionally one will get flung inward and all of that ice and volatile material inwards and when it gets to the sun, what happens? Restore some milk as our sons from what I hear a kind of hot I? Yes, yes, exactly so the sun basically does a number on the comment starts to vaporize it and it can form a big long tail and eventually some of them actually make their way to earth We think that that may have been how a lot of the earth's oceans actually formed. While you are you serious, like it was that much ice could have been yeah so wow, so the tale of the com. It is actually expelling that much eyes that if it were to get caught me earth gravitational, pull down, it creates oceans. Imagine lots of comets last!
lots of comments. I mean right now. This is kind of a quiet time in our solar system. Architecture is gear, and now we're kind of great and we're glad for that right because we are life here on earth does not really like it. When things get two interesting exactly so, but early on when the solar system was first forming. We do think there was a period when the earth premature Scott pelted by asteroids and comments, and that could have been when the water got here. Wow bat arrays fascinated do you Amy, have a favorite, asteroid or comment. If so, why? Which one do you think is the most interesting? Oh It is just this is no. I can answer this question only resort, like choice is like asking you have pricker. Can I love them all they all my favorites list? I love him all come on now. Ok! Well, alright! I, like the ones it
discovered that you really do like your own jewel. How do you like what kind of bad? Actually there is one particular weirdo thing that we found with our survey when we were out looking for asteroids, and it's called the first known trojan- and this is an asteroid that actually is stuck to the earth in a peculiar way. Ok, really yeah, now its stock to the earth. It is actually trapped in a gravitational residence, with the earth, which sounds really cool, and this actually is really cool asteroid. It's basically earth. Is following it around in its orbit around the sun sweet and its catch trap there and what's gonna happen is after a while, eventually its color its way out right, but right now like a little mama's boy- oh yes, it's just can't get out can't get out. Won't you,
Lastly, an earth. As I know you come with me about my baby girl using no, no don't leave me so so that's that's! Ok! That's one of my first one, you ve round if I had to pick cannon asteroid consisting of gold or silver be out there and if it hit the earth who would own it Well, I say I would love to find a gold or silver asteroid if I could, but the ones we find that our metallic tend to be nickel iron Mikel, I'm not merely words as LA known on nearly as much fun, and the answer to the second part of the question is: if it does exist, I own a richer. So those black about my air out of my Roy ok, How scientifically accurate is the nineteen seventeen maverick mad
Ok, I spent will do more than my childhood playing. That gave me an you both yes, and so, when I became an asteroid scientists it turns out. The game is actually not that bad. If you hit an asteroid that is in the game, it breaks into a lot a little pieces, ensuring that is exactly what happens to the asteroids. Why? How that is awesome are right. Here's a very quick one. What role do you think plasma physics plays in the landscape of comets? Oh, my goodness confusing so to the movies is always a popular topic with our audience and in this show comedian, CO, host, Eugene Merman, ask your questions about STAR Trek, STAR wars and so much more. If you are an astronaut tumbling through space like in the movies gravity, could use angel rotation or trajectory say through twisting your body. Thank you, love the show. I know no, unless
but unless you're in contact with some other thing or unless you lose mass. If you do not lose mass or come in contact with anything else, you will tumble in that same way, at that same split, you forever, you actually will lose mass in the sense that you'll grow hungry and die had demanded you woe O Kirsty, It will then be better really slow, as people who try to lose weight will attack. That is a slow way to lose their much faster ways to lose mass media about it, you're public through space, it you don't have access to any restaurants or not. What you can do is if you open up certain patches of your spacesuit, you could like p in. Direction or another. This will send me your mass out the direction opposite prison,
we the way tumbling and you don't want to go that will slow you down, though I do like they, the of someone spinning in paying and then just it would just states be included in the other direction and they still spin. So you have to know some anger, angular momentum, physics before you when I wanted to say it started being or spitting org, pooping or stored or or anything way where trajectory this is no different. You die like say you open the Sioux there'd, be your skin. When built the contacts that you would just a vacuum. I mean yes, not won't be comfortable, but you can do a temporary and really gesture, oh yeah, for how long a cup of tea. Where trajectory this is no different. You die like say you open the Sioux there'd, be your skin when built the contacts that you would arches. I mean it's not will be comfortable, but you can do a temporarily in low, really gesture area for how long a cup of humans Oh really sounds great yeah. I might have a new gold humble through space for a few minutes, no suit. So so the point is that when you lose, if you look at sea
