One of the most diverse things about the U.S. is its food industry. Foodies obsessively seek out the “authentic” flavors of any given culture. But many of the foods brought to the U.S. via immigration were initially viewed with suspicion and disdain.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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we continue stuff, you missed in history, from Housetop works, not welcome and upon cast, but how we try to raise the Bee Wilson. I think it's safe to say that one of the most diverse things about the United States is actually its food industry and for food
seeking out the elusive and are putting this includes authentic flavors of any given culture can become an obsession there,
of things that are often seen as well
owing to an ethnic cuisine that are, in fact not
been recognised in the culture of the bear associated with fortune cookies.
people are one hundred percent in north american invention. This episode,
was inspired by our listener, just in who actually asked for a history of thai food in the? U S,.
and we're not actually talk about typhoid this time around. Perhaps if we do a follow up sewed we will, but for our talk
about the most popular ethnic foods in the U S, to trace their adoption and adaptation to ultimately become part of our culinary melting pot. This
so ended up being an episode that touches a lot of other episodes that we have done, because so much of it is linked to the story of immigration and one of the things that-
All of these huge really have in common is a basic trajectory, so they are first thought of with a degree of suspicion,
or disdain by the resident population when they-
brought envious, immigration and then there's this slow acceptance.
the revelation that hey this is delicious.
A minute shifts and these cultural dishes become
Celebrated, but in a way that doesn't use
resemble their country of origin cuisine very much. The term ethnic food which we are putting in airports here
really started to see usage in the United States on the nineteenth fifties and before that food from cultures there were
fight of the United States were just usually referred to as foreign feeds, and this way
to some degree, part of a larger postwar shift where White Americans, or trying to figure out exactly how to refer to anything that wasn't part of their own culture so
american in quotes, white people, food costs,
everything. Apart from that ethnic,
bad, it's weird and kind,
growth, but I mean it's one of those things where I actually think there was probably
a desire to find an appropriate way to do it. But just in in that that hunts and setting things up
it's your kind of automatically in danger zone,
like nigh as other food and then ice, is definitely like main stream right american palette yeah
but I read an interview recently with
Christian Andy RE, who is an author who wrote the ethnic restaurant tour and he didn't he's also the cheer nutrition and food studies and New York University, and he brought
really interesting point, but he's not the first to make it, but he here circulated it really well in a wash
the post interview that he did and twenty sixteen and he pointed out
that- has been discussed by other scholars, the theory
This inherent subconscious association of inferiority with the term ethnic food sufferings
all foods that are usually categorized as ethnic and marks a lot of times, there's or indian tie in Chinese and Mexico
I have even heard people referred
american cuisines from specific groups like I've heard people call soul,
food, ethnic food with Hurts and America.
With even right, I'm cage in food gets it to you,
yeah. I like these tests.
to be often less expensive,
a lot of times with a worse cultural,
then, the mainstream then say French, food or japanese food, which a lot of times don't wind up in the bucket of quote ethnic there
of course, some exceptions that there are high and chinese restaurants economically priced wrench cafe
There is the whole idea of huge in which a lot of times is viewed as something that's a little higher class but draws from different ethnic.
if this leave. But you know, as a general rule, that's pretty accurate observation. So, as we said,
we want to just sort of set that up so you're thinking about it as we go through this, but we're going to cover the three most popular categories of ethnic food.
using the quotes in the U S today
Chinese mexican and italian chinese food was one of the most
in Cuisines the United States, even better,
Small towns typically have a chinese restaurant. I know I have been to them.
incredibly, not even the stoplight, but there's a chinese restaurant
In the documents are you the search for general, so silly use the executive director for the chinese historical site? Society stated that in twenty ten chinese
people made up only one percent of the. U S population, but most Americans have eaten some form of chinese food
so for clarity about one percent member represents only people.
you are exclusively as Chinese nodded
people. You identified in combination with other ethnicities and that's according to the Census Bureau and
praise the origins of chinese foods popularity to that point where almost all of us have had it, even though chinese people do not make up a particularly large segment of the population
in North America. We have to go all the way back to the eighteen, fifty's
a little bit before that which will talk about, but primarily women.
