Dive into the world of water, on Earth and in the cosmos, when Neil deGrasse Tyson and Eugene Mirman host Robert F. Kennedy Jr., The Gyalwang Drukpa, Dr. Tess Russo and Jason Sudeikis at the Beacon Theater.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now. Well, just start out live as promised. My incredibly great pleasure, to bring out your host ardent, the greatest science, communicator and director.
Of thy maiden waited area and hosting Cosmo's. Ladies and gentlemen, the incredibly one or bone meal they grant. I beg you very warm, welcome reconfigure tonight, is all about water. Water in the universe. Water on earth is clean as a dirty whose drinking it as it, who doesn't have it what to do about it, and so That conversation I have a high. Draw geologists who will be joining this panel, she is a professor in the Jews It's his department, Penn State University. Give a warm New York welcome to doktor tests,
to join us in this discussion about water. I thought I comedian, who is another vision and in movies and music percent water, as we all are. Ladies and gentlemen, the incredible the wonderful Jason's today led off just two make sure all on the same aquatic page so earth has water water world. Our services, water alike,
the percentage of our services water about seventy percent. Seventy percent, but most of it is water water all around and not a drop to drink. How much is there to drink about three percent? The water on earth is freshwater, but most of that water is locked up in glaciers. Nice. So we should melting glaciers and get more. We are so three percent freshwater. What percentages glaciers about two thirds. Two thirds of that. So we are one third of three percent of the total fresh water in the world is a to us to drink more or less so the other third most of that is underground. Oh shit, surface. What a lot of reference! one third of a third of a half ITALY's com and, most of all, a small, its point, three percent of two point, five percent or like what I took.
I got it. That's just the lakes and rivers, lakes and rivers. Everything that comes from rainwater and rainwater is drinkable most of the time usually, and when is it not drinkable? When it's been contaminated? I put a figure that out like when you throw up its mind yet one. What's a second example of contaminated evil clumsily throwing up, and I wondered, supply water comes out of my force. It that The positive worry of drinking water- you things- are really tiny, vanishingly small per cent of the total clean water in the world. Yet, but it's not enough it is it. Isn't I put their people who don't have clean water gas? So what? you get rid of those people know that can't be right. Is it isn't right? I think poison. Ok, balloon burgundy back up and put physics in this,
water, as we know, comes in three phases. Liquid water, with which we are most familiar as correctly noting weird two thirds Warner the licence to third liquid water and liquid water, has some fascinating properties, because normally, when something changes state to become solid as water becomes ice, normally it shrinks called things get small So the properties of the water molecules are such that when it becomes so it freezes and such a ways, whither apps between the molecules where their word previously gaps when it was liquid and those gaps make frozen water less dense, then good morning, creating what we all take for granted the fact that ice floats one of my favorite things. Eyes floats so, for example, in the winter time,
it gets cold. You have a lake. The top surface gets cold. Cold water is denser than whether Warner we got that that cold drop the bar, but the top water will freeze and not try thereby the water below protecting the fishes through the winter months, That's some shit yeah, it's a remarkable feature work when it is really important for life yet there would be no such thing as ice fishing. If I sank yeah or it would be boring You would swim to the bottom of a lake drill and died Another interesting facts here, if you one two three is water. It will expand if you want to compress ice.