craft when they make adjustments there and free open space there little. So what Call these nozzles these rocket nozzles that are strategically position around the body that ship you gotta, make it rotate one direction or another to change that attitude, the angle there or slow down or to speed up it is losing mass by the active burning? fuel that sends gases out one direction or another, so anything that kinda burp any other latch. When I had a very severe ok, yes, there is a question for Alex Robinson about the death star in the star wars, thinks for clarifying. We see that star blow up the planet alder. On setting aside the question of our thing would be possible what would happen to our solar system if the empire blew up say Mars, yet such a great question, so it's really simple. First, how would you one go about blowing up a planet? You ask yourself how much energy is keeping it too,
Then you put more than that amount of energy into the object. It will explode. So more than whatever some more than the gravitational. So you find out, you can calculate that. That's physics, one or two right metaphysics, one or one one who has had a blow apart and that's a pretty quite an accelerated scientist was only calculate was called the binding Energy of the planet right and it's gravitational binding is its gravity, keeps it together. You want to overcome the gravity. Holding it together calculate that how much energy is now you have a device that can pump that energy in to your planet. And have their planet absorb the energy rather have the energy come out. The other side will completely destroy the planet to smithereens entirely. So that's how one would go about it if he did it to Mars, we lose our cue actually Rover. That's fine, discovering science there too, but it wouldn't affect us that much. I would affect our rover
of terrorism, which leaves me I mean I mean our physical, wealthy age, not our mental emotional, acknowledge well being written. We will continue to work at the sun and Mars have essentially nor effect on US Welcome back east, I thought radio ideal digress Thyssen, this house, my time capsule she is a collection of fan favorites from season and one. Your top picks was when bill. Neither science guy hosted in my stead, answering questions about space and science with comedian coast. Chuck nice. If a planet had a slight
axis rotation allows the star in its orbiting it that its orbiting to heat the planet over a longer day could a planet be further out of what we consider the habitable zone and still sustain life. At similar temperatures as earth, so bigger planet farther out longer day villains. Do all those things factor into its back up the earth day used to be before we had clocks as far as it used to be eighteen hours in the ancient dinosaur days, so that's a fact that some thirty percent that the earth is going a third slower than it used I did not know they were here we're alive, so you gotta figure of your farther out and turning only of conditions are right. You could be a living thing you ve got of. Why not? Who is to stop? You wait, wait, there's more the planet, mercury spins, two thirds of a time for every orbit.
And I don't think there are any more curious because it's too close to the sun from what we understand right, but there's ice in the creators of mercury is there someplace on some other world? That's turning slowly, that as some slush Anders living things in it. I dont know right. One way to find to make sure we never find out is to stay here. Not go, look not go, look exactly wow! That is very good. That is hey, hey J D number, one great question and number two. How no that the earth day used to be eighteen teen. That's when you talk to the ancient dinosaurs, take a meeting with them. Really there the fossil firms that are extent that are along with their fossils. Ok, you can fer a lot about the ancient environment, and then you look at sea
and ice right and things, and you can for infer a lot about the how the earth is slowing down now caused by title friction with the moon, and you can work backwards to how fast Busby spinning in ancient times since people at the equator go faster relative to people closer to the Poles yeah, do they aid more slowly. It seems to me I've done this calculation in physics class real there. Ok, they do, but it's not so much so insignificant, always insignificant for sure. But when you get into these thousands of billions that things do not add up right, I've got it, but it's a cork astronauts age ever so slightly more slowly than you, and I do just by being up there by in orbit when in orbit nugget fantasy now the astronauts of the very near future, if we can you
this term will go into where the skies dark hundred kilometres, that the Karmann limit the Carmen they're gonna go up and down without going in orbit, they will be cited. Oh by the way when you're in a jet airplane flying around me continent occur around the world. You're going your time is passing ever so slightly more merciless lightly morsel and for those of you who take physics and have not computed that, I encourage you to do that. It's fun and then the other thing that's just used to river me was there was a question: what is the attraction, but then, in parentheses, gravitation between a seventy kilogram boy and sixty kilogram girl, inferences gravitational boy that was ten science problem right. There fatigue,
