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Ambroise Paré

2021-05-17 | 🔗

Sixteenth-century barber surgeon Paré has been called everything from “the gentle surgeon” to “the father of modern surgery.” He advanced the field of medicine significantly during his 50+ years in practice.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This episode is brought to you by Scots miracle grow. Hey guys, it's Holly spring is here, which means it is time to get outside and start growing again, no matter what your project is from Tiger Lily tomatoes indoors too in ground for gardening, gurus and first timers alike. Miracle grow has what you need to help get you Gardening glory this summer miracle grow the nuts. One Brandon? Gardening has major. Your plants get only the best for seventy years for tips, tricks how to use and more including projects for the whole family. This summer check them out at mit dot com. The energy dot com. Welcome to stuff. You missed in history, glass of production I heart radio
hell. I welcome to the park cast I'm finally fry and I'm Tracy. We won't, then it's more medical history fighter up up up I've been doing so much over the pandemic. Just had lots of medical. Come up, but this time we're gonna talk about early surgery, and I mean very early surgery. We're going to talk about em was purvey, who has been called everything from the gentle surgeon to the father of modern surgery, and he really really did advance the field of medicine significantly during his fifty plus years in practice, and just for a level set see you get a sense of how ahead of of other things we ve talked about. He is what, We recently talked about Jean Baptiste d me and our two partner about the development of blood transfusions. Those events took place more than a hundred years after what we're talking about today and when we talked about, for example,
scottish surgeon, Robert List in who was famed for his speedy amputations. That was three hundred years after pathway, and so first, though, to set the stage we have to a little bit about barber surgeons and some of the other stuff it was going on in Europe regarding this trade leading up to the sixteenth century, which is when pathway was doing his work
then we will give him. The end was pathways story now when you set me when I ask what you are working on this week and you told me, I googled it and saw the word surgeon and then sought a year in kind of woe. We ve talked about them very early, surgical history before, but that was this was when the jumped out at me. So yes glad he picked it up. So before we get into parties story. As highly just said, we need to have a little overview of barber surgeons and where they were out when he was working in this field. We have mentioned barber surgeons before I don't think we ve really talked about the origins of barber surgeons and how exactly we got to a point that you would hire the same person
to save your face, as you wish to extract a tooth or amputate a limb wide range of job responsibilities. It seems like such a strange grouping today, but for a long time was totally normal yet, and we know that specialists in grooming go all the way back to ancient Egypt, but there is a question of like: when did the cosmetic occupation take on all of these other duties. So the answer to that lies in the hippocratic oath. We will read the whole thing. It is quite long. It includes of language about holding your teacher same regard as your parents in administering healthy diets and all kinds of other things, but the section of it that's germane to today's topic is this quote: I will not use the knife not even on sufferers from stone, but will with nah in favour of such men as are engaged in this work. So we should note
things here, because you also may have heard or read a different version of the hippocratic oath first, the oath was originally written in Greek, so obviously there translation. Secondly, there is a modern version that is quite different. Any you may have heard that one that one was not written until nineteen sixty four so long long after and was Pepys time, it was written by Tufts University, academic dean of the School of medicine. We lesson yeah. That phrase, though about not using the knife on patients, meant that if somebody did need surgery, there have to be a different profession who could handle it. Positions can take care of their patients in every way that didn't require surgery. But then, if things reached a point where a knife was involved, then the patient needed to be handed off to some one else, so a surgeon or very often a arbour surgeon so from their beginnings, which had the religious significance of being in charge of things like torturing, clergy, barbers,
more time adopted additional duties as standard for the barber trade needs like bleeding or The extraction were handled by barbers for this. The reason that in one thousand one hundred and sixty three monks who up to that point had been providing services like bloodletting were then forbidden to do so by a papal decree issued by Pope Alexander, the third. So at this point a pocket easier said: the physicians can't do it, and the people decree said that None of the monks could do anything like this, so additionally actual trained surgeons were pretty thin on the ground. Scupper. The role of the barber continued to, span to include more and more complex procedures. Until barber, Sir
