Australian Kellerman gets a lot of the credit for developing the women's one-piece bathing suit. But she was also a competitive swimmer, as well as a vaudeville and film star who designed her own mermaid costumes.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This episode of stuff you missed in history class, has brought you buy Creighton Barrel, and this is in great barrel. Wants you to play matchmaker a little bit now with your friends vote with your gives, a kind of with your gifts to your friends. Good design becomes really really great when it lands in the hands of the exactly correct person. So there are some beautiful platters that are designed for that friend who hosts the best parties, and if you have someone who is maybe your special dinner date, you can get them a beautiful special set of spoons if you're looking for the perfect, give look no further it's about more than just giving the seas and make a match these sore design. With you in yours in mind, Creighton Barrel work until stuff, you missed in history class from how stuff works, tat come and welcomes the bypass, I'm crazy. They will probably find
coming at least in theory. Sure who I think has definitely arrives where you are I mean I guess, technically it still cooler than it usually would be this time of year. Yeah, it is not warm at all. It's fifty seven degrees right now, we're recordings on May Thirtieth I think our high today might be eighty, which sounds hot to some people, but for it lemme at the end of May. That's really not yeah yeah, it's it's better! We ve got an unseasonably cool, may appear in and in New England anyway, bow at least and berries Murray either on the way or here or most, but not all of our listeners, though it seemed like a good time to talk about. swimming we. Yes, specifically, we are talking about a net Kellerman who gets a lot of it for developing the woman's one piece bathing suit and then for making its social
appropriate for women in a lot of the english speaking world, to put out an outfit that you could actually swim in without drowning and then go out in public that way, perhaps kind of. Ironically, she was Austria, and where it is definitely not coming through Australia, but we have some Australian story today that is physically incongruous Where do you actually live here? Unless you happen to be somebody who's downloading? It lately game, in which case you're, sorry for you as well. Kellerman was born in the suburbs of Sydney, Australia, shoes, coy about her birthday in its variously cited as July, fifth or sixth of eighteen, eighty six in eighty seven or eighteen. Eighty eight, the sixth, is the most frequently cited date. Her father Frederick, was a violinist board in Australia and her mother. Alice was a pianist and music John, who was originally from France when she was young,
and it had to wear braces on her legs because of persistent weakness only where these braces painful to wear, but we also found them embarrassing. The cause is unclear a few source the site, rickets or polio at a later on in her life. She speculated that he might have been a calcium deficiency her, according to her own account. Actual doctors at the time said that it was because he had been allowed to learn to walk to early or that she had chalk and her bones. Neither Those are real thing would have caused me leg braces so thoroughly unclear, but the braces were a real part of her life as it should get when you got a cartoon there's, like chalk in your bones, sounds like such a cartoon. Diagnose while but an chalk bones is a nickname or like wine, the outcomes, animal bone condition, but it has nothing to do with what she was experiencing. A totally different set of symptoms
very weird, whatever the cause of her disability. Eventually, her father visited a doctor who recommended swimming lessons in it. that was really terrified of this plan, possibly because it meant exposing her legs to people which she did not to do because they were visibly undeveloped and she begged have to go, but her parents and the doktor were all certain that swimming would really help. So she and her brothers were taken to Frederick Camel's back, so they could learn to swim in. The capitals were actually whole family of swimmers there in the International Swimming Hall of Fame for their combined contributions to the sport. It click that a lot longer to get the hang of swimming than it took her brothers. They were both able swim on their own after a handful of lesson, but it took a net closed at twenty, but what she knew, how to do it. predicted. It really did help her build her sprang up and her legs and with the water supporting her could move around without having to wear the braces
would later describe her gradual improvement through swimming as a process of intense joy. By the time she reached, the Thirteen her muscle development was more or less typical for a child. Her age, although she was susceptible to muzzle, brains and had to wear very tightly least boots until she was eighteen out of a swimming strikes that are recognised, mused compare leader day were still new or in the process of being developed and refine. So what a net learned at first was basically the breast stroke, but now is the stroke the she used, mostly when she was exercising at first at about the age if teams who started branching out into learning other strokes, putting dedicated effort into practicing MA am and getting better at them, and soon she told her parents that she wanted to start competing in swimming her first Swimming race, the local event and she wanted a nets. There have been incredulous when she said she wanted to enter a swimming race. He had thought of swimming