gravitational constant Times Mass one mass to over the distance between Antwerp and that's gravitational, because the other computation is herbs? I am shocked, To be shocked, well, the earth ever increase or d Greece in its size over life over it's over. It's life met our well. I gotta think yeah. Now, geologists, I'm sure Pondered this question deeply: it's a question of tat, tight timing, time timing! Will this Sonic's expand and heat the earth before the earth has a chance to crossing you call the metal of the inside of the earth your neck, all your iron you're molten Earth core rights. Are you going to you're gonna shrink, but will the Sun come out here and cook things up before they have. I think the sun's gonna beat us as far as calling the earth
I wouldn't worry about it. Let me remind you one of the tremendous insights into the nature of geology, the nature of our place in space people wondered COS. Reasonably. How could you have evolution happen over three billion years? How could the earth stay hot as it seems to have all this time and you can tell the years hard inside when you have a volcano absolute, which we have now and then that and the way Venus looks at us. Let us nowhere heart, I'm sorry, I'm sure you're Right York assure your eye I've always kind of how to thing for Venus myself politely, but that said, Venus stays Roy. For other reasons, anyway, the inside of the earth has fission going on nuclear,
mission, and that keeps it really hot, but eventually you would think hypothetically? Theoretically, things would cooperate. I think the sun's gonna heat up and cautious before than Venus stays out because of all its carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which has run away with the greenhouse effect. So Venus, please could could that be our future is what would you talk about the greenhouse effect it? Could it be? No, I don't think so. Venus is so how hot is thank you it's so hot that the ground, then you would melt lead on the growing. Take your fishing waits, let it would melt a mature, stainless steel. Cutler We were just we're, just bend yield, and so more is Salvador, Dolly painting. It would be really but you'd be dead do before he could appreciate a mean instantly. Furthermore, it molly the wait, wait, there's more. It rains acid rain.
House self metal disaster. Well, this place is like Hell and the guys who did the first in the modern era, not the people from the seventeen hundreds in early eighties, early nineteen hundred in the modern era, the people discovered climate change on earth, James Hansen, Ok June. Nineteen. Eighty three right has to fight and from the car it was something Venus. The atmosphere Venus with telescopes the people discovered the real the redoubt with various affects all have to know how the guys I too much gardeners, wow wow and by too much we're talking about just a bit too much just a little just little bit and that's what we need here is just a little bit rise Tenet game over ass, what's gonna happen? Even if I whispered we're wrapping up our seas and five cosmic queries time capsule with the pale you answer apologist doctor, the entire saw he and I are based at the same institution, the American Museum
of natural history in New York City, along with the comedian Eugene Merman, we asked him your questions about primate ever Does selective breeding do the same as evolution Astor or not at all, and if it does cause evolution faster, could we possibly selectively breed chimps until they reach intelligence here? Why? Why are we doing to chance what we're doing dogs yeah creating sooner imps, though we can murder us, we already have ourselves and that I think that's probably enough for us to have to deal with right there, why you would want who turn a chimpanzee, any human being one human beings already out there really
messing up the world, Ike arise between buying a cake and making a k a you, gonna see the phone while, I suppose, no one concerning ship to humans returning chimps into small chimps yeah turning chimps in a smart chimps Ino people have been trying to do things too two to two to teach chimpanzees language turns out. The chimpanzees can learn signs. They can manipulate symbols in their minds. They going to have up anyway, but they just don't don't bitter lumber women information? The way we were we going to another way of why we end in neither are wolves, cuddly lap creatures, but we turn them into. We turned wool into curly city dogs that sit on your lap during dinner. We, so why can't? Why aren't we doing that two other animals to chimps too? You know, I think dogs basically domesticated us in our dogs
dogs? Dogs are basically the victim some of their own, their own personal kind of relief. Kinship with human beings are chimpanzees. On thy wife meeting dogs decided that the mood easier, if they just hung out with us, then hunted and didn't bite us and didn't bite assess basically a sham shrill agri food easier if we stay The way from people exactly in current human populations are clear. Selection pressure is observed for certain GEO type GINO types over others. Most people can leave offspring. How will this affect human evolution while, as not just say, I think it means that we're not going anywhere biologically that essentially the where we are static, biologically until demographic circumstances change, but meanwhile, as a lot going on in the cultural sphere to keep us amused, Sears saying the excellent franchises and totally realistic.