It emerged as a career that, basically, basically somebody in Europe's got to do it. That's where we landed and London, the worshipful company of barbers, which was founded in the early one thousand three hundred and still exists, was a guild for the barber profession and it's supported this expanding role. But there were also surgeons who were just surgeons. They had made their careers specializing in that field, so naturally, this led to some tension. Barber surgeons felt that they were filling a really vital need for their clientele and they were but certain spelt. The barber surgeons were beneath them and they didn't have the same skill level because they hadn't learned Latin or gone to university and that these combination shops that handled the tasks of multiple professions, should really just be relegated to the country where professional than general were a lot more sparse, but most surgeons worm
by royal or high ranking households exclusively. So even in the city, there was still a lot of me for somebody who could do all the stuff to compound matters. A lot of doctors thought that some of the tasks that a barber surgeon could perform like bloodletting was really beneath them. In a nineteen sixty two paper, our S Roberts wrote quote. Despite the pretensions of the physicians, it was impossible to keep medicine surgery and pharmacy as separate activities in a more general former practice combined. All that was necessary did develop in London just as quickly as the provinces. There was so much strife in London over all of this that Henry the eighth surgeon Thomas Line Acre used his influence with the king to ask that some sort of supervisory guidelines be put in place for surgeons, similar requests
trumedical regulation came from other scholars who had the king's ear and for just about the entirety of Henry the eighth strain. There was this sort of constant effort and struggle to get London on par with other cities in terms of medical licensing and education. In one thousand, five hundred and forty, the company of barber surgeons was formed and that combines the two professions. Although surgeons and barber surgeons were still separate things, but under this larger group of medical care was regulated in France, the two had joined under one guild. Eighty years earlier, and one thousand three hundred and eighty three during the reign of Charles, the sixth, the France, the king's first barber and valet, was made head of that guild. But then Paris had its own complexities than conflicts in the medical field. Barber surgeons were sometimes called doctors of the short robe
doctors of the long robe being used, see refer to members of the conference. Unity of thank calming these were theoretically surgeons. Are there they often had thought of a snooty attitude seems about performing surgery themselves. These doctors of the long robe had a lot of friction with the university train physicians and with the barber surgeons spade Paris a very contentious place to practice. Medicine at all, it's so suit, and all of the posturing that goes on in the hierarchy of these medical fields is very fascinating. To me. There was reform to this very problematic system. Just before and was pathway was born the faculty. The midsummer decided on a course of action, Try to alleviate the attention by making barber surgeon a legitimate, licensed title that made the barber surgeons could attend classes at the university and they had to take two exams after completing their training, in order to be licensed
as part of this reformation. The existing surgeons could move up in title to doctors, region at the faculty, so this ended up consult dating these three factions into two and an elevated, both bar surgeons and surgeons, and while this did not by any means eliminate all of these problems and posturing, it definitely did improve things and employs pie was working in the medical field right in the middle of this unique and sometimes tenth culture. You'll talk about his life in career in just a moment, but first we will pause for a quick spots array Your time for real summer thought is here, so did the boredom and hit up your local many dealer because the many summer of driving ban is happening now get a new many, super hard job to do are, starting to twenty nine per month or thirty. Six month, low mileage lease with two thousand nine hundred. Ninety nine. Do it signing this
many USA, dot com, slash east for details that many USA, dot com, slash, ease and see what it's like to drive something this fine at this summer of driving. With many does her, I think maybe ask a simple question meetings in the land. Nice ask everyone. You know what matters to them must be clear. It is about fraud, work the angles tonight here and MSNBC with special coming in question authority. What specifically, are you going to do If on the answer was just not true fever facts over conspiracy. What should american citizens no interest standards over hearsay? at MSNBC. This is what we do, and this is what we are applause, They was born in one thousand five hundred and nine or one thousand five hundred and ten in Bulgaria song in western France and his patent medicine was actually
fairly early on both he and his brother were set on educational tracks to become surgeons by their father, who was not in the medical field, but did well for himself as a master carpenter. One of the key of education that a third and needed was latin and a working knowledge of Latin was considered vital for that career, but am was never quite mastered it. That was even though he had been sent to a boarding school that was run by a chaplain who could focus on that language, and there was a lot of very dedicated educational effort. Getting them to learn Latin, but that was just not happening when he was in his early twenties pay travelled to Paris to pursue position as an apprentice. Despite his latin still lacking, he did get an apprenticeship with a master barber surgeon. So bad at that point was the only possible path, because that latin requirement was not quite as vital for a barber