Can't do it. The only way the ice can take up. A small volume is if it becomes. Water again. So you can take below freezing. We'll see you can liquefied from the act of squeezing it and, in fact, that is what enables ice skating who skating not on ice you're blade, is cut in such a way that you'll wake. On top of that thing, blade edge, create pressure, the frozen eyes that the putting their high pressure melts it. So you actually glass on a smooth beat of what But you It'll you're a tv insisting it should be called ice, squeeze a sort of Warner can become. Gashes class really water vapor. When we think of gash, you wanted the change of state, nobody steam. So these are
he phases of water like a water plasma wash your terrible person, could, I just say no in its teams you will know if you ve been to mountaintops. Did you have to adjust cooking times, because the warder boils at a lower temperature and high altitude, Then it does it see level. So it's not as hot. So few boiling in aiding the boy and longer because Boiling water is not as hot on amount. As it is at sea? Now here's was interest if keep sending an attitude. The boiling point of water continues to drop view is an atmosphere of pressure at which the boiling is the same as the freezing and
can sustain simultaneously ice, stealing and liquid water all in one pulling at the same time It's called a triple point of order and on Mars, if What more do you could sustain steam, water and ice in the same bucket? At the same time, mars- is in many places on its surface. At the triple pointed this out, Water is all three states, or it's all, just hanging out put an ice cube is happy the water around the ice. Cube is boiling dream rises up is happy sitting right above the surface everybody's sounds legacy, for the Middle EAST, we did not make them all into water, so there was that may be the water on earth came from comments. We didn't know for currently is no shortage of water in the universe. The issue is not how do you get one
The issue is of all the ways we could get warder. What's the most likely now test as a geologist, theirs are coming out of volcanoes all the time. Right now. Do the geologists, that we made our oceans from water coming out a volcano. I don't know, but I'm just ok, you need some of our comments. I think that's a gorilla, ok, good! We check some comments. And we noticed the water in those comments doesn't match the warder. That's in our oceans, and I gotta worry essence, he s eyes, for it is a problem for actor not, all water is created equal, so it it has to do with this week on isotope of hydrogen called deuterium, you can make water out of kind of hydrogen- is different from the water. Where to drinking, and it still water in some of these comments have access amounts of this. It doesn't matter you drink what're you could you would slow down.
Really by young guy water is more massive, so the water Moving through your circulatory system would just be a little viscous lower they tested. No, that's it suspected what surely there are some mice, No. The answer to that question is my, but then we did find a couple they did match the oceans, but the jury is still out just so you know what is the origin of earth water? We know at least some came from volcanoes, we're pretty sure this class of comment that did not supplied and water and other classes of comments. That by the way of your comment and you hit the earth all your work. Paper rises on contact so you'd, be you see when we have to condemn to back out late. Why is it that if it rains fresh water in the ocean, the ocean assaulting so rain comes from evaporated water? When you evaporate water, it leaves the salt high only picks up the fresh water. So then, when it rains raining freshwater back down onto this salty,
the boy felt okay, so it doesn't do us any good if it rains in the ocean. You want the evaporated ocean which has been purified of salt to then slide over onto land and reigned. There isn't a possible for a lake to become salty, eventually yeah. So how does that? Well? So there can be sought from the rocks that lake is sitting on to adjust, reaches out of a short already the minerals that sitting on and then, as you evaporate the fresh water out of that lake. Like the same thing in the oceans you're leaving behind the salt, water see as its of operating in evaluating its becoming saltier and software. So a lake, that's big, an old will be likely to be more so in one of those small and recent sure? Ok, just checking the dead sea, really lake, the honest yeah, I guess
ropes wings and you can bear no proper lake pontoon boats would be cool is if we got my comments, all the time and we're gonna get out of here, just make a puddle of freshwater. You can like market that some probably sewing Perrier Inoperative recently Haley's Tom definitely bywater families on think. That's what I'm one of those people locked on recent a few years ago, come at Hale Bob. Yes, that was Another comment named after its two discovers Alan Hail and I forgot Bob's first name, but isn't she hailed bought. You have your comic name that that actually set a record for the comment that was visible today. Could I for longer in the sky than any other comment and recorded history shows the special comment we all knew about it. I even saw that comment was bright enough to see I'm square New York. It was kicking comic
among comic visibility, very bright. What we check that common, and we saw that doesn't the kind of water that matches our oceans check in these things, yeah be honest, don't say, you're using the fairest way, little twice or as a five year. You look up and you're like manna. Say what you do is the communism nears, the sun heat from the sun evaporates the ice and grows a tale among other things, that evaporates invites rewarder ammonia resort to think so, evaporates out. You can wait for light to pass through it from the sun and see what those gas is due to the sunlight If this water there, it will grant certain light out of the sun spectrum and leave gaps in The spectrum that you analyze back here under you say: that's a water gap,
