« Stuff You Missed in History Class

A Condensed History of Air Conditioning

2018-08-29 | 🔗

From hand fans to today’s high-end air conditioning technology, people have always found ways to deal with heat and humidity. And as mechanical cooling became more ubiquitous, some of the cultural practices for keeping cool were made obsolete. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
How are you feeling today right now? How are you feeling about the world you live in? You want to make the world better, so you know how I'm not sure I do, but you know who did Mr Rogers. I'm Colonel Wallis host a final Fred Pack has about friend, Rogers million here all ten episodes defining friend on the Iheart radio broadcasts more wherever you listen. Welcome to stuff you missed in history class from how stuff works, dot com, how low and welcomed the broadcast I'm Tracy will then and I'm how we find August. Although by the scientists podcast comes out, it could possibly be September not quite early. This one's going to drop yet and also
it's hot, that's what August means usually for us, at least for us for sure I started working on this bestowed on one of those days when I woke up- and it was already eighty two degrees inside my apartment, it is eighty sixty freeze and my little studio right now? I am sitting with a cold pack draped over my chair, so I decided we should talk about the history of arrogance, ning and fiery through our southern hemisphere, friends, who are always getting the episodes in which I'm complaining that it's hot and so we're going to talk about ice or air conditioning or whatever, when its winter there I can go there and complain about winter, while you're here and complain about hot cause. I love the he, but that cold enough for us about a year ago we did an episode on Frederick Tudor who cut ice out of pawns in Massachusetts in winter and then turned to that
into a globally traded commodity. In that episode, we talked about some of the ways that but had been making ice in refrigerated things in warmer parts of the world before the stable many of the ice trade and development, a mechanical refrigeration, things like bull in the indian Sub continent, using earthenware vessels as of operative coolers, to make kind of arab semi frozen slush or using Self Peter used water to chill bottles of beverages. Similarly, all over the world, had figured out ways to keep themselves at least relatively cool for millennia before the invention of air conditioning. A lot of these methods are still use in one way or another. Today. The most obvious starting point is the fan people of probably fan themselves with their hands or with relatively flat objects or about as long as people have existed, but in terms of objects created specifically as fans. We know
goes back at least five thousand years. We have examples of hand, fans from numerous ancient civilizations all over the world. The earliest fans were fixed rigid and made of all kinds of feathers, fronds textiles, and other materials. The first building fans were probably developed in either Japan or China. There are examples from both that are about the same age and both nation, have their own law about the development of the folding fan. Of course, bands themselves have their own history with all kinds of mythology and symbolism and etiquette in art and culture woven in in a lot of cash There's bans have also had religious or ceremonial uses as well enough on top of all the variation in the materials that vans have been made of, and They ve been designed and constructed. We probably if we felt inclined, could do a whole episode just on fans. only if we talk about STAR Trek and the family
then I read a lot the earliest personal cooling methods were built around the fan. People either fanning who or having a servant or an enslaved person. Do it for them in places Both hot and dry people used fans to force air through dampen screens or mats, which would both human. five, the air and coolly air as water evaporated in places it was hot and damp. People were more like We too use fans to move air over ice, although that They made the room even more humid and depending on where it that ice came from. It might also makes room smell like gross pond water after James Garfield was shot in eighteen. Eighty one. His doctors used a variation on this fan and ice method to try to keep him cool in that used almost five hundred pounds of ice per day, Lena
Da Vinci developed a water powered fan and about fifteen hundred and mechanically driven fans powered by things like hand, cranks were developed at about the same time. The first electric fan was developed by Crocker and Curtis Electric Motor Company in eighteen, eighty two that in eighteen, eighty four William widely developed the all whether I, which was a fan that attached to the actual of carriage so when the carriage was moving the fan turned and it forced air over a block of ice that was mounted under the passenger area, sort of air conditioning the inside of the carriage. That's pretty ingenious. There are also all kinds of architectural features all over the world intended to keep people who were before he does, Innovation and the creation of air conditioning most people didn't buildings that were adapted to where they lived they used low materials and building techniques which were soon to the needs of the climate and the landscape. whole idea is summed up as well
secular Architecture, monocular architecture is absolutely full of ways to deal heat and humidity, and there are so many that we cannot pass Lee name them all just like. We cannot possibly name every variation on the fan, but here are some examples. People on coasts oriented their homes to catch the sea breeze through the Windows porches gave people in outdoor semi sheltered place to go when the house got too hot and sleeping porches had bunks or hammocks already there, for when it was just too ought to possibly go to sleep in the house, thick walls, high ceilings and large windows have insulating buildings, while also allowing air circulation shady courtyards and fountains, of offered respite from the heat and in places where it caught in the day and cool at night, thick walls made from mud or Adobe absorb the heat bearing the day, if you inside cooler and then release it at night to keep inside warmer. But of course, there's this planting trees to shave the buildings from the sun
in the South Eastern United States, common design was the dog trot house. This was a house with to have set raided by a roof breeze way between which usual He also connected a front and back porch, usually the Chin was on one side of the dog trot, while the sleeping area was on the other, so you weren't heating up your bedroom. While you were cooking, your food dog trot There were often built upon bricks or stones rather than resting on a foundation or the ground, and that away the air to circulate under the house as well. Sometimes these are also called Possum Trot houses in the same design is still used in some places today? My sister in law lives in a house just like this. yeah. There are also under their historic ones that still stand in newly built houses that are still following that same basic design. I remember when I was in college. There was one at the botanical gardens next door to the campus would like to go sit around and read.