California, gold rush brought a great deal of Chinese and specifically cantonese immigrants to the United States through San Francisco.
and there was already a chinese restaurant in San Francisco before the gold rush. There was one cantonese restaurant that had opened there in eighteen, forty nine
Initially, chinese food seemed to new and even scary, to most of the white population.
also in the general so documentary they talk about how this is, where a lot of
crazy, rumours began about the things that might be included in your chinese Tippit
yeah back into
to be like a way to insult people's native cuisine about this. This
All of this combines together the suspicion of the food and the rumours about with the food contain was in part because Chinese,
and were seen as a threat to the job market. There were approximately twenty five thousand chinese immigrants in California by eighteen. Fifty one
and there was a concern that they would be taking jobs away from white residence there.
Also of xenophobic fear of basically all of the culture that they had brought with them to the United States, including the food.
eventually that xenophobia led to the chinese Exclusion ACT of eighteen. Eighty two and this act
and by President Chester, a Arthur established a freeze on chinese labour immigration, not
laborers seeking to enter the Eu S, had to get special certification for the chinese government, but it was incredibly difficult to prove that a person had no intent to work as labour once they got to this
so that avenue of immigration was really largely choked off. Doesn't
The situation is also mentioned in more detail in our two part episode that we did on executive order. Ninety sixty six and the japanese internment camps,
not only the exclusion ACT make it difficult for chinese people to enter the United States
it also simultaneously sparked violence by white communities against chinese communities, but if a Chinese
grant already in the United States left they would have to go through the certification process to re enter the country. So a lot of people stayed in spite of there being so much animosity towards their communities. In many cases, people that
My greeted here had you know, left everything they had built a life here, so they did
wanna leave because they really had nowhere to go
that dirty jobs really closed for the immigrants that were already living in the United States. The need for self reliant forms of income brought about the right.
Of two business ventures that are still commonly associated with chinese entrepreneurs. Its laundry service and food service in regarding
service in a really savvy business move a lot of chinese
run adapted recipes to american taste so that they can build their customer basis.
The voluntary balance that was struck was sort of foreign
familiar to you, the White Majority, while China's vast size include
oh, like a what a lot of distinct styles of food.
Connived chinese food tends to be more homogenous. There's chow
city, which was the first quote chinese dish to gain acceptance in the United States.
Largely because it was easily adapted to include ingredients that would appeal to the palace of white customers. It was meat, eggs of vegetable.
There were a little different from what folks typically had dated eight, but they weren't to foreign and taste. That's really
this that was made for chinese restaurant use and the United States.
China, but yeah so
what a banners in the early part of the twentyth century chop Suey was. There
Introduction to this foreign food. But much
I exclusion ACT initially intended as a ten year, moratorium was extended for a second decade.
in eighteen, ninety two with the passing of the Geary ACT, and then it was made
In nineteen o to heed the nineteen twenties, it was replaced with a quote
system, as immigration once again swelled effort after World WAR, one and man almost twenty years later, the x,
An act was repealed in nineteen forty three throughout
This is anti chinese sentiment. Slowly, egged Chinese,
he's in the? U S continue to serve up dishes that offered a taste of Asia, but was still in this sort of comfort
not too aggressive or frightening away to appeal to the house,
diners that they were hoping to get.
the side note it seems like every,
December. There will be an article about how China
cuisine became what jewish people eat at Christmas.
Yeah, who has for a long time the chinese restaurants, where the only ones that were open on Christmas,
and so now, culturally, there's author, this connection between chinese communities and jewish communities,
the food that is eaten at Christmas time. A next step. We will talk about the ebb and flow of chinese swedes growing acceptance in the United States, but first we will pause for a quick word from sponsor money. I cleared out my whole data. Lisa
the whole day yeah. First, we need to study, and I have some flashcards here too old- releasing vocabulary, seclusion, price costs, money factors, disposition, faith,
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by the nineteen. Thirty
Chinese. Food had really become a two way: Cultural D in the United States. It in
bold white Americans to feel like they had an inn with another culture and its
for chinese immigrants, away to fit into majority white communities and with China,
as an ally in world war. Two and the repeal of the chinese Exclusion ACT. The early nineteen forty
actually saw an explosion in popularity of chinese restaurants,
Fortunately, though, that wave of acceptance for chinese culture was short lives, the chinese
missed revolution, change things a lot and once again chinese people living in the United States or viewed with suspicion. There was a drop at that point, and the popularity of chinese restaurants actually have a whole
for our part, podcast yeah, covering this window of chinese history for the next three decades, appreciation for
his food, really waxed and Wayne within American Culture and nineteen sixty there were six thousand
chinese restaurants, the? U S, ten percent
or in New York City are not made
like a lot, but we have our law more now. After President Nixon visit
China, in nineteen, seventy two and he was shown on live television, eat
chinese food during that visit, chinese cuisine once again experienced a mass
boom in popularity in the United States
this time, this really lead to an interesting diversification. So, instead of just general chinese restaurants or what we ve
the call american chinese restaurants that sort of homogenized version
of chinese food. It became a
our common to start to see areas that were specializing in some of the regional cuisines of China, Think Hunan and sexual on, for example, through the nineteenth
these chinese foods popularity has continued to grow throughout the United States and in twenty
our team. There were more than forty three thousand chinese restaurants spread across across the country and next year we will
about another cuisine that makes up a really big segment of the ethnic food market in the United States and again we're using as the food in quotes
and let us mexican- and it is become so popular that for
salsa, will now vie with ketchup and rewrite.