gap can only have been left by war, is another gap that can be left by cyanogen. In fact, Haley's commited. Nineteen him was the first discovery of antigen and the tail of a comment, and we knew that earth would be passing through the town of economy and at the time the gas chamber use Diana derived gases and peoples. We're all gonna die. The whole earth is gonna die at the same time, because we have a plough through the tail railways. So what we had was silent and selling comet pills to protect you from this gas. Charlatans, but we're all alive. That's how it works right, that. So we had the kind of pills and people bottom, and some people got rich, but here
probably take off the gas or the common stale, which is, in some cases a hundred million miles long and made it into a kind of atmospheric density, because it's very thin and tenuous, but it just regular air hunt, million miles long tail. It would fill a few suitcases A bigger suitcase sounds, like you mean smells of humans, would use so that we clearly survive, but you can measure what getting back your questions here. You see the water now. The water is a little heavier. It will leave features and shifted slightly from regular water, and you say: there's the water capture. The address deuterium does call heavy water. So could you take us into the water cycle? What is there and how
the war, energy from the sun back or its water of the ocean. It rises, forms clouds, sometimes moves on to land and precipitation rains out of those clouds, and not water can contribute to rivers and streams and becomes that tiny fraction of surface water that we know and see, or it can infiltrate into the ground seeping down into the dirt and becoming aquifer water groundwater. So what is known as the ocean we draw from aquifers and from rivers typically, and when we forms we irrigate, maybe ok, and why can we use salt plans to like salt water? I guess not, resulting so there's a lot of research now and can we use treated wastewater? Can we use brackish water to irrigate like what are the other option? Brackish sultan brackish is kind of something mixed its
Saudi is the, but it's not freshwater. That's like brackish water. It's not won, grow a party, so water good for life Ass, a scary use, my guess, is unnecessary, like, but in fact we might word that sentence in reverse its. Not the border is good for life. Is that life is before because not like. We have life and said: how can we improve it? Let's get some liquid water in us. No, we wrote evolved knowing that this water available to move nutrients through our body to help our circulatory system to move through the foods that we award or world is right for life. As we note, because life requires liquid water now, you know it
places with water in Mars, no water. On the surface. We think this water below, and I so we got people want to go check from microbial like their Europe. Europa Love me some Europa, Europa You know what you re, not a check out fret, if you like, Europa you'll love. What is Europa? Ok, Jupiter. Many moons one of them is Europa. It is well outside. The Goldilocks zone of our planetary system, our sources, The Goldilocks zone is where water left too don't devices would remain in a liquid state, not too hot, not too close to the home star. It would evaporate not too far away the trees, so you're right. I M Jupiter outside of the Goldilocks. Would Jupiters gravity pulses physical body of that moon in such a way pumping energy into it melting?
ice and there's an upper layer vice, but beneath I floats beneath it is ocean of liquid water has been liquid for billions of years. I wanna go ice vision on the review and I always joke about this, but I'm most we serious if you find life on you you'd, have to call a european right me right and we will have to do by what we now call Europe we're not, I see another other options. Regular Europe do not have. One word mean two things. It would be confusing. It would be from Kansas City and there's a cancer Kansas Cancer Missouri nightmare, so just want to ask you we hear that water is a universal solvent? Now that sounds dangers that we just drink solved, right you're? So what's going? What does a me so the solvents? It is worth it describes liquid, nor the matrix that some
can dissolve into so when you stir salt or sugar into water. The salt in the sugar is the sole and the water. Is the solvent and many things dissolve in water, because As it has this polar structure because of hydrogen bonding, we can talk about either demanding bondage our bonding hydrogen by someone that's a good bond. We die let's say hydrogen has the capacity to bond in ways that will grab more than one kind of thing into it, Oh that, dissolve more things in water than in most other liquids, which makes it a good cleansing thing yet because I got some here and I want to there. I want to put it in water and water across it jumps into the. You watch it away. Okay, so surely there other solvents rabbit pneumonia. I clean my windows with ammonia, so wise and life based on Pneumonia. I don't
How do you, like little study, argued study wrong? So I know the answer I would sting it takes it's weird livid sting so ammonia, dissolves, sodas, turpentine, imagine life based entrepreneur Odin safely talk about in the lab and the vital organs stored in formaldehyde right, these or other sort of liquids that exist in nature, but we're base maybe there's something to do with Red OX conditions and read out.