Wells are a way of dealing with the heat and very arid countries, especially on the Indian Sub continent, is a pool of water. Very, very deep underground, which people would reach down an incredibly long, spiralling zigzag staircase. These pool had to be that deep underground, because that's how our down. You had to go to get to the water table. They were used as a water source, but then also having such a deep dark underground. Shaft gave people a place to retreat out of the heat. Sometimes step wells were designed to serve as very large gathering places with cricket stairways in terraces, basically lots of places for people to go down there and chill out a lot of these step wells. EL into disuse as human activity lowered the water table, either gradually filling with trash or being too over by animals, the bridge empire also destroyed a lot of them under the idea that they were unsanitary in this. What kind of ironic, since it was extremely fashionable for british people
complain about how miserable the heat was in colonial India. Today Oh some step wells or being restored and reopened as water sources, and the same principle has been used to design modern buildings that require less energy. to cool wind catchers were common and persian architecture starting thousands of years, and a lot of them are still standing and still working today. This is essentially a window. The tower that's bill to take advantage of the prevailing winds. So exactly how power is designed how many windows that house, in which direction it faces, depends on where its being built. When the war the blows through wind catcher. It draws hot air up out of the house. Sometimes there's also arise. Were of water or a very deep well inside the house. So if the hot air moves out, moist cooler, air is pulled up from below. Similar design was also part of ancient egyptian architecture so Modular architecture is just full of things like this:
and people living in hot places have also adapted their behaviour of like the suggested The hardest part of the day but as areas have adopted air conditioning, these traditional elements have tended to disappear as people instead design buildings that are going to be mechanically cooled and we're gonna start talking about that in some detail after we first pause for a little sponsor break. This episode of stuff you missed in history glasses, brought to you by Norton three sixty with life luck with your shot, being online with your smartphone. Its super feels like ear. Personal information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could going other places. In fact, whenever you shop Bank or browse online, your personal invoking get out of your control, and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals. More threats demand more protection Why? Norton and lifelong are now part of one company Norton, three sixty with life
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Modern air conditioning was developed in the United States and the United States has adopted a much faster than the rest of the world over the next stretch of this share was going to be pretty: U S, Centric the first person in the United States to write down some thoughts for creating a large scale. Wait. A cool places was John gory in eighteen, forty two, he wrote about wanting to use mechanical condensation to quote counteract the evils of temperature and improve the condition of our cities. He's speculated about a massive city that could use one machine to cool off the entire place, as well as the cool individual buildings. It's not clear whether he ever made a working prototype of this air conditioner he had in mind, but he did create a refrigerator That could make eyes. He had this work in the? U S Marine Hospital and Apalachicola Florida in eighteen for
before and he patented it in eighteen. Fifty one that ice was put used in conjunction with fans to try to keep patients with malaria and yellow fever cool by eighteen people were using fans and ice together to try to cool buildings on a much larger scale that year, New York's Madison Square. Theater was using force tons of ice per day to try to call the theatre in the summer before trying that it would pretty much just not page It was in the summer, there's some overlap in the development of refrigeration and air conditioning in the late eighteen. Eighty people were also using refrigeration to try to cool whole rooms, swear used to carry a refrigerant from a central station out to customers. In this sense Well, station refrigeration was mainly used to cool whole rooms for things like meat, packing and cold storage, a few businesses did try to put central station or for duration to use, basically as air conditioning for peoples
Bert Bow in eighteen. Ninety one, a restaurant called ICE Palace opened in Saint Louis Missouri that use central station refrigeration to keep Oh building cool, and I also decorated the place with lots of pictures of wintery scenes over the next couple of decades. Several people started designing the systems that evolved into modern air conditioning, Alfred Wolf created cooling systems for a number of buildings in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. eighteen thousand, eight hundred and eighty nine. He created a ventilation system for Carnegie Hall or Carnegie if you like the pronunciation, but most people accept Carnegie Hall as the pronunciation on that when these included, acts for blocks of ice, and that same here. He used chilling coils to cool the air in a dissecting room at Coronel Medical College, which seems like an excellent and you for air conditioning in nineteen o t He created a fan driven system for the New York Stock Exchange that cost one hundred thirty thousand dollars, and it could heat and cool the building.
