Where did we come from? Are we alone? Explore these questions with guest host Bill Nye the Science Guy, co-host Eugene Mirman and their guests comedian Dave Foley and SETI Institute Sr. Astronomer Seth Shostak.(Warning: Since this show was recorded live before an adult audience in San Francisco, be prepared for some suggestive language and humor.)Read more and listen to the full track: http://www.startalkradio.net/show/startalk-live-sf-sketchfest/
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. Secrets in industries. This with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what? well you just recently the domain the brakes daddy, you going to do. Grandma, south stream, Brenda get lab browser
You mean well very special edition from San Francisco Sketch press. It is my great honour to bring your guest host for this evening. The amazing bill So it's right, you see all thank you so much for going
I am here on behalf of my beloved, dear colleague, Neil digress Thyssen. But tonight we are going to talk about some serious business, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and you could say, that's crazy or you can say it serious business and to that end we have the search for extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute. To say, The institute senior astronomer, give it up for Mr Sets Shasta. As though it's not funny enough people, former colleague coworker of mine, for those of you who never miss an episode of
Georgie Atlantis from kids in a whole day, boy nodes great to see you all and we're going to talk about something very serious and remarkable in cool and something that, in my opinion, which, as you know, is correct will, dare I say it the world. There are two questions to questions deep within us. Two questions each and every one of you has asked at some point in his or her life. Where did we come from
Well, that's pretty close, but of those who was on the radio. He said. Why are we here? I think this is a sketch fast and you bought admission ticket than you came in. I think that after the people you're sitting with where we come from, and are we alone and if you meet somebody who says I've, never ass those question their lion. Ok, it's always it's an exciting time, and this is something goes back all of my academic wife, I'm talking about since somewhat before kindergarten. I've wondered these questions and we have here a guy that really tries to answer this question for real set. They fully so set. What is it you do exactly we're trying to find out if there are any cosmic confreres, if there's any cosmic company out there, not just aliens, not just ponds, come on
our is dead or alive, but are there any people or things are klingons or intelligence? Is there are at least as clever is the average resident of the Bay area? So how would we go about? Are you looking for the grateful dead in space Seth? How do you go about actually looking for extraterrestrial intelligence? Actually, this is something you can use your next cocktail party. There only three ways to look for alien step were using today. One is you just go there and try and find them. Their debt only works if you're going your by, you might go to Mars, and maybe you find ponds come, but on the other hand, you ve probably go to your bathroom. Fine ponds comes round, abandon that's one way. The second ways bill really big telescope and look at the light coming from some planet around some God forsaken, others star
split up that light with a prism look at that is getting to technical and and in our area. What does this tourism? You targets? Are you saying prison wrong? Split it up with a prism, and then you look for things like oxygen or methane and if you? Finally that's right, twenty one percent of the earth, this room used to be oxygen before you guys got here and that's because there is life on this planet. So that's scheme number two scheme number three, which is what we do. We train began ten as on the sky, hoping to imitate Jody Foster by fighting a signal coming from intelligent species. Intelligence means you can build a radio transmitter and you probably ass the person sitting next to you, hey. Can you radio, transmitters and you'll know what you're sitting next to it. So how God? That's? How long have you been at this? What did, though, this sort somebody's been at this search for a long time and ninety
Sixty frankly did an experiment. I've been right, Drake, who is frank, refractory crank drake is a an astronomer. He did the first experiment along these lines. Back and nineteen sixty before most of you were born was after I'd, reach middle aged nineteen. Sixty use an antenna in West Virginia one emphasise at West Virginia pointed at a couple in your by stars, hoping to hear signals for meaty and did he he did hear a signal turn out to be the? U S military. That did not count as intelligence. You grew fascinated with us at some point. Let us thing happens. You you're an astronomer lots of cheesy cipher films. When I was a kid think about it, aims to reflect guys for the movie is right. When the Soviet Union collapsed nineteen with ninety one, you know, although handy bad, guys kind of went away but aliens you can either we have no more enemies. So that's good terrific. So why did