We are committed, as you guys know, and I know scientific thing, it's kind of dog. I don't really know what it is. It's where, in the presence of some thing, you actually remove oxygen Adams from what's there. The opposite is what happens when iron rusts right, you adding oxygen to it. But when I say it always water is one of the most common three Adam molecules in the universe and because hydrogen and oxygen is common, and so when we say we're gonna search for life as we know it,
such as what NASA does NASA follows the water, you might say that's kind of limiting. Maybe there is life based methane or something else, but water is abundant everywhere in the union. What are the other? Two must summon the co2 is very common. That's a three Adam did carbon and oxygen very common in the universe, so just carry except co2, is a by product of our abolition and of our civilization. More on seo. Tubing by products of our civilization, disrupting the water cycle when we return in our second segment of starch or weaken theatre.
Hey I've got no secret for you, Gonna consider singing all of the ads on this show. Just one way to get out a hearing there go to patriarch coms, last starred talk and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite parkers player and ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at patriarch doc, arms last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. On the subject of water, it's not only ever about science, into play, but we know, as scientists regarding water
then the efforts of people who are deeply committed to making water available to us all. And we have as a special yes this evening, a person committed his life basically to humanitarian causes, including in this long list of humanity. This is what to do about water. The areas that have been polluted. We need to clean them likes that are dead. We need to fix them, people who don't have fresh water to drink. We need to supply and give a warm beacons theatre in New York City our next guest is another person deeply committed to the human condition around the world. We all take access to clean water and fresh air for granted. So much of the world cannot to the human condition around the world. We all take,
just to clean water and fresh air for granted, so much of the world cannot and in this effort we have brought with us, stage his holiness the outlying alarming so the stages now sanctified by your presence here. Thank you for joining us both of you. It's almost lost, art. I grew up in an era where The humanitarian causes lead all political discussion oh you and conversations It's a freshly to see that such an effort is still alive, with whatever struggles it may require in modern times I just wanna what what is it mixed, ordinary legacy that your creating the continuation? What you're an entire family?
It has been all about. So what so body likely buddy you're gonna take it. You just tell me what you're water Keepers Alliance is audacious the first workpeople was started by a kind of a blue collar coalition of commercial and recreational fishermen will mobilise on the Hudson River Achan early sixties. They saw that pollution destroying their their livelihood and the government agencies they're supposed to protect us from pollution, and they came to the conclusion that government was in with the on the boat on the river: they began suing polluters and collecting bounties. They discovered an old law and ancient navigational statute of the eighteen. Eighty eight rivers and Harbours act. Eighty eight, it was
educational, snatched. It was written when people in New York were constructing the first large buildings and they were taken the seller, dirt and dumping get into the water. They were also dumping. Debt of words is, and other things into the water that impeded navigation. The urge to protect the river wasn't too clean just to keep it unobstructed by dead horse. Oh that's right! I just round if man where they dumping horses in the sixties It was the eighteen sixty, that's fine, but actually the reason that we ultimately save the Adirondack mountains was not because people care much about the mountains boat when they found out when they cut down the forests. Was running off the ground and his holiness now as a hundred and fifty river keepers in Nepal and Northern India, but he planned
more trees than any other person in the world and the recent statement such a here in New York preserve the Adirondacks? Does I found when they cut the trees, the sediment, with washing off the Adirondacks landing on the Hudson River and impeding navigation? So it was the Carnegie S was Rockefellers and it was the witnesses and powerful families. The livingstons control, the navigation on the Hudson. It were able to influence the New York State legislature to finally protect river, so not all protect nature causes
have noble art world. Usually, successes are driven by alliances with powerful economic interests and today, a battle, for example, to transition to clean energy economy, to battle against the incumbents, coal, oil, carbon cronies and big nuke. But it's a bad it by companies that are like General Electric Siemens. Vast is very, very big, powerful economic entities, see that every opportunity to make money and energy which the biggest energy producer in our country, which see that we can actually produce electrons, cheaper from wind and solar and renewables and add, if we have a level marketplace that they can actually make a lot of money in that market, displacing the Gump so We have them on our side and as one of the reasons that were waiting incrementally bit by bit out of transition clean energy. Is that a change?
because there was a day when all corporations were enemies and flower, children were the future. What you got kind of practical over the than if you're saying, make an alliance with powerful people and get him to understand the cause, and then stuff can happen like that. You know icing on things that environmentalists and people in the business community and realise that environmental policy is identical to go economic policy, if you talk to the big polluted the cope brothers, have their indentured servants in our political process.