For most popular condiment in America. When you see those sort of cutesy cultural food articles pop
and sometimes it wins, those those which is the most popular condiment discussions, depending on what source you're looking at so in short, mexican food
huge part of the American Culture food landscape. At this point in the early part of the twentieth century mexican
Migrants made up a small portion of the United States population in the first instance of
goes arriving in the United States was during the Mexican Revolution, which started in nineteen ten before that, most
transfer from Northern Mexico and tacos, which started being called by that name and eighteen eighties were
having a little farther south. If you listen
episode on the research programme from August of twenty. Sixteen, you may recall that in the early nineties,
he's an early nineteen thirty, there was a lot of hostility aimed at mexican immigrants, massive deportation and also segregation and
was all spawned by the same problem that had caused a distrust of chinese immigrants, which was concern over the effect
Recent was going to have on the labour pool
environment of distrust, fostered and opinion. The mexican food was for poor and lower classes.
And it had a reputation for a long time for decades makes a hint
cuisine was a stable and more low income homes, but slowly the middle class
starting in the border states and then spreading throughout the country, came to adopt mexican food as their own.
Eighteen, forty, you, San Antonio Texas, actually started importing Chile powder from Mexico to meet the growing demand in nineteen. Sixty two fast
giant, Taco Bell was founded in Downy, California and by the nineteenth
these nineteen eighties mexican restaurants had become popular neighbourhood, eater ease throughout the country, but then ass. Now, if you,
to go into most mexican restaurants you'd see a pretty similar list of items on the menu things like cases, tacos and burritos. The concept of mexican food has become as with chinese food
largely homogenized Mexico, liked
has a number of regional cuisines that don't always
as much focus in restaurants in the states.
so in very broad strokes to talk about some of them, northern MAX
food tends to include a lot of beef and cheese and wheat. Why
Her cuisine includes a lot of corn, Chile, peppers and beans. Yucatan dish
feature of cargoes and slow cook, salted pork and chocolate. Western mexican food is characterized by the frequent inclusion of fresh fish and
A cruise cuisine favours the use of tropical fruit. Twenty all of that and if of itself
how's that we are that we're recordings at eleven. Forty eight a m,
ass. He listened to that list. He probably noticed a number of items that our common ingredients in mexican food here in the United States, because as mexican food gained mainstream acceptance, that became a hotchpotch of all the various aspects of regional policy.
that appealed to a broader audience. Yet,
to say there would have been cross over in those cuisines anyway, but living it's almost.
somebody went through an went. Yes, fish fish tacos would be good guess. Also we want the cheese for
although our Ricardo, amethyst shocker, put another kind of on everything
and additionally, approaches to preparation change. So, while up
You know in Mexico might include a simple assortment of ingredients like beans and a meat protein as they became the hand.
old standards of the. U S, they really changed and started to be packed with additional things and just got larger and larger
the burrito in its american incarnation, didn't even get it start in a border town near Mexico, either. It's actually credited to the mission district in San Francisco. Sometime in the nineteen sixties, I have witnessed
a very heated arguments about what items in tortilla are acceptable to call a burrito as long as
the wishes I dont care, but if you're looking at it from a cultural
an historical standpoint. You might want to get more specific
one of the other appeals of mexican food in the United States was the ability to make it at home kitchen cook. Where sets that included. Tortilla presses
and a taco friar mould started appearing for the homework
in the latter, half of the twentieth century and
is that we're both very popular am very unique to american mexican food also came about in the second half of the twentieth century. He so, for example, taco salad made its debut in nineteen sixty eight and for heat, as which I confess that I deeply love were invented and nineteen seventy one I love. I love the fragrance of vetoes,
like I love it, when someone else orders figure is bad likes me really
Is it the dye? Why aspect that is now for you, the the that fleet
it is never is amazing to me as the fragrance of it.