you decide to do this with your professional career, whereas in a sense What I may say so in a sense, you been lookin for several years. Nineteen sixty is going to be quite soon give another we're going up there with Frank drink. Now I didn't get into this until quite a bit late. Nineteen, eighty one eye ok since eighty one, but are we now word some butter bigger? Not so you haven't heard anything is american education. I give you a little bit of our continent. Not look. Look, look, look like they did that the point is it's a special moment in time made. You know everybody thinks there living in a special moment of tiny. Probably that in the year one thousand got a special moment time Bob, because people are idiots, look what's going to happen in this century that you're going to see one is we finally understand biology. So a lot of diseases you're worried about now you will be worrying about in fifty years. The second thing is what
reinventing our own successors were making thinking machines, and I feel about that and the dragon, how I feel about it, but that's this generation, and the third thing is we're gonna. I think, find that you have some company under how do you say that just the way? But if you ask me how I say, let me rephrase that for you You really takes it in the Gatt so said: what's a reasonable population of nearby stores in distance avoid years? Well, just consider our galaxy the milky way going to there like a couple hundred billion stars, ok and then other planets is probably close to a trillion within it. Within a thousand lawyers. That's not very far. I've got that on my conduct. A thousand like there are on the order of millions and millions of start okay. So here's what I'm saying so
we're listening for one that has been broadcasting fool s thousand years right, not necessarily, but if you have to assume that if they are thousand light years away, they broadcast something there. You know come join to cling on booklovers, something maybe for only ten minutes and it arrives. Today, when you have to be looking, that's good enough. If we were to broadcast something with our current technology, how long would it take for somebody a thousand late years? Maybe a thousand years, though, be sent meetings that that's beats down would travel the speed of light or signals evil they mean right, but what a signal travel at the sight of light? Yes lighter impotent, it signal now Eugene because they waited to someone who may be didn't major in any way, because I've hinting at it with mighty idiocy so radio waves and why waves go the same speed. I got you a piece of information I like
so you guys this goes way back day. Lives is that I actually heard you interviewed recently. Where are you said that we may have gone silent now, because we all broadcasting digitally and the digital signals don't propagate through space? I hope I didn't say that it is true. It is true right, and I don't know how many, how many of you have remedy is on the topic or take tv set. The thing is that, when we're shutting down the big towers, you know the reason why antennas on the outside a town, because in fact you're getting all your information, did you or you will soon enough? You just have a free. If you don't already have this, you have a fiber optic, too comes in your house. You get your internet, your tv you're from some of you. Have this already. That's the way we're going so a lot of tv broadcasting will go way. That's true, but there is the, but is that some things, aren't going silent like the radar is now at the San Francisco airport you're, probably not going to shut those to be got right unless they allowed Reynaud GPS. I dont know how, with GPS is all very hot.
Before with I've, got out what's going on now, but this search people have been fascinated with this for centuries. Yes, it does. The ancient Greeks thought about it too. I thought everything they could see. The sky was inhabited, were they murdered before saying it out loud, but this is when thoughts were murdered. So that was agreed in Greece on people they voted in their democracies and so so, but Seth. Why did they think that you ve, given that some deep thought it is to be expected- and here I am- I am thought too much about way why the Greeks believe that the Greeks, what kind of a be they figure can over here, there's stuff up there and they came with nifty ideas like the Adam and and geometry and sought as I it's right that these rights so they could The only people that had that idea. Nobody the prince- the perfect it there
really really good at so. First things they, the tunics, we're just perfect for it. First of all, when you say tunics tokens, that is, our gas, sets out rapier tunic installation of anxiety number that your slave boy would wear Wentworth. So, course did the Greeks rubber you'd about right, now for Galileo than his contemporary Bruno Bruno was burned at the stake over this business right where he was burned it this steak nets to kind of a bummer. Bruno, but the facts you doin burner for Bruno does that get, but that the reason he was incinerated actually wasn't because he said that there was a multiplicity of worlds
he did say that needed under. So that was what that sixteen sixteen hundred with all too he was born of the state for suggesting no, not for signal president. I wasn't gonna burn him for a different reason. They didn't we, lawyers? They burn them for heresies against the church. Sorry so that we can to saying there's alien life. So what he's like alien labour there like vine like you're, not totally real, not fine, you, you get the drift, so those deserve to be burned. They do a Bernie thing, so Bruno did not have a telescope. That's where you pointed out yeah, there's your whole tunic being now, people are remarkably stupid. So go oh looks at this thing and he did he speculated. There was life on the moon. Well, you know the big