something she was doing because of her disability, not as something she would seriously pursue for her own sake, but what she had First, women under her bell. He was instrumental in her progress as a competitive. Swimmer essentially coming, both her trainer and her coach. As soon as you started seriously computer, and that started winning races and setting records in nineteen o two at the age of about sixteen We want a one hundred yards championship for New South Wales and also that a world record for swimming a mile with a time of thirty two minutes and twenty nine seconds that same year she started participating in long distance, swimming races and public diving demonstrations her time. The water wasn't only about competition, though she started doing made shows in australian aquariums, along with other aquatic performances, while she was still in her teens
although she was willing races and making a name for herself as a competitive swimmer. She wasn't really able to earn an income from doing so. So and her father move to England with the hope of finding more lucrative opportunities to compete and perform once they are. In England, they had a really hard time getting started, although it already held, multiple records and swimming. They didn't know anyone and Annette Have a local reputation to try to build on, though her father had a plan to drum up some publicity, she would to swim twenty six miles, which was forty two kilometers down the Thames from Putney the black wall in nineteen o five, a man at about eight teen, became the first woman to make this swim, although it did indeed bring in a lot of media attention, the swim itself was terrible. The Thames was filthy and later said she felt, like she'd, swallowed big mouthfuls of oil from the surface of the river. She does
Dodge a lot of flotsam garbage, tugboats and barges along the way, but afterward a sports editor from the daily mirror approached her with another idea daily mirror was the first paper in the. U K these photographs rather than illustrations, an editor thought that are hold on a net complete with photographs of her in the scandalous swimwear that we're going to talk about a little bit more later. I think that that would fill a lot of papers, so he offered to back her in attempts in an attempt to swim across the english channel, along with paying for and writing about swims along the coast to train for it. This entire enterprise was wildly successful in almost every way and that's true. Swims down the coast through huge crowds and the articles in their corresponding photos sold lots of papers. She swam an average of four five miles or seventy two kilometers per week, increasing the distance of each swim.
Till she done the twenty four miles stretch from Dover to Ramsgate. At that point, She thought she was ready to try to conquer the channel, although that's a slightly shorter distance than her swim down the Thames Swimming in the channel is far more difficult due to the very cold water, the waves and the tides she made her first attempts to swim across the English Channel, along with six men on August, twenty. Fourth, nineteen o five. They all started their swim, about three in the morning, all from different points along the coast based on where they thought the currents and the tides would be the most advantageous. Each swimmer was accompanied by us target a rowboat in case they fell into some distress along the way and then periodically hot chocolate or food could be handed down to the swimmers from these boats to keep their energy up. an advertiser had given a net chocolate to eat along the way, but the combination of chocolate and the choppy water really made her seasick the further she
the bigger her payday would be those says she kept herself going through that seasickness by thinking the longer you stay, The more you get she stuck out for about six, hours and she was paid thirty pounds. This was the first of Kellerman three attempts to swim swim, the english channel and, as with her swam down the Thames, she was the first woman to make the attempt the closest she came in these three attempts to actually crossing was about three quarters of the way which took tenants hours later killer. When would say she thought she had the endurance to swim, the channel, but not the raw strength in her one thousand nine hundred and eighteen book how to swim. She wrote that she didn't think a woman would ever successfully swim the english channel. She was proven, in nineteen twenty six, when Gertrude Elderly crossed in fourteen hours. Thirty, nine minutes not only see