I'll. Tell you that we have to choose between economic prosperity. On the one hand, environmental protection, on the other, an that's a false join. These are people who want to say that a good economy is to create a world with where we can treat the planet as if it were business, liquidation and convert our natural resources to cash, make a few people billion airs. I impoverishing restless and that's not good economy. For anybody I want to stick to water is there's a whole world we could get into here, but I noticed your senior attorney for the natural resources, defence counsel, and it says she's prosecuting attorney for the Hudson River keeper. So if anybody messes with the hudson
you're all over them. We are always on the side of the water against the guys are coming to blue. You know what there's only one of the five boroughs of New York that are connected to the mainland of the United States. Then the Bronx as the rest of them or islands and nights and river- and we are maritime city- were here because this was greatest port in the world and for many years we couldn't use water because it was so polluted and I grew up maritime tyres would float up and I knew I was in a different world as those in the late seventies early eighties. Why so people fishing in the Hudson and keeping the peace fish out. I thought that was weird and I didn't know you had been added that whole time now, I'm intrigue by this tree cutting and they ran docks and that then affecting the fresh water, because its holiness your tree planting campaign, which my record show made it into the Guinness Book of
records. I didn't even know. That was a record that could be made. So you tell me what that record worth pointing record. It was, I think the most tree was planted amid the one hundred thousand something over a tree was planted, in particular short period and by ten thousand people. Something like that. So it was kind of amazing achievement for everybody, but because for me it was very exciting to see because we were planting this tree in the desert. Actually It was then a more exciting is the next year growing very nicely, then it become like a bush and the forest. Your career a far young forests did anybody that allowed a creative forest again here a hundred thousand one? Yes yeah! We picnic
restaurant displayed a hundred that we winners as thirty million followers on twitter, out of a person Oh yeah, yeah GDP comes from a section of the Himalayas Northern India and the Paul it's the headwaters for most freshwater in Asia and the rivers, the yangtse, in the Ganges that flow out of his homeland. So if its most of the fresh water Asia- Asia's it's just the popularly it's my son estimates is water, goes to four billion. Half the people in the world. I've heard his holiness speak very movingly of the moral obligation and he has and that his followers to make sure the water makes it to those agricultural areas and makes it to the sea and feats of fisheries just to clarify this water would be
did glacial water from the Emily through some of its now, the glacier water and some of its monsoon water, so just straight precipitation that runs off into the rivers and then closed downstream, ok, and so these trees, or not only just a good thing, because more trees are better than fewer trees, but that also protect the soil. Erosion is out of secondary goal. Yes, yes, everything is circulating. You know so the tree gives oxygen and oxygen somehow brings the you know better than I do actually happen. Then, of course, then, gives water and these things, so of course the tree is very badly needed for the human being involved in need to survive because of the oxygen? he's very much needed for us to I have a life, did you know that some, a team of people beat your DNS record. Did you notice
no yeah yeah. So now you gotta, do it again. Never ending! That's good then I'd be I'll, be bidding them next year and then somebody would read me exactly as it is more like a hot yard bitterly will, in Britain alone, you know, there's a lot of weird things in his book: they get much less often described so. I also noticed that in many of the areas where this fresh water supplies Primarily women who retrieve the water from where comes. Is that correct? And so that creates a gender separation of tasks, so you trying to combat that. Is is that correct? No woman knows much better above the water and the men knows maybe better about the trees and a little bit like a more sort of other things, so the water speaking by the water, the woman knows,
That is why? Because the women always collect the water from the whales, and then you know use so women knows women has a much more passion about the water. With the water and water, is very heavy, right right, is it true that you talk, Kung fu to nuns thither hung nuns. That's. How do I become a come? Food is never again. None trucks, money, brothers, other willing to carry water. So what was the motivation there?
did he remarked a large army of super none that one of the main target that I was doing because gender equality so of course gender. Thank you. Thank you only heard women applaud Papa, tried again sate gender equality. I am very proud of myself to be able to do that actually and also to hear clapping? Yes, so this is the reason the Google came into this and Google can give the confident and the defence not to hum others. Of course, that is not my main aim.