another. He was but there's a case where this is a military instrument, but the telescope, the keeper mine, I'm Galileo wasn't looking for life in space. He just took this toy that came at all and he didn't invent a telescope. Of course, that's probably court, but he built was crowded, was the this person appointed not at the ground, the first person I have you waited at our neighbours that we gave you pointed out. There's your tunic being now? People are remarkably stupid. So Galileo looks at this thing and he did he speculate that there was life on the moon. Well, you know the beginning, you which is sort of astounded that, for example, the moon was imperfect because you know it's Rob beat our genes had set yet are beaten up and uneasy these dark areas in a kind of look like oceans, any thought? Well, maybe maybe maybe that was actually got a name. You know your Highness Kepler guesses but
column, John Kepler, actually look, I always call them Cappy. He thought he saw buried cities on the moon on me. For a long time, the moon was believed to house sentient beings. Things, but then this goes on for another century, hooligans comes along, thinks it there's a wife everywhere right, not wages, but Herschel maybe meet her. Her shabbily embers Infidel Herschel Bill, Herschel, probably the greatest astronomer who ever lived actually in that Herschel thought there were inhabitants on the sun or just beneath the luminous. Later that that turns out to be wrong. Broadway, we are using. You was the greatest astronomer, I'm not that I am just asking for a second reason other than that of a living under or in those. We call follow up and join with that. I know the signals,
anyway, but I can only number two and then you'd understand yeah. Ok, the second greatest astronomer issues could sing opera, but what restoring really is growing? yeah. I heard that the radio well, but what? What was great, that Herschel did yeah. I was gonna get to that. Our hooligans, Herschel Herschel, had a telescope good enough to look at Mars. Everybody's favoured inhabited planet Mars and you can see the white. Poland the top and bottom, and you know that till the cats are made of dry ice version carbon. Water ice is one I knew, but whenever I mean have you no seasons because the accident learning along drives whatever anyway
We know it is very on Mars: twenty five hours he gave a talk to the royal society, I think was eight seventeen. Eighty four, seventeen eighty four. This is at the end of the American Revolution, seventeen eighty four, and he says that the Martians probably enjoy a lifestyle or a climate, at least similar to our own, really get. You said that the royal society, but if we go there now it's twenty below on a summer day, then there's nothing to breathe, which notice that you you're you would you would notice that and you can say the same about certain times of year in in the Bin Oakland, not not anymore. We, my question of so what was so wanted. So what makes him particularly great is it that he was the first to postulate or the first look at Marser now, I'm I'm asking how he wasn't differs. Let me live. Was he write about and see what the gray. I guess that Brazil be sounds awesome
sounds creative, but yeah. What it was like sounds high under to tell you, but this is too much of a straight line for you. That's fine I'll get you found Uranus I'll reveal. I prefer the open and from when you- and I were children so these telescopes from a long time ago we have, we have modern, telescopes, people look out there and they they observe planets, and they can infer from here that these places are probably inhabitable. But what does it take to be habitable? Well, that's actually good question because only knows what it takes: for life like our own, to be habitable, so you have to start by many other data points that yeah
something the brief, but not necessarily mean if you dug a hole. One mile deep here, take you all night, but if we did that and you pull up the market the bottom and put it under microscope, you t microbes, Don't need air to breathe. You don't eat here that I didn't even know photosynthesis. I mean there lie but they're gonna, so there's no good definition of life and we might think it justice potter talking about pornography on Noah when I see in life is kind of the same way. So definitely high by. I think we do not agree that it is our life ever get going, What
and if it leaves you hang, it is dear to me so that those in Germany arrive here listening used to sketch best from San Francisco Memorial Auditorium in this historic talk, radio alive, and we will be right back I have a secret for you. I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one
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Georgia, memorial reserved Francisco California, Sketch best so says I very much enjoy and am fascinated by the history of the search for extraterrestrial into space Are you the speculation about what's living elsewhere, but what's going on now in search? What's going on now is that we are continuing to do radio searches, in other words, using began. Tenants to try and ease job on e t. Where are these in turn? Well, the once we, Those are about three hundred miles north of where we're all sitting here tonight in San Francisco, so they're up into cascade mountains. There they're not because of the cuisine there they are because in fact its shielded by these mountains from all the radio noise from the same, it's really effective