Jim. He didn't really get a lot of time with the surgeon part of the job, though he mostly tidying up in a shop by sweeping hair and he was occasionally allowed to give beard trims. This was not, we should say, because, as MR was particularly cruel, the shop just had to be maintained during business hours. So most apprentices faced Similarly, challenging schedules through just wasn't really away to attend medical lectures because of this, unless they were lectures at work. Been unusually early in the morning or late in the evening, so study of surgery, side of the job was usually done veal late. My reading, although there were so
procedures like leaching that were taught their hands on in the shop pay accepted the sometimes ruling schedule and he applied himself to get to his goal of being accredited as a barber surgeon, but the diploma from the master barber was really just the first step. The next phase of his education was pretty similar to the way a modern medical doctor goes through a residency training period. For our part, this meant a surgeon train position at hotel due to Perry, starting in one thousand five hundred and thirty. Two as an aside the hook, as you may one day, be soon episode. It is the oldest operating hospital in the world. It still operates and it has its roots reaching back at least one thousand one hundred years, but for the purposes of
was police story the key here? Is it the hotel? Julia had started as a home for the poor of Paris that eventually added medical care for the residents to its mission, and it had actually become essentially a teaching hospital by pathways time. There were those sort of a weird set up for surgical training, because the hospital was run by the church and the church looked upon. Cutting a human body as anathema has meant that any kind of actual surgery that am was party was able to reform had to beyond deceased patients. The hospital was packed, though it was often really overcrowded, with patients having to share bed, so he had plenty to do over the course of four years he provided.
Care to thousands of residence, including through a cholera outbreak, and he studied surgery in books and by doing autopsies, but even though he had done all this hands on training and work to qualify for a surgical licence stories. Go that this lack of latin continued to hold him back. He was not able to obtain a licence, but really most accounts indicate that it one so much the latin issue. It was that he was too poor to take the required certification. Exam yeah, the Latin hold back is like a nice story, but it really seems more to have been a financial issue regardless, though, of which Those factors was the one holding him back. He ended up on another path, and that was one that would enable him to practice medicine, even if he did not have a license, and that was as a member of the french military Power hay was able to get position as the surgeon attending the general marshalled, the machine and the impact this had on the way, pathway, practice, medicine and consequently, a lot of other people
kind of reminds me a little bit of the episode. We did about fame chef, a goose to Schofield, because if you heard that one and recall it s coffee, I had learned improvise, really impressive meals for the troops that he cooked for with minimal supplies during his time in the military, and I'm was purvey in kind of a similar move. Improvised treatment of wounds when his medical supplies ran low pay higher described a key moment military career during the fifteen. Thirty seven siege of Turin when he ran out of the room, well that they normally boiled to cauterize amputation and gunshot wounds, so the treatment that he had always spent was often really damaging and risky to the soldiers So it is very easy to the modern air to immediately here that whole boiling oil thing Maguire, Allworthy thinking there so foolish, keep in mind that this is really still. The early in the use of gunpowder artillery in war. There are references
two artillery on battlefields as early as the MID fourteenth century, but in the years between then and when pay was deployed, the use of such weapons had grown pretty slowly, and the italian wars which proclaims found himself, part of as France and Spain battled over Control of italian territories were marked by a significant uptake the amount and variety of firearms used, and there was still
commonly held belief that there was poison in gunpowder, so the oil was thought to somehow counter that pray listed. The weapons of war in his Writing- ass quote: all sorts of mines, counter mines, pots of fire trains, fiery, arrows, lances, crossbows, barrels, balls of fire and all such fiery engines and inventions. They are certainly a most miserable and pernicious kind of invention, by which we often see a thousand unsuspecting men. Blown up with a mind by the force of gunpowder for these modern inventions are such as easily exceed all the best appointed and cruel engines which can be mentioned or thought upon in this. Cruelty and appearance of their operations yeah. As many physicians, he had very strong opinions about firearms, but his improvisation in this moment and its results, chow
the way he looked at medicine forever and he wrote about it. This is translated. Obviously, at last my oil ran short and I was forced, instead thereof, to apply a digestive made of the yolks of eggs oil of roses in turpentine. In the night. I could not sleep in quiet, fearing some default in not cauterizing that I should find the sound to whom I had not used the said oil dead from the Ways of their wounds, which made me is very early to visit them. Where, beyond my expectation, I found that those to whom I have why? My digestive Medica meant had but little pain in their work. Without inflammation or swelling having rested fairly well that night, the other those to whom the boiling oil was used. I found feverish with great pain and swelling about the edges of their wounds.