the channel, but beating the previous record time by more than two hours today. There are lots of women swam across the english channel, including swimming at three, second of times like swimming across one way and then going back and then going back cross again, which is astounding to me. So then Kellerman First attempt to swim across the english channel them you'll swimmers who were swimming, that night were allowed to be nude, but she had to wear a swimsuit that chafed her skin. Terribly, and this brings us to her efforts to make suitable swimwear for women, which we will talk about more after a sponsor break as a child the first words out of your mouth were you're, not the boss of me Bosman are the only moves you make an you, never have to worry about the boss, approving a vacation since wave. What's a vacation, you're, a small business owner born to be your own boss and Amex can help with finance
options for eligible business customers. So you can keep doing what you were made to do the power a king of American, Express, don't do business without it terms, apply, learn more american, Express Dotcom, slash business then slimmed down the teams and the attempt stick the english channel were not and that Kellerman only long distance races in the nineteen hundreds before leaving Austin yes, she had taken multiple long distance, swims down the you're a river, including becoming the first woman to complete a ten mile stretch and nineteen o five. She participated in a race down the thin where she tied for third with wood with Thomas, William Burgess and her account of this race and how to swim. She wrote that well meaning spare haters kept calling out that she was almost there and had just two bridges more and when she realized she was not
almost there. She became just really discouraged because she had worn herself out doing what she thought was her final pushed to the finish line, so in bird has caught up to her and thought she was crying and a very lovely selves, behaviour. He stayed with her and encourage her for the rest of the race, and that is how they came to tie and soon of nineteen o six color. Also one a twenty two mile or thirty, six kilometer race down the Danube Think anyone also who has ever run a race knows the the ear of please don't tell me you're almost there when you're not going anywhere but unclear to me whether these were the people in the guide boat or the people who were the spectators who were Salem. Read it like see: Big Bang Gotter a couple times and then alike, time number three: then being like others. There's you like it or not. We re in its almost always well intentioned lake. You let this be a note.
If you're ever speculating in sporting event, please don't filled to the participant because it does more to harm their head gave little than yeah. Most of these events, Kellerman was one a very few women and sometimes she was the only woman and she typically, we on wearing a swimsuit. There was actually made for men, so this is not unheard in Australia at this point. Swimming was already a more established sport in Australia, then it was in the United Kingdom or the United States, but it was astonishing in a lot of the rest of the English speaking world well water was for thing not for swimming bathing meant getting into the water a little way, and you might waiter play or maybe float a little out there, but you didn't really swim and a lot of people didn't even know how to swim The idea of man made swimming pool was also still quite recent. At this point,
more established sport in Australia than it was in the United Kingdom or the United States, but it was done There was a thing that happened at a beach whether it was like a lakeside beach or a sea shore of each It did not really happen in a pool and if you wanted to swim. If you are a woman around the turn of the twentieth century, your bathing entire was not something you can actually swim in the state Bathing costume for women was essentially a dress with a link that ranged within it of inches above or below the knee and had a blouse top and puffy. Usually source leaves sometimes with the sailors collar. It was since belted or bathing at the waist and worn with stockings and bathing slippers, or bathing boots that went all the way up: the calves
Even if you wanted to swim, if you are a woman around the turn of the twentieth century, your bathing entire was not something you can actually swim in the standard. Bathing costume for women was essentially a dress, with a link that ranged within a couple of inches above or below the knee and had a blouse top and puffy, usually shore sleeves, sometimes with the sailors collar. It was cinched, belted or ribboned at the waist and worn with stockings and bathing slippers, or sometimes even bathing boots. That went all the way up. The calves, where lightweight, suits. Anyone who persuades you to wear the heavy skirting kind is endangering your wife. Just think. bout wearing tights into the water is a horrifying prospect to me. I don't know why I just gonna grosses me out for competitive
swimmers. There was a grudging exception to the standard of dress. They could wear amends bathing sea, which was more like a teacher and shorts sometimes constructed always one piece, but this also started chicken and egg situation. Women weren't supposed to be seen in a tired that they could actually swim, in which case a huge barrier for entry for the sport of swimming and people like well. I guess you can wear amend seat for this race that left the question of. Why all the training you would need to do to be able to compete in the race in the first place was a whole social standard of what was Festival for women's aware that lead Kellerman to invent a new swimsuit in nineteen o five, she was scheduled for a swimming performance at London's bath club and some of Royal family was to be in attendance the man's bathing suit. This