in cold weather, steam boilers, added heat and humidity. In hot weather, the air moved over coils that were filled with a cooling brine to cool, indeed modify at about Same time, engineer, Stuart Kramer was working in textile mills in the south, we in the winter, the air in the mills would become very dry, which was a problem cotton thread. The lot more brittle and likely to snap when it's too dry wool is a lot easier to work when its properly moist plus static electricity, when working with a bunch of textiles and to dry air could be just unbearable. Kramer developed systems that combined ventilation, He met if they basically circulated the air, while also releasing a very fine mist of water. The word that he coined for this combination of temperature and Maybe control was air. Conditioning Kramer was awarded a patent or his air conditioning system in nine no six concurrently with Wolf and Kramer Willis Carrier
working at Buffalo, forge company and the company may be like blowers and bellows and he had been made head of its new x Mental Engineering department. Those three men that we have just talked about here, probably the name that at least ring the bell, because carrier is still associated with air conditioning. We just got a new era sure installed, and it is a carrier units. So second Wilhelm Lithograph, Ing and publishing company in Brooklyn at New York was one of Buffalo. Forge company clients and they were having a problem with humidity very nations and the humidity affected. The paper that was running through their printing press is sometimes this would cause the ink see Blue
or to smear or for the paper to visibly work. But a bigger problem was that they were printing and color colored eggs went onto the paper one layer at the time, even a slight difference and humidity affected the paper enough that the colors would be out of register. Those layers wooden line up correctly would not look like a clean. printed color document. It would look like overlapping of lines, messed up, color I'm thinking about the various episodes we have done, about artists and their work getting printed, she Lee and I'm betting. Probably these Brooks Group are part of how they ended up such a mess. So carrier developed a system that moved air over a series of coils. They were cooled with compressed ammonia, moisture and out of the air and onto the coils drying out, which also had the sight of the cooling, the air off he ultimately device a cooling dehumidified nation and air circulation system that maintained a temperature of seven,
degrees, Fahrenheit in winter or eighty degrees. In summer and a relative humidity that was a consistent, fifty five percent. This was carriers first attempt at Andorra, climate control, and he went on to be awarded numerous patents within the field. The first one was issued in nineteen o six, that with you, This patent number eight o eight, eight nine seven apparatus for treating ere. It described a process for forcing air through a spray of water and then through a set of baffles to remove any kind of pollutants, are impurities. Before then, heating and cooling, and adding or removing humidity in late nineteen, oh so and Buffalo Forge Company established carrier, air conditioning Company of America as a subsidy will, as carrier was vice. President and chief engineer among the first client, we're flower Mills and Gillette too much humility. He was causing the razor blades to rest midnight.
Eleven carrier gave an address on his rational psycho metric formulae at the american society of mechanical engineers. This is also published an aside his journal and the printed version started quote. A specialised engineering field has recently developed technically known, air conditioning or the artificial regulation of atmospheric moisture, the application of this new art, too many varied industries, has been demonstrated to be a greatest economic importance when applied to the blast furnace that has increased the net profit and the production of pig iron from zero dollars and fifty cents to zero dollars and seventy cents per ton and in the textile mill is increase. The output from five to fifteen percent, at the same time greatly improving the quality of the hygienic conditions surrounding the operative and many other industries.