Then I resolved never more to burn the screw Lee poor men with gunshot wounds. To be clear. This was hugely risky. If these soldiers had died because of Paris is experimental treatment, not only would he have felt responsible, he also probably would have been kicked out of the military. Additionally, it would have also likely ended any hope he had of being a barber surgeon beyond the battlefield so it's really no surprise that you couldn't sleep and this discovery that an alternate approach to treating wounds, one that did not involve pouring boiling oil. On already suffering, patience was successful, gave a new degree of confidence. He started to extol the virtues of observing patience and treating base. An assessment of the individual, rather than only going by what appeared in books as the prescribed method for a particular type of injury. Also decided from that moment that
only use treatments that he truly believed to be useful. So in a way he, making a conscious decision to trust his instincts, because he had always suspected that scalding oil was not the best idea, but now he had experienced proof that another approach created a far better outcome up to the time that he became a military medic Korea's knowledge about surgery was like most medical professionals of the time based on the writings Galen Galen, moved medical practice forward in a lot of ways. He clarified understanding of anatomy, particularly the circulatory system and the workings of respiration, and he also did a of surgeries. He cared for gladiators and accompanied Marcus Aurelius into battle to care for the troops, so we have plenty of
injuries to treat and to learn from, but Galen lived in. The first century sail out of his ideas were out dated by the time Perry was working, even though he was still a really key part of standard medical education. His writing, for example, was based on the idea of bodily humours that hypocrisy is had developed. Most of the early sixteenth century medical profession still had an almost dogmatic devotion to following gale in writing. The letter, even though Galen himself wrote about the importance of personal observation per high, continued to elevate the care of wounded soldiers as a field medic and surgeon over the course of several military tours and that dedication paid off although he was encouraged to stay in the military because of his usefulness in one thousand five hundred and forty one he returned to Paris and he was able to take the necessary examinations that he needed and he was given the title of master barber
Jim. He also got married after he went home to Paris and he basically set himself up with a house in a shop in what is modern day, plus two Michel puree went back to the military and fifteen forty two when he was selected by the grand Lord of Brittany to be his surgeon on campaigns. It was during this phase of military touring that party developed a new technique for dislodging bullets from wounds by having the wounded person placed their body in the position they had been in when they were shot so that he can more easily track. The bullets trajectory seems like such a cool, an interesting thing rather than people digging around and wounds going. How exactly where you stand, I see it entered here. It probably went here it seems so obvious and yet was not standard at all. In one of the reasons that we know about amboise pervades experiences and his refinement of surgical techniques is because he wrote,
numerous books on those subjects and we're gonna talk about the beginning of his work. As an author. After we hear from some of the sponsors that keeps EF, he missed in history class going this episode has brought you buy it. Finally, if you can remember back to the before times when we went to things like conventions, you probably can recall how people would clamour for their free gift bags at like good panels are like the handouts on the show floor, everybody loves free stuff, that's not a secret, but extremity flags is a freezing.