This double ariosto journalist and author of Tobacco USA. How mexican food conquered America takes a more relaxed
in view of what qualifies as mexican food. In an interview with the credit,
since I am monitor and twenty fourteen he said quote. I know a lot of Mexicans and people who love mexican food, who believe that there is real mexican food and fake mexican food to me. If you think it's mexican food, its mexican food
but the Good NEWS is mexican. Restaurants haven't entirely homogenized or they have once again diversified and many offer lesser known, specialty dishes. Now that appeal
it was on the hunt for that quote: more authentic slaver there
So at this whole discussion I didn't include it in this right up but
I found it in one place where people were saying this for people
are not familiar with any given cuisine. They tend to assume that
By Syria is the more of a ticket is, which is really not the case.
Kind of robs alot of cultures of their actual food identities, because it's not all about heat
Oriana, also give great advice in that interview on how you can find the hidden treasures unless mexican restaurants, he said quote when you go to a Mexican,
drawn- and you see Spanish, on the menu that you have never heard in your life order. It
That will be the regional cuisine and more likely than not. It's really good. I was reading something around about mexican cuisine before we came in here to record
There is one particular writer who was like yeah I'll stop bragging about how you tried corns
That is why it is like a nor
part of cuisine,
you don't get a metal.
having made it up
twenty four team there were
seventy one hundred mexican restaurants just only ten cities that we're flagged in this one particular article thousand
more, our thread are spread throughout smaller cities and towns and rural areas.
This is similar to like the place
Europe was not very large. We
definitely hide multiple mexican restaurants.
Am, I feel, like I, I M in the EU,
of town I live in now, which is very diverse. I will often see a lotta little smile.
taco shops pop up and often, though, stick around for years and years and their tucked, sometimes indeed just like
and I'm part of a neighbourhood which kind of awesome cause. Those places often have gold super delicious
So next that we are about to talk about italian food in its place at the american table, but first you're going take a quick sponsor break before we do that now
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big hitter in the triumvirate of popular ethnic foods in America. Again where she saved ethic foods and quotes, is attack.
M and its life in the. U S, parallels that of chinese food in a lot of ways also makes can food, but this one has a pretty direct Thailand's,
In the early twentieth century, italian food, like both Chinese and Mexican, was seen as a cuisine for the lower classes or lower income homes in the
howls of garlic and the red sauces. It started to be used in the. U S, not necessarily a particularly italian thing, we're seeing
Far too pungent an overwhelming to the american poet that sort of cracks me up because garlic is like the man
siren song. That will draw me to any kitchen. Things have changed. I wanted
That's funny to me as far as people's perception sort of like mainstream white perception of,
italian food is, is that it serves spaghetti in a tomato sauce. Pan. It's me,
those did not exist in ITALY until after you,
instead of going back and forth to North America, Ambrosch tomatoes back with them and then pasta
So likely introduced, although that before
pasta was introduced into ITALY before tomatoes, whereby both those are they
They came out a little bit more recently in the grand scope of italian history.
Immigration quotas from the nineteenth twenties:
significant effect on the way the italian immigrant population was distributed throughout the United States because the
migration act of nineteen. Twenty four cut: the italian immigrant quota from forty two thousand to just four thousand a year italian neighbor had started to shrink resin.
Who lived anvil ill. Will ITALY neighborhoods moved in increasing numbers to the suburbs or other neighborhoods that we're less identified by one culture and were more diverse in terms of which cultures lived there
internal migration, led to a deeper integration of italian immigrants into the so called american melting pot, where they were both influenced and influenced other.
And during world war. Two italian immigrants have been classified as enemy aliens and there
italian Americans interned in the same
japanese Americans were, and there were there was of
the hostility and anti italian sentiment the women. At the same time, however,
there was a less systematic
limitation of the provision that allowed for the removal of Italians to detention centres? Image
who had been in the United States for a lengthy period of time and italian emigrants.
It had become: U S. Citizens, naturalisation were not generally subjected to the relocation only tell
nationals were- and that was a pretty small sliver of the italian immigrant population.