But to defend them, but that's just the benefit that you could harm others. But that's not me. You could go into its the wanna, be so this is an extraordinary state, cultural statement that you have me so did you find resistance. Cultural revolution revolution. I understated? Yes, so did you find resistance from men who didn't want to get there, but by the women you're only to women in the world. Has not come easily because you have men who are resistant to giving up the power they have, one of which is the power of might over them, and so was their resistance. Here I could feel some resistance and some discomfort, but if
Now they have to get used to it, because I will not. I will not give it up anyway, I'll be keep on doing it, and then I will keep on dedicating my life for no quality. You know so the mortar keepers. They named you guardian of the Himalayas. Could you explain that my answer, but we have water keepers now all over the world and we licence the asian and deeper they have to live on and waterway and be willing to but I'd be the water Pieper apart slope alone, Eddie. We already have one burning Ellen. I drive a go on us and
has had demonstrated a very, very strong devotion, there's some other religions and have taken this on in some great religious leaders. In fact, there's a complication on the Black Sea every year were patriarch Bartholomew of Greek Orthodox Church was that this is the moral issue that faces our generation, his holiness, whose lead these pilgrimages all across India, cleaning up the environment. Would people pick up trash land trees and he's really made the same? His lifetime and the water was an important part of that, because the water is so important to all of Asia, ease really even by people who are not among his breakfast hours, he is regarded as one of the great spiritual leaders world and he has consistently a water, the centre piece of his moral cosmology.
So, in speaking with his holiness before we came on here, I ask what elevation he lives in the Himalayas and the elevation is five thousand meter, five thousand This is America, so I have to translate nine grand words that close by thousands of fifteen thousand feet, or so that's, very hot, and is it a walk up? You have the literal and figurative high ground. That's a good place to be because no one really has any other place. Make an argument against what you're saying you are too far away for them.
Let's go get away. Where does he live. Here. The fact that we dug up for this programme state residence on use. A hundred fifty gallons of water per day, for our stick in municipal purposes, a hundred fifty gowns a day its highest in the world. Compare that with the UK, which uses thirty gown today. I said how do you get that and then that I was reminded that in America we bathe more often
many other countries, The exponent? That's not me at times a day, but what it tells me is that different countries have different needs or wants, and if there was ever a redistribution of access to water that could cause some conflict. So your holiness, could you comment on ways either? historically or from what you have seen today, where there has been unrest regionally because of access to work Normally. I always say that the people has to be educated. More people has to be more careful about preserving the ward.
Also polluting water less. I think the people can do a lot of contribution if they really educated and if they were told nicely in school and also the parents needs to be teaching them nicely and precisely and in all, like a fully so that every youngsters and next generations will be very bushes about and be happy to serve, served the whole world not only whole world, but the generations and generations they will be able to serve and they would be able to do a good think. Otherwise. The mess up, they'll mishap whole world right now in terms of the use of the fresh water. In our first segment, we were discussing where It is the fresh water of the world,
and ok, we might, in America, use a hundred fifty gallons, but that's not the bulk of the border that gets use its eye, which the number seventy percent is used by agriculture just to grow the food that we eat, that the same fraction of this number all around the world for tests. We use a lot. We irrigate but other parts of the world. What fraction of fresh water they use for agriculture, so it's actually more in developing countries compared to developed countries, the? U S uses less than seventy percent less than seventy three using sixty. But if you go to India or parts of China they're using over ninety, Ninety percent of all their available freshwater for agriculture. No, ninety percent Food water used goes to agriculture and why? he was more water than we did their plumper melons.