our modern world of today, and which we know is that this had creek values. Noise less requires not only this, but it's it's not because of noise from cities like San Francisco. Actually, it's noisy simply because we now have telecommunications satellites wheeling overhead all the time because they have transmitters and you're gonna get stand about good, wheeling sector in outer space. Because in outer space known, can hear you boot its actual source, southern our first, our first segment. You asserted, you claimed that in the next twenty five years, we're going to get a signal where I didn't say that, but I will well. How are you gonna say that well nigh set in this century, but I miss I think you're numbers a good one. I think the next couple of dozen years may do it and if we want to know why, you think that
Well, I don't feel lady. Maybe we're all fairly curious miles, ready to punch you over the over this it's like. If a needle in a haystack Yosemite looking on is a needle in a haystack over and you make an estimate how I'm going to take me to find that needle. It only depends on three things: how big a haystack? How fast you going through the hay and how many needles are in there in the case of looking for eighty, we now have a gay standards pretty fast talking socinian. If there is any other intelligent like in the galaxy may, when you, why look at another galaxy right is like saying or any other mammals and north American. If it turns out there aren't any, doesn't really paid. Also look in South America. Ok I'll finish up! Isn't this ideas. It is too complex
apparently, but you look so you need to know how big is a stack of actually going to remedy needles are in there in the case of looking for ready, the haystack is our galaxy. Let's look in aren't gonna two hundred billion stars, roughly plus a minus three right. How fast we going today that we know. That's that's a technical question and we know how quickly will go through the hay for the next ten or twenty years as well. That you can see predict how well or a second. No, nothing like a star second, but this speed actually follow something. That's a very famous relationship here near the Silicon Valley, Mimi, Moors LAW, in other words, it doubles and speed every eighteen months that will continue for another decade or to the only that you don't know how many needles are in there. I mean you know how many aliens in there, but their beaten people who ve guess like Carl Sagan is guess. I guess I'm a guest, frank drinkers. Guest, Eugene,
have I only eighty, but what's your guess, it's gonna be more. Eighty may be good Eugene Domain, but if it is at least a few thousand news is going to take longer, but if it is many ten thousand right, twenty thousand stars with planets within our habitable and so on, and not only habitable, but there's some inhabitants reader, I guess, but they have to be our level of technological and we can be more advanced the candles. But they couldn't much less than us. Could they really not much nothing over fifty years? We're we're the Is it where the dominance of early years learning additives, at least be a like Marconi face Major, not even the artisanal. If you want to really be honest about this we're going finance test. Tat had I believe in this year he did just thought. I'd heard the Martians Niccolo Tesla What's a Tesla anyone be named him Africa, its Weber?
per square metre a delicious salami, No, that's not true. Good results. Our property was a guy who, after whom we have a magnetic unit, a flux named yes and he was open your knowledge and incorrect transmission right through the air and all that we is going to glow. Along with that, he speculated when he built this big tariffs is wireless power transmission scheme which, by the way, did worth the trouble is it also convey parity or air, but but he eventually built the generators. You know this Niagara falls that was the importing for Westinghouse. Electrical engineering histories. Do it s good for when he saw and mean Edison we're dread enemies. That's true, ETA ceiling, elegans left and right. That's
we don't ever article, but ok, ok, engaged Tesla had this big tower outside in Colorado and he was for comments, but it gets any idea what you're doing these experiments and he found the family signals coming in on a radio signals, and he thought these are the Martians. It was sort of jumping to conclusions. Probably they were what are called Whistler's, which are caused by electrical storm, suggest produce the magnetic disturbances, radio waves in the atmosphere to propagate white from lightning Warrior limited while you're producing. Why not the margins it was like me, you produce sprayed some radio waves and stuff so. Was wrong about them? It was wrong about that. That's why he was the greatest astronomer ever so I remember very well
B, I was in curl surgeons, astronomy cause. I know some of you are sceptical. If I'm sure it was some sort of clerical air at the university, but I was in the glass and ease they speculated that time, that One in a hundred stars would have planets, and now we speculate that every star has a planet or two were eight or more and they went out of five. Has an earth like plan is that right. Surface was number. There was indeed a result announced a couple of months ago days right. This was an analysis you don't have to sound out. Is it I'm a terrible astronomer disease in our system by some guys at a state institution across the bay or the name escapes me, but they- publish this result. They did a preliminary analysis.