Well, that already indicates that italian immigrants were more accepted than some other immigrant populations. Another factor gave a tying culture,
boost in the United States, the approximately five hundred thousand
the Italian Americans served in the war sometimes go
to ITALY to fight this further eroded. The sense of Italians of outsiders and United States a bull stirred the image of their cuisine out
at this point. There had been immigration from ITALY to the United States for a long time. There were a lot of people of italian descent.
there were more than one or two generations removed from ITALY yet met that, unlike with the japanese American Pie,
nation interest was not feasible to try to round up all of those books and incarcerate them
But what s interesting is unlike Mexican in chinese food, which were to some degree both really consciously shifted to appeal to American tastes
a talent food in the United States changed at least in part just because of agree ingredient availability so, for example, can
tomatoes were inexpensive and they were easy to find it almost any market, and me was far more plentiful and affordable in the United States than in southern ITALY, for example, and so dishes
spaghetti meatballs, Tracy reference earlier and Bake dvd slowly.
up here in the United States in italian neighborhoods. Although those were not common foods in ITALY, either
the ever popular fettuccine, Alfredo, which I know I know and love away?
invented in ITALY, but it took on a very different proto profile in the United States.
Warning to the law in nineteen fourteen Alfredo Delay LEO put parmesan and butter on noodles of a meal for his wife who was pregnant and it was such a
simple dish that he opened up a restaurant, a servant to the masses. But why
Delay LEO moved from ITALY to New York and opened a new restaurant. Heavy cream entered the picture and that became a much different, much richer, richer, tasty dish.
seven delicious but yeah. There are still things that are served. Syn
or to his original
in Europe, but it's usually just called like pasta with butter. It does. It have the name Alfredo in certain
is not quoted in a heavy sauce. The way we think affinity me Alfredo,
spaghetti carbon aura, another italian american dish that has now
often mention is one of the most unhealthy things you can eat was invented here in nineteen, fifty seven and ass for pizza we did a whole Epps
learn that last year, hopefully recorded in Chicago at sea to eat you. It basically experience the same lifespan as other Italian Boone,
Neapolitan Pizza, slowly morphed into this americanized version was heavier
and though we're has way way worst stuff. On top one of the things I said,
in that lives here was. If you have this further,
This time and all you ve eaten your whole life is the kind of pizza that served in the United States. Your burst,
She might be. Where are the trappings of the lot lot simpler of a dish and pizza? No once it
Behold, it has become one of the most popular foods in the United States.
yeah? I was reading in the course of doing research. For this a quote from a gentleman who runs the neapolitan pizza restaurant. In his speech,
big thing was about the crest being less dough,
but also less crispy, so he would have custom
to come to him and say this didn't cook all the way you'd like not our problem.
Secondly, a quality of its work.
Ninety nine bees. According to John Marianna, who is the author of how italian food conquer the world because foods or conquer things I discovered while researching us,
hell yeah cuisine in the: U S really got what he perceived as a much needed make over thanks to these
and popularity of the Mediterranean diet which took that focus away from the heavy cream bases that were developed here, and there
two that also came to be kind of an american standard.
Also more refined ingredients becoming more consistently available to both ships and home cooks. Thanks to globalization things like troubles and
Udo became increasingly more available and more popular in the United States and the development of more options and flavors. Beyond this heavily americanized italian bear caused massive
in popularity for italian restaurants, there are now about
team thousand italian restaurants. Just in ten? U S, cities
very, very similarly to both Chinese and magazine cuisine, things like pizza and spaghetti people think of as really cheap food. Yes,
expensive and not nutritionally very amazing for you, but
are also at this point kind of intriguing. I want to put it in artisanal pizza places
Well, I feel like there's this interesting parallel. That's also Gama that, as the food industry,
has become more health, conscious
you're, seeing restaurants move to recipes that
closely risen above their place of origin is like America really is the land of lake put
or butter on.
Don't get me wrong. I love butter, but it is an interesting parallel to watch that development, so foods adopted,
their cultures continued to gain popularity in the. U S, restaurants, serving
thing from Vietnamese far to south african body which holy man, I'm in love. With our now
reliable in a lot of large cities, and even in some small cities, hybrid foods like korean mexican tacos started
wrapping up as early as the ninety, nine thieves, and today you know
kinds of international cuisines from all kinds of combinations. Can we founded restaurants and food trucks? Personally, food tracks
Like our where the states yeah, I feel like food trucks kind of offer this opportunity,
experiment more, I could be wrong. I'm I'm literally just basing this on personal experience, all chasing of food trucks and eating a lot of food from them,
you know. It's not the same overhead is opening a restaurant in and having to lake staff open and do things
that way, it's a little bit of a smaller initial investment, so I think people
have a little more of
a sense that they can experiments
without being. Like my whole life just went down the tubes. If a restaurant fails, you might not recover. So it's not
easy to recover from any business failing, but a restaurant seems like a much bigger initial investment than a few track. So I feel it that's why food
Culture has really brought us some.