No, it's just that they're using less for industry. So the? U S has developed its industry and we use wanna wash out of cars. They mostly make apples. That's basically apples, apples, not the best example, but course great example so. What you say is there are fewer other things. They use their fresh water for relative to their agriculture. Compared with us rank. Is there just trained? food security. That's the first are going around eighty billion people right. I mean so Bobby how you'd distribute your energies verses where people use their freshwater primarily concern about drinking water or agriculture as well. How does that? balance out in your portfolio? Why do you got a book here? The river keepers, I've written with James Cronan
activists right to reclaim the environment, is a basic human right. So you just at this at all angles, and so how do you a budget year ever? Let me answer the question that you ass a little bit earlier about the relationship between global and civil conflict and water shortages. Most geopolitical analyse agreed, for example, that the conflict now the civil war in Syria was triggered by a mass of water shortage that that was associated with global warming between two thousand and six two thousand eleven at the biggest roused the north eastern part of Syria. In history, almost one hundred percent of farmers were effected. Three and a half million farmers lost twenty percent of their production. A million of those farmers migrated to the cities and that's what triggered civil strife, but also throughout the arab spring. In Tunisia and Egypt, the bread prices were driven high, which is what triggered the revolution,
Those countries that there's a lot of causes to those revolution abide. Why not all those causes I've made it into the new cycle. And the water shortage now is making it in that as one of the primary triggers for those revolution. When you hear can't losing where's global warming. Where does affect us? There are millions of environmental refugees every year around the world who are driven off their land and work, creating civil strife and political strive and security problems that affect the United States because of water shortages out and ask your other question, eight philosophy, the kind of unites all the keepers is really an.
Philosophy, which is the water, is part of the comments commons at those things, those assets that cannot be reduced to private property ownership, but either nature are the assets of the whole community, the air, the water, the wildlife, the fisheries, the public lands, the wandering animals and, of course, waters and ashore lines. And since ancient times the code of Justinian, Magna Carta, an every state constitution, including here in New York, has a provision that it called the Public trust doctrine that comes dies from those ancient constitutions in that document says that water belongs to everybody doesn't belong to Congress. The Senate big were brazenly. It belongs to all of us. Everybody has the right to use it. Nobody has a right to use it in a way that will diminish or injure its use and enjoyment by others so that he can use their share. Opening can take more than
sure that every child in New York City, with their black and white, rich or poor yonner, all right go down to the seventy. Nine sheep or Asian were to go down the EAST River on the after our drive, throwing applaud, bring counterstrike asked, bring it home in feeding their family with the security they're not going to poison. Somebody, and with the security that the fish are gonna, Are you telling me this strike vassal of youth River? There are a lot of stripe as needs wherever there are a lot of MAC role and their shared urged in an airing, their shadows in their eyes river. The way eleven hundred two hundred pounds of caviar and can I walk into a bodega and grab a small Goddamn, you guys you. This is mine, my small water? Probably can't you steal water from the body good day example the river, but I wouldn't
right so Bobby? I think what you describe in some cases is a little over simplified, because we have state bound and there are some aquifers. If I understand correctly, that cross county boundaries and state boundaries- and you have multiple municipalities now come in a sense for one repository of water, water? doesn't know the political boundaries, but people do, and so that would surely creates I've, if somebody's draining warder faster than somebody else. The ears are problems. Is the same in the east. If there's water, the flows from New Jersey, here there are compact between states about how to allocate that, according to the public trust archer, the problem is the big place where you see water we got a lot of water. These we don't have water shortages here, there's water shortage in the western states and western state.
Water was how I created the way that they were allocate the water in Syria, where governments wanted to get white men to move out into the western states to settle the states to take it away from the Mexicans. The Indians and so what they do is they said if you come out here, you can on the water and as much as you in use you on it, and so there very irrational law, as well as an incentivize people, to use much waters. They can grow rise in the desert to grow alfalfa in the desert and degree Oh cities, like LAS Vegas Scottsdale in I am now as a result of that, of course, the I run a river dries up in the desert and never makes it to see another point to be made. Is it's one thing to pollute water and not make it available to another thing for climate
Age to redefine what regions of water and what don't or what now gets too much water or what now gets too little because we develop our civilizations based on some expectations of what kind of water supply would be available, so Let us bring this second, the second of three segments to a close we live, had beaten. We should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint start talking. Patria for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot. Coms. Last star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.