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because the many summer of DR then is happening now get a new man. Super hard job to do, are starting to twenty nine per month or thirty six month low mileage lease with two thousand nine hundred. Ninety nine do its signing this. Many USA. Dot com, slash eastward details that many USA, dot com, slash ease and see what it's like to drive something this fine at this summer of driving event with many after she returned to Paris again and on the advice of one of the physicians at the faculty. Amidst amboise started writing about his work, and this is where not having learned Latin actually helped make him even more well known, he wrote in French. That was unusual for medical tax and, as a consequence, it made them accessible to a far wider audience
whereas the use of Latin in the medical field had always been a separate or between the well educated and the masses parties work disregard Did that divide and to some degree democratized medical knowledge, barber, sir? sims were no longer left out of the conversation, they were reading the exact same text as master surgeons when it came to pass eyes work. The use of France for his writing also meant the translations of his works when it's a circulate really quickly. Soon there were printings the parties writings and english, german and dutch, and they spread quickly you throughout all of Europe and because of this, his ideas created a true watershed moment and medical history, where practitioner restarted, reexamining some pretty long held truths, his first Book was published in fifteen forty five and it was tabled the method of treating wounds made by arc buses and other firearms darts, and such also combustion made especially by cannon powder. So, just as a quick
side an arc. Bus was along gun sort of a precursor to the musket and a preface to that book. Really evidences parties, religious devotion, it is dedicated, quote two young surgeons of will and after a few opening lines about how he was asked to share his knowledge of treating wounds. It reads quote now: presuming in my present capacity being able to teach you for which more instruction would be necessary but decided your desire in part and also stimulate some higher spirit by writing in this way. So we can all give it greater attention. Now I Ask you humbly to take this little book kindly, If I know you are agreeable, will cause me to do something more, such as my small mind can undertake for such I pray the key later, brothers and friends to happily support our work by his grace, always increasing our good affection so that something, fruitful and useful can come of it too.
Support of the infirmity of human life into the honour of the one in whom are hidden all the time. Of science, who is the eternal God. This religious reference is also reflected in a phrase that often associated with pay, which is Japan's. I do they get three which is banned TIM God cured him passe with a lot of course study in his early years. You'll remember he did a lot of book learning combined with his situational sperience on the battlefield wrote about the various changes to treatments that he had developed while in military service, and this, of course included opinion that hot oil led to pain that could be avoided and amputation situations and that the oil could actually do.
Image the tissue and slow healing, he continually work to be objective about reconsidering old methods of doing things as compared to his new ideas. He never presumed that his way was better and he always offered reasoned explanations in situations where he felt that surgeons should perhaps uptake their practice to include new techniques in all of his writings. There really pervasive aspect of it is it he speaks of compassion and kindness and, Hammering that saving lives is worth the effort, isn't necessarily no medical texts at this time. So it was very unusual and all of this led to his nickname in history as the gentle surgeon in one thousand five hundred and fifty he published his second book, which was brief collection for the conduct of anatomy, and once that was out, he started editing and updating his first book for released as a second edition right after that second edition project, he was once again attending two soldiers on the battlefield with the medics under the counter.
And poverty is said to have gone to great efforts to save a soldier who everyone believed was going to die. They had actually already dug a gray for him and that his dedication to saving even the lowest ranking of the troops gained him great admiration and loyalty among the men very much deployment pie. I started to use ligatures to tie vessels during amputations, abandoning the use of hot iron conversation when the city of myths was overwhelmed by the forces of Emperor Charles, the fifth and last pray with snuck past the occupation forces so that he can treat trapped soldiers there because of this and his extraordinary service throughout have military assignments. King Henry, the second of France, appointed him to be the king surgeons, this honour came with some strings, though, because after the battles in low hen path, I had written home to his practice in Paris in fifteen. Fifty three