been wearing, was determined to be inappropriate because it was to revealing so Kellerman bought a pair of black stockings, and she saw them to the legs of Herman's bathing suit, creating what was effectively one piece garment that covered her, her shoulders to her feet from their. She began tweaking and refining this original design venture developing a one piece form filling garment without sleeves the links of Eggs varied from full length and stocking like to stopping at the thigh, although this would be considered pretty modest. swimwear. By a lot of today's standards, it was not at all modest by the standards of the day. Like we said before the first break, the very I of a woman in public in such a garment was enough to sell. Newspapers is widely reported in nineteen O. Seven Kellerman was arrested for indecency on river Beach in Massachusetts, while wearing one of these swimsuits. Although there is no arrest and the large books, the story there,
again and again and again during her own lifetime, including, from her own mouth. Think I dont think she made this up, but people have noted that, like the can't find a document that actually details the arrest instead, of heavy resistance to the idea of women being out in public, so relatively unclothed, Kellerman, persisted she wants your own line of women's swimwear, some of which came with a modesty panel, which was a close fitting skirt that went from waste any covering the eyes but bringing along far less fabric and weight than the previous era of swimsuits. She became so closely associated to this type of sir Where that soon people were calling anything that looked like it in a net Kellerman or just a Kellerman, although it wasn't name she trademarked and went to court to defend when she needed to add some beaches. Kellerman type suits were actually banned, as Kellerman became more famous than her swimsuit
came more widely adopted. It gradually became more acceptable for women to be seen in them and for women to participate in the sport of swimming and. pounding merit for swimming in general to be seen as a recreational activity. From of this was of an overall growth and the popularity of swimming, but it wasn't just Happenstance Kellerman was an active advocate for women to learn to swim and for swimming to be seen as an acceptable form of exercise, recreation and competition for women. She wrote quote: I am not trying to shut man out women there is enough water in the world for all of us, but as men can indulge in so many other sports, where women can make a poor showing or cannot compete on. All sides it may well be called the women's sport, but unfortunately, this progress did not apply to all women.
even though Kellerman herself wrote things like quote, there is nothing more democratic than swimming and a clean beautiful, cheap thing we all from cats two kings can enjoy swimming was not actually simple to everyone in the United States, public beaches and as they were built. Public swimming pools were often racially segregated and the indigenous people nation was barred from many public swimming areas in Australia, so I'll Kellerman staunch advocate for making swimming accessible to women. That was, really most applicable to white women. their layer to all of this, a lot of the swimming strokes that she and as filed, and then helps the popularize as an adult were either patterned after or directly taught to white swimmers by indigenous Australians and indigenous people, from elsewhere in the Pacific. So, like a lot of the art and skill of
Fleming drew firm indigenous knowledge, but indigenous people were excluded from a lack of public swimming locations. In addition, the contributing to the popularity and at least for some accessibility of swimming and that Kellerman Fame and skill led to completely different aspect of her career vaudeville, Hollywood, we're gonna talk about bad after we pause for a sponsor break, this episode is brought to you by the all new twenty twenty Ford explorer Tracy. I know that you have been thinking about an interesting thing lately, which is why your pic would be for the greatest exploration vehicle of all time, yeah gotta go with the research vessel petrol that was owned by the late Paul Alan found. So many shipwrecks which our listeners love, that we started to make jokes about it like we were like, and this is a shipwreck that wasn't
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A lot of met. Kellerman Spain has a swimmer came because she was naturally a performer. She was definitely talented. I dont want to overlook bat at all, see legitimately one races and she's that record than she was one of the best swimmers of her era, but a lot of the attention that she, God for their successes, was due to showmanship an openness with her body. That was not really typical. Further time away. Swimmer, was already relatively novel in a lot of places, and a woman swimmer who flaunted social expectations to proudly wary scandalous swimsuit was a real attention, this attention actually led her to a career in vaudeville in nineteen o six having formed at the London Hippodrome and one numerous races in Europe. She sailed for the United States. perform at amusement parks and theatres. Her vaudeville act involved a combination of swimming.