A your scoring along where this is universally. California. Berkeley not everybody here, and their estimate was that some, like stars, maybe thirty, forty percent of Their- might have an earth like world twenty to forty percent red dwarf stars which dominate the Heavens dominated Fronty, guys somewhere between maybe fifteen percent in forties. Fifty percent of them might have a high. But about plant so bottom line, you average and altogether you wait by the number is right. Roughly one in five stars will now have a planet, but a planet that might be salubrious enough for you to go in the business of constructing condos on it because it would have liquid oceans and maybe some air. So if you have two hundred billion stars in our galaxy, that's all that's a lot of habitable planet Billy forty billion in our galaxy right. If you dont, like our doing the universe you get into a billion, is just whether intelligence evolved on any and life
No one's law using that no one's gonna make it John alive. Is that of fear, as that, that's like, so that we should be afraid of regulated that involve a dead end. Well, you just look at this We said earlier that one of the great advances of this century- probably the thing that people will remember the most about this century- they remembered it all- is that we invented thinking machines now. Do you think I am Lindsey Mohammed, you might yes, you will, but not five hundred years now once you do that once you build a thinking machine. The first thing you ask: is you design something smarter than you are then? Yes, ambition, you design something smarting your and within twenty years you have a machine,
smart and all you in school to get so. Why said, I think I do know that offers a good thing, but its inevitable thing- and the point is that mostly intelligence out, there's, probably synthetic and probably in there you know synthetic brain somewhere. They re all yeah yeah, I somewhere back in the past, we were softened squishy inorganic. There must have been terrible. Oh wait so you're saying whatever life was, there died but had first created something smart. They kept creating smarter things. Anyhow, we'll have to die. They don't have to maybe they can they might around its low wait till they might be alive also there, but anyway, there could be super smart intelligence. That is artificial. That has now moved on the another planet had us things already says. This is a just so story that, in other words, we build computer. So we infer that we figure that somebody out everybody else's building computers, building machines, more than their yeah you're right. Maybe it's just so story you, maybe ninety nine out of a hundred hundred of them, don't do that. They just sit around with their ways. Contemplating the naval, whatever their doing? Ok, those
the only two options my I can girl that's great simplified. My life gets ok, just a little bit, but if one of them does it, you see that intelligence becomes so incredible that are really than men the others. Do yes, so tell us about that. We what happens to the earth when we did get a signal. Well, most people. He walked the streets of San Francisco and you ask people. What do you think would happen if scientists three hundred miles north of your pick up a signal must be to say why the government would shut it all down Really you I'll give you a ninety minute speech about organic food, their monsters, that's that's what the public thinks they did. They think we would all be kept quiet and when I asked him, why do you think that this is because the public couldn't handle the news
due to Doo doo doo doo doo doo doo. Could you handle the nose if you picked up your newspapers about you won't. Do that pick up your browser tomorrow and you read scientists find signal coming from eight hundred light years away. Would you say that's it, I'm not going to Today, I would you do here: would you right in the streets? No, you wouldn't do any that we have historical precedent. You wouldn't do that. We must be very invest Well sure we will now have to burn somebody at the state of somebody would somewhere. We would murder one direction so
because at our eyes, were good these. Unlocking the secrets of U world and everything orbiting around it. Systematized others There was a burglar, my space ship in Hamburg,
well that starts radio. I'm doing my decides guys. Esteemed colleague, dear friend, build a grass Thyssen so says deep within one might ask Consumers have been looking at the heavens for a long time. You guys have been looking at the heavens for sixty years said accurate and fifty something I missed, you haven't heard a thing in this gets back to their armies paradox if they're out there. Why haven't you heard from. I don't know if everybody in the audience knows fairies paradox in this is related to the guy
for me, was having lunch with a couple of physicists and at some point between two bites of the tuna fish sandwich. He says. So where is everybody he wasn't referring to the lack of company the lunch? What he was referring to was the fact that the time that it would take to colonise the galaxy If that's on your agenda, if you're the cling onto you decide you want to colonise a galaxy and even if your rockets on all that fast, but if you stay at it, you can do it, a few tens of millions of years, maybe thirty, forty fifty million years, so that that's a long time that's a long time. We waiting for bus in San Francisco, but that's not very long compared to the age of so what he was saying is: if there really are advanced societies out there, some One of them would have common its entire galaxy. By now. We see no evidence of that, and that's. Why said so? Where is everybody at which point you let the subject drop ruined lunch Y know