only to have the king ordered him almost immediately to another battlefield in Asia, where the situation was quite dire and Power Heyward Day and night to try to treat the overwhelming number of wounded, things grow even more precarious when pathway was taken prisoner along with the rest of the french garrison, he disguised himself at this point as a low ranking soldiers that his identity would not be revealed at this point, remember his stuff had started to be translated and spread throughout Europe, so people knew who he was, and he knew that like back and potentially endanger him or cause his captors to ask for a very high ransom, but he didn't continue to treat people medically during this I'm an we actually managed to secure his freedom by treating enemy officer. I believe it was for an ulcer on his leg and he returned to King Henry II and gave his report before once again, at least attempting to return to his civilian life and one thousand five hundred and fifty four his career sick. Another step forward. He was granted the
of master surgeon in part, because the surgeons of the city knew it would make them look good. He became the surgeon attending King Francis, the second yeah. This is actually pretty pivotal, where somebody who came up as a barber surgeon. Suddenly, all of the the snooty year levels of the medical establishment were No, no, no you're, one of us you're famous and stuff he was sent on to more military campaigns at sank, went down and their land and when Charles the ninth became king of France, Parfait was once again in that monarch service
as the french wars of religion began. They dominated pathways professional life, just as other conflicts had because he was ordered to treat soldiers at the request of the crown, although he was sent away from Paris less and less often likely, because at this point he was getting a bit older pair. I continued to write and and fifteen sixty four. He released a highly illustrated project titled ten books of surgery with the magazine of the instruments necessary for it. He also developed a specialised clamp called a backed acrobat, which is a crows beak, and that would help hold a vessel closed to keep patients from bleeding out there with you in cases where a wound had severed the vessel and the surgeon could quickly stem the bleeding with the clamp to improve survival rates? He also invented a number of other clamps was similarly charming names. The Beck did clue in English as the cranes, beak,
and another call the ducks beak. That's objective can we're both developed for bullet extraction. These were long and thin ass, though they could reach deep in the tissue to get to a bullet without having to widen the entry wound too much. That was an ongoing problem. Again, Paradise focus on pay serving the tissue and treating the patient as gently as possible is driving his innovation, Samson handling of patients and their tissue was just a really important part of parties writing and work. It was accepted and also expected that patients would have credible pain during surgery. If you recall our episode on scottish surgeon, Robert listed, which was in the eighteen hundreds you baby, number that he became famous for his speed at surgical procedures and was deemed to be a show boat or because of it. But his real goal with that was to keep the patient's pain as brief, as
possible similarly unwise pray several centuries before. That was also trying to be as brief as possible with the scalpel and to be as gentle as you possibly could, and the hopes of minimizing so bring long before it was customary and was pathway, was encouraging the medical profession to embrace The idea of pain management for patients, as well as more comprehensive, follow up care on the part of the surgeon. So he, like a lot of people, dispensed opium for post op recovery. Although this wasn't just like a a blanket thing to knock people out, he was trying to really like carefully determine how much they needed to help them with their pain and
when surgeons, typically kind of performed a procedure and then left any after care to physicians and nurses. He believed in remaining part of the recovery team for the patient. After that surgery was completed when Charles the ninth died in fifteen. Seventy four puree remains the kings. Certain under the new regent was Charles Brother Henry, the third. He was also elevated to the position of valid. A sombre party serves Henry the third until the kings, assassination and fifteen. Eighty nine in fifteen. Seventy five pie published
is complete works of employers, Purvey counselor and premier surgeon of the king. This volume gathered together all of his writings on surgery and medicine into one, and it was edited and revise, is needed, and it was so popular that it had multiple addition runs over the course of the following century. In sixteen thirty four, it was translated into English for publication in London in fifteen. Eighty five has last book apology and treat us was released and thus became the most famous work. It was part medical discussion part autobiography. It covered his medical career during the fifty years from fifteen thirty five until its publication at its heart. It was a drama because it was a response to criticism from his contemporary Etienne Gorman ass. He was dean of the faculty of medicine gourmands own writing on surgery had never been as popular as parties, and it definitely
to some tension and fifty eighty one normal and wrote a book about thirty techniques in which he criticised praise amputation, ligatures yeah. I think it probably ground his gears a little bit that he was a more of a trained and educated surgeon, and yet no one was listening to him when a bar. Surgeon had gotten famous written books, and everyone wanted to read them. Apology treatise takes on these criticisms of formalised and outlines the many ways in which Pappy shifted thinking in the medical community throughout his career. Basically he's establishing Streak red and then he kind of addresses the actual criticism and the whole thing is all written with the usual careful analysis and logic that he became famous for including detailed case histories that supported his work. In this whole, There was a huge humiliation for Guatemala, like formalised, should have been a jerk Ben,