Hi, diving water, stones and mermaid shows, for which they often design bow of her own costumes. She would have surely donate Oliver costumes of memorabilia to the said the opera house. We will put a link in the shown three can go. Look at them, there's a lot. There are lots and lots of pictures of this collection that you can browse through and they are fascinate although water shows already existed in vaudeville, Kellerman added a lot of her own flair and incorporated ballet and other movement in what would become a precursor to synchronize swimming her biggest production. New York Hippodrome included a core of two hundred mermaids all swimming in tandem so tried her hand at other types of performance, including male impersonation and high wire walking by nineteen for team Kellerman had become one of the highest paid performers in vaudeville, also during her time in vaudeville cigar married after proposing to an observer, Louis Sullivan, who was noticed Jimmy in nineteen twelve,
in parallel to her time in vaudeville, Kellerman so became acting in films. Her first films were Assyria. Silent shorts made while she was trying to work out a contract dispute between two different theatre managers later on when other people started to copy her water act and her pay in vaudeville consequently plummeted. She turned to film almost entirely. Caravans, film worlds involved, lots of water and swimming, and sometimes they also played off the fact that the South Pacific was pretty exotic to american audiences, which meant that Kellerman herself was often seen as exotic Well, her first full length movie was Neptune's daughter, which came out in nineteen fourteen who played a mermaid wearing sheer body, suits that match your skin tone in nineteen. Sixteen darting a film called the daughter of the gods, which was a fantasy drama, leave Amicia, who was the daughter in question
film. She had a scene in which she was completely nude. Although part of her body was covered by her hair, it was one of the first fully nude appearances. A major star in a non pornographic moving her final, Venus of the South Seas came out in nineteen twenty four. There are definitely people who call the daughter of the gods. Role like the first new appearance by a woman and film, and that seems a little there. Any the world more caveats. Kellerman, firstly retired from performing in the nineteen thirty. She and her husband moved California, where she opened a health food store, choose apparently a vegetarian. Her whole life by this point, she'd published books on swimming and on fitness and one called physical beauty, and how to keep it
the five it to a modern reader is maybe a little weird. Its final, tiny asleep acknowledges the double standards that women face regarding our bodies and appearances, but at the same time it is a how to me, well for how to have an ideal body, and it clearly spells out that the point in doing so is to keep from losing your figure and consequently, your husband the aids. So in some fields like in some way, she was way. However, and in some ways you see with squarely a product of it. This is is really bad, but here's how to buy it yeah that book also like no. I don't really know what what Kellerman racial views were about like the contributions of India
swimmers swimming in all those sort of supper. She has a couple of lines in this book that, like ye, do you can tell there are some problematic, racial and and racist views and their like at one point. She says it: the only people who need corset, their children and savages and by savages in quotation marks, she means Africans, Lake huh, what I don't wanna gloss over that, but like that, it's a weird intrusion and in book that's definitely about minimum middle class white women. Retaining their figures, which have a phone set of Social Kellerman, also established health spies. She wrote newspaper columns
health and beauty. She stridently advocated for women to be encouraged to be fit and active, and she wrote a children's book called fairy tales of the South Seas, but in a lot of ways she had become famous for her bathing suits and for the body under them in nineteen o, Doktor Dudley sergeant of Harvard had taken the measurements of about one thousand women and compare them to the measurements of the Venus De Milo Kellerman were closest and he dubbed her. The perfect woman which, along with that Revere Beach arrest, became part of her ongoing marketing in the Harvard collections, like a Harvard special collections, are still boxes and boxes of these women's measurement cards that were part of this affair.