I'm sorry, I'm still enjoying that watch south tell us what happens to the earth when we did get a sick. I claim it would dare I say it change the world. It would be would be humble the again but already. Most people believe aliens are already visiting the majority of people That's not going to talk to air majority of American. You guys are taught her to channel right, believe how many? watch that show how many people watch does show with its asian alien, others, a horrible, didn't show called misinformation, but if we have, we heard that there were eight of a gap proves that we're aliens. I think most people would go well yeah that that may be part of the reason why they were right in the streets. You mean we're on their already here that people are fat and lazy,
I like the old days when they ride in the streets. People. They were never those old days really I mean they're. So what would actually happen is it would simply be a very interesting story if you can understand anything, they were saying now. That would be good because remember they can't be less time. Events in your because ended up making any railways that we could pick up so that, at least at our level and its very unlikely that their within a hundred years of our level, they may be thousands millions, conceivably billions of years more advanced. Suppose you could get information from a society that millions of years more advanced than ours like yours. For death here is how to get along whatever now. Would that be interesting? I would you say not just going to ride in the streets. That is a very hopeful view. We're like yours, avoid death and all that, but they can also come here and be like you
do all our yours? What if they show up here at the same time the Lakers win the championship and they think they're right is about there's no shortage of unrest. Noble how close, so, how closes in layers is the closest habitable planet? We don't know, but take that number and done it I've got a double Eddie? just give me an hour, not a real thing on yeah. Well, I mean all you need is at least five stars systems, and now you have a good chance. You're one habitable planet and five star systems you'll find those within ten twelve like yours, oh really, Grau, thus
that's right, the galactic street. So what you don't even need to fold space you they could they really? Well. Let me just tell you how long it takes to go to light years at the speed of a NASA rocket. Ok, oh, presumably at least two weeks, maybe years you're right it is years it's about the seller. The weeks. Technically road is very featured, number gets big, that's where there is no way you getting it wrong. It's true it do it takes about what does it take seventy two hundred thousand years to go to the nearest start. It that's even if you punches. But we know for a fact that one advanced civilization exists us work the answer? We do up: microphones, yeah, so bad
no wires. Why this is wage trends we give no horses, they go left, so we're really pretty good, so So it is one thing to, speculate on intelligent life and hope that we will find it tells you like, but I for one am thoroughly charmed by the idea that we go to Mars. Honest. Summer day near the equator. Where there's some subterrane, job sand glacier on Mars. That's musing some crazy is super salty water out there and we find some martian microbes right. It would change the world, people would ride in the streets. The government wouldn't let him know about about what that said. If we found a flew on Mars, we would
each other. I wouldn't kill everyone here. You know Eugene, we ve run that experiment and it turned out. You didn't go on because in ninety ninety six biggest, It's new story the entire year, a little martian meteorite. You may remember this illegal for dollar one came from landed in Antarctica, where was very easy define, goes its on top of the snow right and mischievous child left, then might my first not would be. Why am I in article because we're exploring why out I'm from Canada, I don't go anywhere colder than Canada. Is there such a place like us, but did this wrong things? We,
we're life lazily, there was a micro fossilized MIKE right right to claim was the claim by some guys at NASA and also Stanford University, and President Clinton work. Maybe it answered thereby sittings that extra nerds go on. You gotta with one's life wonderful, that there was a life in this rock. Our deadline for media was dead, but he's dead Jim but it was my claim was. It was a martian from four billion years ago. This was front page above the old chum. It fought news in the New York Times for three days for days, right, liberal, so that people can ride in the streets. No, no! No! They just found out. It wasn't true, but it was fascinating because it's not unreasonable that life started more. This. Is you guys its extraordinary, but it's not crazy to six.
I stood life started on Mars, Will Mars was very wet, and then they got hit was an impact or I'm sure it was excited also I will also on chance any tidy. That's what's your problem? Ok, so this thing, is- gets hit with an impact or three Billy. Years ago, stuffs thrown into space? It gets into a few bits of it. Get in this extraordinary mathematical think I'll be home in orbit upstairs based on those and lives on the earth- and you and I are somehow descended from a martian microbe- and let me just say: doo doo doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo
An extraordinary discovery about their course of events would really be something though, along this line. If we all descended from a common answers. Separate seems a reasonable conclusion. When you look at your dna and all those the primitive life forms like anyone, my old boss. Ted so it is Another question no could have. Life started a second time all the time before us here on earth and its. If we just had the right place to look, we would find the so called. Second genesis. We are the. Millions were looking for and that theory, as is called what is called. The second genesis, know this area that the life came here from from Spain.