With the grabbing: the manufacture of candy bread, high explosives and photographic films and the drying and preparing of delicate hydras coptic materials such as macaroni and tobacco. The question of humidity is equally important while air conditioning have never been properly applied to coal binds. The author is convinced that, if this were made, Paul three. The greater number of mine explosions would be prevented. The paper goes on detail, all kinds of formulas about temperature humidity and do point how their interrelated, how they can be adjusted and what the effect of those adjustments would be for that introduction to the paper, and the paper itself highlight a couple of things. One is that initially air conditioning
had a slightly different meaning than it does today. Today, we most dissociate air conditioning with keeping things cool and not to humid. Another is the almost without exception. It was not about the workers comfort. it was about the products they were making and the temperature and humidity needs of the materials and equipment they were working with in order to make them more productive and to make their business more profitable. You can be behind sweaty, but the paper cannot we're gonna get into how air conditioning finally became a household commodity after we first pause for a little sponsor break support for this podcast. comes from Pico Pico helping homes and businesses save money with energy efficient, our Ellie, these last up to fifteen times longer than traditional bulbs Andy up to eighty five percent, less energy, so they're good for your pocketbook and the environment Ellie. he's coming all shapes and sizes, and our
although in a variety of white temperatures, whether it's warm lighting for living rooms, dining room and bedrooms or bright cool waiting for catches and bathrooms, there's an OECD. every socket and for businesses. These can help you manage energy costs, improve your bottom line and reduce maintenance, about your old bulbs, for energy saving, Ladys and get instant savings as a pico customer stock up while discounts Incentives last for info can start saving today is pico dotcom, slash a lady. Emma early nineteen hundred the general public didn't get to experience, much conditioning in the United States unless it was something that was being employed at their work to make their work more profitable, but faintly was worlds fair use, Mc nickel cooling at the Missouri state. Building in nineteen o for roughly twenty million people attended, the fair and for a lot of them. This was the first ever experienced they had with air conditioning holier
Listening was still way out of reach the first home commissioner was installed in nineteen fourteen at the Charles Gates, mansion in Minneapolis, and it's not whether or not that air conditioner was ever actually used because no one was living in the mansion. At the time that same year, Buffalo Forge Company decided to pull out of the air conditioning Business, Willis Carrier and some of his colleagues founded Carrier Engineering Corporation the following year, with carrier as its president Still at this point, air conditioning was mainly focused on industry, not comfort and the mobility of air conditioning meant that factories were being open and places where the climate had not been very conducive to it before that industrial systems did sometimes have a side effect of making things more comfortable for workers, though for example, the use of air conditioning in tobacco processing kept the tobacco leaves at the right humidity level, but also really
cut down on the amount of does that the workers were subjected to. There are also, of course, other cases where it was the opposite. Her. This new air conditioning system would make it field to employ he's like it was cold and damp, and they would want to open the windows and if they opened the window, is that would ruin the entire point of having had this air conditioning in the first place it within the nineteen twenties that people started experience air conditioning that was specifically installed to make them more comfortable, while also still being all about profitability, because this was that movie theatres? There had been theatre, cooling systems that combined ice, blacks and fans before this, but they often weren't thou that effective. They might wind up with some parts of the theatre being. How to damp, while others were hot and damp carrier. Engineering corporation installed the first modern air conditioning system at a movie theater at Metropolitan Theatre, in LOS Angeles and nineteen twenty two, and this was the start of three
huge trends. Number one air conditioned movie theatres number two movie theater heavily advertising their air conditioning and number three Big Movie coming out in the summer when everybody would be going to the movies to get out of the heat by the start of world war. Two more. The movie theatres in the southern United States had air conditioning and the U S, is it the only place where movies eaters, where the first public buildings to be air, conditioned the first public building be air conditioned in Hong Kong, was King Cinema not happening in thirty one after movie, theater is the next public buildings to be air conditioning. The United States were mostly large department stores, especially in the south, smaller stores, followed and then came office buildings with the first air conditioned offices, often being banks, the United States government started air conditioning some of its buildings. In the late nineteenth twenties, the House of reference this chamber was