Totally realistic overweight, so it what it says is because we all into breed- and we have airplanes today- all around the world, the next time, we would ask why we made planes to fly around, have exact? We don't want there is no branch of the human species unmated with exact areas as soon as we have the airplane every, thing possible have again exactly but also spread disease faster and absolutely a jet speed by, but So it means if we species it's gonna, be because we sent colonies to Mars or on generational ships to other systems. Will you know gonna like this, because I think yes, but is theoretically you Send the collie in their mouths, which was small and genetically unstable, could incorporate innovations and could species, but they be so far away that they would have no real. It's a tool to what was going on on earth. What do you mean they would
Mars is a long way away yeah, but what? If they came back, that's no different from Australia, breaking away from its other mother continent and imprint generating these rights. Eared marsupial creature that you'll find anywhere else on earth. Same difference. Yeah we went around to see those strange more soup, see there until, of course, the average Australians got there and made them all extinct in hurry. The fact is that we are here on earth. And we are on this planet and will, as you say, whirlwind it together, you send out a quality and moss is so far away. That's what they said about Australia, Australia, so in a hundred years is a wormhole. I guess I get to Mars for lunch. I've got a convinced when we took when Mars, when you can get to Mars for lunch. That'll change the rules, but right now,
how long does it take to get to my Lord? How long it fast this nine months is nine months. You could totally go there and have sex. In fact, if you exploited advocated much else to do on the way there it's you could bring backtracks. If you bring video k, I got a question. I got a question. We have so much dna in common with all the other wife, starting with chimpanzees, going down the list. Presumably we have certain we're vertebrates, so we have dna income with all vertebrates at some level correct. You go sixty percent of your dna in common with the banana, the banana really so there's a. Why am I not it's delicious? Why are united on hearing it actually take it? That is on illiteracy, argue as Europeans. So can I get some proper carbon atoms
Very good, very good? I grant you that was so in what I ask is can't you just go into our genome wicked, switch that it excites or turns honour off. So whatever combination necessary to have your offspring, have your arms have become wings yet or have people if it's all there, if you knew what to do, you have to do in seven billion people, you know you're not very happy with five people with wings and for that we're waiting where we need everyone. Where would you keep? Where would I keep working? I was gonna turn people Now a little only found out recently it was possible, only drive one person, but only Molly is or what you understand. What has it been born? Omelette has so many nobody wants to turn their offspring into bananas. I want to know what force the if we're just so, even in the old days we have computers and it was called
switch, is where you can change their parameter of the calculation right. If you old enough to remember that, so if such switches exist in our genes is not that you have, you don't have the gene, the gene is manifested or not manifested in its operation within you. So in principle, let's turn on the Gina. Can regenerate limbs there as newts? Do, let's just you know: newts got that, and and and here we are thinking where evolved in some special way, and we can't do stuff that other animals can do. You know you don't have a technology to do that. I now have to worry about this on this one down the line, but right now you will, you can repair genes, you can insert genes, he can do all sorts of things, but you're not gonna get a separate population going on its own evolutionary trajectory without isolating it somehow, and that would be probably unacceptable to the majority of people there.
Let's not enslave a banana people and make them you have wings in Riga, limber until they never. I want on flying, but ere. I wouldn't. I want I kind of one a flying, but I'm banana now to see how we could do that. I'm Modoc. In order in Rome we really have solved a lot of stuff here could fly people with did it would regret another banana? Did we only get one percent going into saying it alright, but it was a long idolatry Westren bananas need help You ve been listening to start talk, radio. What are you in part by a grant from every piece foundation I needed a grass Thyssen propelling you too much to keep. Today. We should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint star talk on pay,
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.