amazing and interesting and very creative things, so as to try
the wax and way. We will no doubt have opportunities to sample all kinds of other foods in the United States,
for the moment, the best
we hitters in terms of these international foods that have made their way into like, especially why american Main Stringham chinese mexican Italian will continue to be the big three most likely
yeah, especially, I think, once you get out of a city, knew it drops off pretty significant
How, like the amount of different cuisines
level to you will be unless you live in, like one of the great things I have discovered as if you live in, like a military town like an air force town where,
be more people from different parts of the globe
often have really interesting new, no food scenes where you can get some pretty yummy, indifferent stuff
yeah, whatever the places, sometimes the places that are small.
But also have a big tourism industry,
I am still have really really interesting.
strategies, so in a little places that maybe have fifty thousand people, but a lot of tourism will often have in pretty interesting restaurants. Elections given
eyes of it. Do you wanna to do a little listener? Mail,
do this listener
comes from our listener, Kim
I'll tell you when I opened it are office manager to make a. I adore
come over to talk to me and she just some grinning like a fool, and then I had to share it with her because it so cool so kinraid
you're, Tracy and Holly. Your podcast have kept me entertain informed.
Fired for many many hours, but I'm writing you today, because last year's episode on french protest hats.
We had our guest April Callaghan on inspired
an entire are exhibition that is now on display at the Doyle ART pavilion at Orange Coast.
which I was considering, cure eating a show of hats by the birthday Crown society. A group that began by action
when costly Mc Murray asked a friend to make her a personal crown for her fortieth birthday, carefully was protest,
the popular idea that we should dread getting older and wanted. Instead to celebrate the empowerment of entering middle age, her
being ceremony with such a success that all her friends wanted crowns for their round number birthdays of any decade and since ninety nine,
or the tradition has been spreading here in southern California. With more than sixty correlations,
Episode on the french Ladys fabulous protest. Hats gave me the historical context. I needed to see the birthday Crown society hats, as both
guard ass, a form of social protest
that motivated gallery director Steve around read a savage and I to pursue the exhibition, crowning glory and an account
in catalogue which I have included for you as a thank you for your inspiration. This catalogue contains portrait
photographer inamorata that capture many silly people pray
we acting their ages while wearing funny hats. It also includes an art has
Oracle essay that references, the french Protest- Hats, Amis stuff, you missed in history class episode, thank you and
the programmes for the inspiration from this episode and every episode, your work really does affect our lives and helps us listeners, make connections and generate new ideas. This is the cool
thing. She also adds one more thing. Sometimes people ask how they can get a hat for their round number birthday and the answer is you ask your friends to make you and put, which is great? I love it. This book is gorgeous
and it is so fine- and it is so my only because of the very creative
really fun arts. Just the wacky is most wonderful, they're all sort of art pieces.
Represent the the person who will be wearing them for their birthday. I'll try to share some pictures on our social. Some of them are absolutely breathtaking. Gorgeous
Some of them will make you laugh and laugh and laugh everything from hats that look like birds nest, two hats: it look like
cookies to have the just have a million things on them and they are all just a seller
people as they they transition from one year to the next, and there really really fun- and I think everyone should be doing this, because that seems like the most fun way to celebrate a birthday. So thank you so much can be.
Not only is this delightful letter, but this book is spectacular.
and the whole thing brought a massive smiled my face, I was literally grinning, like a fool looking to use this gorgeous book.
I wanna could they had right mood,
it? If you would like the right do as you can do so at history pie cast a house of works dot com. You can also find us across the spectrum of social media as missed in history, so that includes twitter, Facebook, Instagram tumblr.
pinterest, I don't know if I forget anything
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typing it into the search bar, and you will generate a load of results that will keep you busy and hopefully happy and well informed. You can visit us at missed in history that com for all of the episodes of the show that have ever exist.
As well as shone out through the lens Tracy, and I have worked on and as of recently, we have consolidated shone out into the episode page. So you can look at our sources right here at the same place, they are getting the podcast,
It's like a little easier fewer clicks for you who does not want that
so covered visitants missed in history, like ten house, don't work more on this and thousands of other topics, because it has to work stock.
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