He allegedly wrote a response to it that was written anonymously and it's kind of this leg. Weak Well, you don't know kind of paper that he I care of earth. It was written anonymously or if he had one of his students, publish it under their name, but formalin did not really get over it, but he was ashamed. That, sadly, brings us to the end of and was praised life. He died at home and bed on December twentieth, one thousand eight hundred and ninety at the age of eighty. I literally had this moment where I was doing the math on the length of his career, and I said what he could have been practicing with fifty years. Yes, fifty years at a time when I I wonder how many people even had any career four hundred and fifty years, particularly one that changed the way that people practice
this in him, but he undoubtedly I mean he saved a lot of lives directly himself, but there's no real way to measure how many lives were made better or saved, because other doctors were like the usefulness of the evening was pathway. Thank you for suggesting being gentle nice to have the listener rail to take us out. I do I have a couple of of males about our Sonora Webster carbon purposes. One is from Stephanie rates. Hague owls. I saw the movie and fifth grade history glass and had no idea what it was called. It was starting to feel like I had dreamed it up. I was enjoying the pie,
just like all others, and then you got to the part where she went blind, and I thought oh wait. It's that movie. I done waited excitedly for you to get to that part, and I'm glad you guys cover this topic. So I don't have to keep wondering about that vague memory of a film I saw back in the early 90s. Thank you for the last ten fifteen years of US podcast I go back to when it was a five minute format where it was posted, a question which was always funny since the answer was always in the title, that is from Stephanie, she sent a picture of two kiddies. They are too gorgeous orange boys named Bunsen beaker and they are super beautiful and I hope that they, like most orange kiddies, are very snugly. They look it there, definitely very ugly with each other. In this they're so cute I wanna get, I also want to delete another Sonora Webster Carver email from our listener, Rebecca who writes. I discovered your podcast about
years ago when I was attending grad school for Theatre in London and I've enjoyed every episode. Since that sounds like a fabulous story in and of itself, I wanna get that whole backstory she writes. I was so excited to see your episode of Sonora Webster Carver in my feed, I'm from a town right outside of ITALY. City and my family has been tied to the city for four generations. My mom's China Cabinet is dedicated to pieces. Her grandparents stole from some of the hotels they worked in from the ninety twenties and thirties, and she was one of the original showgirls at resorts, which was the casino to open, but I am most proud of my family history with inequality, is that my grandmother was the first female bank teller in the city. I remember hearing story from my grandmother about seeing Sonora and the diving horses when she was a little girl. The idea of it always freaked me out, but it was great, actually learning about Sonora life. I was
little girl when they wanted to bring the diving horses or donkeys back- and I remember the controversy around it. It Linux City has such a fascinating and rich history, and I cannot thank you enough for this episode. It is always nice to hear a pod cast. It connects me to Home so fine what a fabulous family history Rebecca. I hope you write a story about all of this, because it sounds great and thank you so much for writing in. If you would like to write to us, you can do so at this report, gas to her radio dot com. You can also find us anywhere on social media as missed in history, and if you have not yet subscribed, we think you show. That would be great and you can do that on the whole, you asked Apple pie CAS or wherever it is. You listen stuff. You missed in history class the production of a heart radio, for more plant gaps for by her
radio busy by her radio have added my cans or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. I guys it's Katy Eric and I'm back and What a year at span copied mind Doom Christ's twenty point: five million Americans are out of work, male belts, a very dangerous thing for this stand back and stand by. Nothing is normal, anymore alike, Calm down these past twelve months- and I took a few podcast detours to help us make sense of it all. But now you know what I want to get back to where this I started my next question next question. I next question, though: here's my next question next question me: baby glory is back with its third season and I am ready to talk to the people who impress me to move me even make me. Laugh
would it be nice to laugh I'll, be sitting down virtually, of course, with experts, authors, actors, activists and created subscribe and listen on the Iheart Radio, app apple podcast or wherever you listened to your favorite, shows. This is our Brian's and I'm Robin Dixon and where the house of reasonably shady on the black affect pack has network, you might know us from Bravoes the real. How wives, the Potomac every week we're gonna be talking about so many reasonable and shady thing In advance, what is going on in our life, you don't want to miss it, we're so reasonable, where's, the shady and you're gonna love it nobly shady Davies. May twenty four bind us on the eye hard radio at Apple pie, CAS or wherever you listen to your favorite shows.
Transcript generated on 2021-05-22.