condition, conditioned in nineteen twenty eight and then the Senate, in nineteen, twenty nine and then the white. and executive building in nineteen thirty, the Supreme Court their condition in nineteen thirty one there had been some bait about whether these system should be installed even though Washington DC summers are famously punishing in terms of the heat and humidity. There were worries that people would see legislators and Supreme Court justices as weak if they were going to work in comfortable air conditioned buildings over these same year yours carrier and other engineers were continuing to refine air conditioning technology is included more efficient compressors for the refrigerant, an refrigerants themselves that we're safer to use compressed ammonia that was being used in the earliest air conditioners was extremely toxic. Breathe, ammonia? Is it good for not, even so, by the nineteen twenties home, your commission was still pretty rare unless a person was perhaps so wealthy that they could afford to install
at their unoccupied mansion in Minnesota, but then started a chain, as corporation started, to develop more compact and affordable models. Frigida debuted, a room cooler in nineteen twenty nine may thirty one h, H, Schulz and Jake you Sherman lunch early version of the window, air conditioner that was too expensive actually be workable thither. room air conditioner came out in nineteen thirty two and most of it he's window. Air conditioners still look a lot like it that window air conditioning technology, has not changed all that much since this happened, hotels had started installing air conditioning not long. Or maybe the dead, but at first it was only in the lobbies and the public spaces. The first hotel with air conditioned guest rooms, was the Detroit Stadler and Nineteenth before. Even though window air conditioners were starting to become a lot more affordable, the great depression took a toll
the whole industry, one exception, was in the American South West, which was also struck by the dust bowl at about the same time, people who could find the money to do so installed air conditioners to try to keep the relentless dust out of their homes and they In thirty nine, the carrier company went to the New York Worlds, fair with its igloo of tomorrow, which both demonstrated an educated people about air conditioning that same year, Packard debuted, the first air conditioned car, but that was pretty slow to be adopted. Only ten percent of cars sold in the United States had airconditioning in nineteen. Sixty six by two thousand it was ninety eight percent. Also in the nineteen thirties, swamp cooler started to be manufactured to coolly air in dry environments. Unlike most of the systems we ve been talking about, which use coils filled with some kind of refrigerant to cool, and dehumidified the air swamp cooler.
Cool the air by adding moisture greyhound started, airconditioning its buses and nineteen. Forty and nineteen forty two power plants and the United States started implementing summer peeking to handle that increased electricity demand caused by all this airconditioning. The first really affordable window units at the market and nineteen fifty one which put air conditioning on the way to becoming almost ubiquitous in the United States. Even though John Gorrie's first attempt at creating a cooling system was all about. Patients in a hospital hospitals were slow to adopt air conditioning by one thousand nine hundred and sixty two. Only fifteen percent of hospital patient rooms in the United States were air conditioned that same year. a federal Housing Administration official was quoted as saying quote, with a few years, any house that is not air conditioned will probably be obsolescent. I couldn't find data about public schools, but just as justified note, I was public school in North Carolina from nineteen. Eighty to ninety. Ninety three, I was almost never
an air conditioned classroom. Nor was my college storm air conditioning hint I'm a few years ahead of you by that point I was in Florida and everything was their condition so yeah, so that only classrooms I remember being air conditioned, were were in one case in a newly constructed part of the school, was like brand new. We also had these things that were called portable class remain its oh yeah really trailers, the trailers were air conditioned by the time with like a little window unit, and that was really it. So we had this whole system of if it was going to be too hot for it to be safe in the classroom. We had an hour earlier. Dismissal ha acid, adding fell, but that's the story of how hard it was. We there would usually be an isolated fan mounted upon the wall and we'll just the kids in the classroom. Seeds would just sort of sway back and forth trying to catch the air from the Ostler Lading Fan,
as long as possible. Meanwhile, I was like the weary kid like can I stay outside its golden central air conditioning debuted in the nineteen seventies. That was also in the middle of an energy crisis. This prompted the? U S federal government to put together it's fun federal energy efficiency standard for air conditioning. So to be clear, when central and listening baby there. There were plenty of places that we're having the whole building air conditioned, but this was like a custom designed system most. What time, rather than having a model for central air conditioning that could it be applied to a lot of different home. Like we said earlier, air conditioning was adopted much faster in the United States than in the rest of the world. In nineteen, eighty half of the world's air conditioning was install
in the United States. This means that the United States have also been using a lot more electricity on air conditioning than the rest of the world has, even, as other nations have started, adopting air conditioning alot more rapidly. In more recent years in twenty fifteen, the union states was using more electricity for air conditioning than the entire rest of the world was, and was using more electricity just for a sea than the entire continent of Africa, was using for any purpose at all accord. to the energy information administrations, residential energy consumption survey that was released in twenty eleven eighty, seven percent of how holds in the United States, have an air, conditioner or central air. By comparison, eleven percent households in Brazil and two percent of housing. in India had air conditioning. At the same time, however, popularity of air conditioning is spreading, and it's already approached the saturation point in some other countries, including China, South Korea and Japan, in twenty ten