Transfer me cause servers is drawing to give. Transfer me too soon seeds are cross in one year. but it is. It is a remarkable thing. It's worth studying here on earth so says. Who are affiliated, you do a lot of work with Astro biologists. Yes, yet we have a lot of astral biologists, but is
do you feel they ever did they inform your work at all? Listening for radio avoid signals, and so well in the very general sense a mean they're trying to define you know what life is, how you might look for. It means easy enough to look for four big things, but for small things and probably most of the life, and you MRS Microscopic. There are more bacteria in your Tommy than there are people on earth. Really, I you early other than, of course, high fines. What are some of the water sum of ways that you could categorized something being alive? It's it's actually quite hard to do. I mean you can say if you pick up your tenth grade biology book, if you still have that and you open it up there, it starts out with a definition of my life, has metabolism in life reproducing homeostasis doesn't stuff. Yet what
But if you know you can you can think of examples of things at fit the definition, but our alike rate there's things like mules, they dont reproduce. It turns out that their when contests the fact that their alive right fire reproduces. But it's not like so there's no good definition for life. The current, King definition, if it evolves darwinian fashion. What isn't even true. What is it sooner? Freudians fashioner? So I did a little experiment to look for life. So what think of life you doing like there's living things in nuclear reactors. There's living Is that eat the lenses of telescopes fungi, so it could be just something we can't? Even we literally can't imagine at this point so that we hear more about things being alive nuclear reactors,
There is an area that move that make a living in nuclear reactors they'd. I haven't, I've never really spoken with them, but they like you, you can't get it there called Roddy odorants. You can speak with them. They just don't talk back so along this line. Suppose we have Microbes on Mars and we're gonna go looking for them as soon as you send anything there. There's a good choice. Instead, we are going to contaminate Mars and it won't be the good old ecosystem that it was right. There is some danger to their people who worry about that to actually NASA has an office of planetary protection. I know you're gonna, say No, I think it's fine at the same time reject It would be dangerous to send mail to Mars like this is amazing, but then they develop. We problems gone, really
possible too much girl is not good. People be geared more to you, San Francisco everywhere, so the planet protection of sooner we used to just big spacecraft. Take the Viking spacecraft. Put him in an open, and I presume that you would killer but now our electronics in other ways, you don't wanna, be a kneeling radioactive material and so on. You, you can't kill, you can wear, isn't Myerst just kind of shitty. I mean yes, it only a problem of we condemn it yet is it might be a problem not because you use suddenly, you would see you know me. Old all over Mars that. But the point is that they fall down there on the surface of Mars and Mars, didn't have any ozone layer and, as a result, can get cooked by the other about it. So, yes, it probably contemning the area right next to the spacecraft, but you walk a block away and its pristine Mars, the other thing
for in the case of surveyor, which was there a cup surveyors sent to the moon. There is speculation by the way when I was young. If we landed on the moon, I say we profession Rosalie, they would sink into dust like quicksand and so surveyors. Spacecraft landed, first, adversities, footpads pictures of the footpads all fabulous and then I went over there in their car there lunar rover car by the way a car is worth millions of dollars, And it's not even locked see sitting there on them to their sitting. There, ok They went over there and unscrewed some stuff and brought back in their bacteria alive and people speculate. That these bacteria heads
survived on the surveyor spacecraft from for three years on the lunar surface, but the problem was probably doktor s. Is this correct? that was stuff that contaminated the guys just handling contaminated, and they would give full themselves not people at the plant protection on Zan. They say it's most. Likely that it was contamination. Introduce bringing the thing back to earth who knows microbes are tough. You talk to an extra biologist about this. I did what I said if If we take, I ask that we take all the biota on earth and throw it on Mars and come back a year later. Will any of it still be alive in his answer was yes said there are certain microbes have particular if they can get underneath the Santa Lubeck separates at from the ultra there tat those are called commune, real redline on his own show what system
So what what is so fantastic seriously? Everybody about this pursuit to me is that its optimistic there's, this thing within a state that the future is gonna, be better and we're gonna build spacecraft. Look out there and find out what's going on because the more we learn about our solar systemic neighbourhood, the better off we're going to be and the more we learn about radio signals in our galaxy the better off we're gonna be in. That is still something that I I think drives. All of us is this this optimism through space exploration wording
There's been a fabulous evening: Memorial Service, Cisco, California, sketch first, I guess. I've been fantastic day. Eugene Merman serves jaws. I've been euros, designs guy, I say good night like Galileo job the orange wish. You can listen to start talking, worsen, free joint start talking.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.