The million air conditioning units were sold in China alone. This has, of course, lead to environmental concerns as glue we'll adoption of air conditioning starts to align with what already happened in the United States. According to some estimates, electricity demand for air conditioning could increase ten fold by the year twenty fifty that is on top of concern. about refrigerants and their effects on the environment, listeners of a certain age probably remember concerns about the chlorofluorocarbons like free on which were banned in the late nineteenth eighties, because of their role in depleting the planet's ozone layer and then there's the fact: air conditioners, pump, hot air out and cool ear in so the you're just gets hotter around any building where air conditioning is used, which then requires more air conditioning so in some places, architects Designers are looking at ways to incorporate some of those elements of vernacular architecture so that it doesn't take. Quite so much
electricity, Christie and mechanical air conditioning to cool Laplace off the existence of air conditioning has also had a huge impact on so many things, including architecture, human behaviour and demographics. Everything from fewer premature deaths, steering heat waves to the existence of computers, since their components can't really be manufactured without temperature and dust control, the advent of air conditioning has been credited with people with I to the south, particularly to Florida. It's also been credited with leading to more industrial innovation and urbanize in parts of the American South. There is still some debate about correlation versus observation, but in general, air conditioning has been cited as one element in a massive southern population boom in the last fifty years as well, example that ties all of this together during the postwar awards. Baby boom huge number. of white middle Class Americans were buying houses in the suburbs.
Many of those newly design houses were built to be cooled through air conditioning particular popular in the region of the southern. U S: that's known, as the sun belt was the ranch house one story flat, and with a large picture window in the living room, but small narrow windows elsewhere it had none of monocular design elements that we talked about earlier meant to help a building stay cool because it was meant to be cool with a sea and then there's another trend that wraps back around how air conditioning really started out to help industries according to research by it most William Nord House around the world as a general trend, the heart the average temperature. The less productive people are in the past. This trend has been used to prop up racist stereotypes about people from the hottest parts of the world, but
The first is a lot of data, but being hot makes it harder to be productive, just as one example this summer that we're recording this podcast, the Harvard Th Chance School of public published a study about how students who lived and non air conditioned buildings in Boston performed more poorly on cognitive tests than their peers, who had air conditioning so at least in theory. Air conditioning or thumb method of cooling makes countries with a really hot climate, more productive than they could be without it, so it still about productivity and profitability. Much as its about people's accommodated, the two are kind of inseparable, really part of how it works. Do you have icy cold listener? Meal kind of. I got a very brief mail,
that we got from Mina Nina says thought you might be interested to read. This update on an lister as she's recently been honoured, scupper quotes with a blue plaque in Yorkshire and there is a link to an article from the BBC. So this is a plaque that was unveiled at Holy Trinity. Church on July. Twenty. Fourth, that is the church where analyse, stir and an Walker, went to church on Easter and had a Communion together and like that was a symbol of their marriage to each other. This plaque describes this as a quote: gender, not conforming entrepreneur celebrated marital commitment without legal recognition to add Walker in this church established in eighteen, thirty four, so this has led to furore about the fact that the plaque describes an lister as gender non conforming, but not as a lesbian, and one of the things that we talk about an episode is that, like the word Lesbian wasn't really being used in that sense, but the way she
about her own experience is clearly something we would describe as a lesbian today and a lot of time, she's noted as the first modern lesbian, so that trust that established this plaque release an apology, afterward saying we recognise that this has heard people and we apologise. So there is a commemorative plaque now there, but the commemorative black is controversial. If you would like to write to us about this or neither podcast where history podcast at how stuff works dot com. We are also Oliver social media at the name, Mr History, that's real find you are Facebook or twitter or Instagram, and our pinterest. You can come to our website, which is missed in history. Dot com, where you will find show notes of all the upsets and I have done together a searchable archive of every podcast ever you will also find a link to our brand new T. Public T shirt store where you can find search
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