Wait baffles me on a number of different above it baffles me that the cards are still in the collection. It baffles me that, like let's measure a thousand women and compare them to a statue was a study in the first place, so her fame for her figure and the clothing being bathing suits on it. Persisted long after the first decade of the nineteen hundred such was really when a net Kellerman had you know, introduced and become famous for this bathing suit in nineteen thirty five and Associated Press. The porter tracked down and got her opinion on some senatorial hubbub and Yonkers New York, that was over women wearing shorts? She recall it had only been a couple of decades. Since that time she was arrested and then said quote, but I've always preached the importance of caring for the female figure of the girls will have to look to their shapes and not to the courts when they appear in suits, but women
Please I have not noticed an associated press had learned from nineteen. Thirty seven red, Kellerman still draws crowd legs of diving Venus Hold, former beauty fell, like people were still. Basically, having about her body dears after she starts. We performing re with it like she was still they go to person to talk to you about scandalous, swimwear. and women's figures Kellerman at her husband returned to Australia a couple of times during the nineteen forties, including during World war, two when she entertain troops in the South, Pacific and nineteen. Fifty two Esther Williams made her in the film million dollar Mermaid Kellerman, with not a fan of the film the called it quote, a silly little yarn and also quote a may, be pamby attempt. She was
frustrated that she was played by an American in this movie and also that the film was more of a swimming spectacular than an actual biography of her of kind of aside news was also not a fan of the bikini after it was introduced, the falling far too revealing and noting almost nobody had the figure to actually where one and her husband moved back to Australia for good in nineteen. Seventy she was conducted the International Swimming Hall of Fame and nineteen. Seventy four and she died on November six. Nineteen, seventy five at the age of roughly eighty seven o sources eighty seven, eighty eight it's a little early eighties relate eighties. Who wants to end with a poem? I do. I'm really excited. We ve got two ends of episodes with horns. Lately this poem ran in the Boston Post on November, seventh of nineteen o, eight, no more. They give
bathing. Girl shall grace the Newport summer. Whirl, a net declared her garments wrong at both ends to extremely long, the Gibson Maybe a peach as she perambulate the beats, but now, if in the swim she'd be, she must, with Sweet Annette agree her heavy skirts. He must replace with filmy Raymond for the race. Thank you. She will consent to dress in such approach to nothingness Fatima Kellerman, sometimes you'll, see her name spelled with two ends instead of one in which was apparently a nod to her german heritage that she used when she published her books, but most sources and as biographies have addressed with one in
Do you have some listener mail with any number of ends in it? I heard a few areas from Shannon. It's called a few rambling thoughts Marguerite. All thoughts of some of them are absurd suggestions. I've been listening to your podcast for a while now first, I am writing to you. They have often wanted to. I absolutely love your podcast and listen to it while I'm driving, while I cleaning, took etc. So, thank you thank you for all the often work you do and for always being conscientious and respectful about whatever subject you cover. I wanted to write for a couple of reasons. First of all, in your most recent podcast, the Ladys I've got one. You mentioned the Eleanor and thorough work, top hat and traditional wealth costume, which to a rigid, aided in the late eight teeth and early nineteenth centuries. Women work up hats below, or a couple of links beetle. Look at. I don't know if this has anything to do their Eleanor and serious decisions to wear top hats. But I think it's definitely worth mentioning. I dont think it was completely unheard of farewell sway.
and even if they were originally irish of this time period to be wearing top hat, which has a couple links, and I read into some other stuff and we will put things into the showed oats with some links for folks to go. Look at it. So, yes, there is a wealth hat, but as part of wealth, national dress, which looks kind of like a top hat acceptance, even tolerable skinnier. It's like a chimney hat, and it seems as though this was really adopted as part of wealth national dress after the deaths of the ladys of the angle of the thing up and so like they may have been wearing these half as part of what was the fashion in are they were living in Wales, but in terms of it being adopted as actual part of wealth, national dress, the hat it self. was a little bit different from what they are wearing engravings, that so them and hats, and then that standard seems to have come into play
right around the time of they died, but then more definitely by the eighteen forties, which would have been a little but after them. So that's definitely worth talking about, because it's it's totally possible that there were people wearing this sort of a local custom, and I am I a conclusion- would be that it's probably simultaneously both local customer non. Also. It was also I'd, like the fashion in France have time to have no hats tat, I think top has her good. All the time I think we should prevent back as fairly standard, be clerical. Fine by me. Perhaps I will start wearing. Why am I will look terribly pretentious, but it will be so fun, but they do it is their wealth had is a slightly different shape from what were you would think,
However, as a top hat, so we will put links the shirt, so people can go check that out for themselves and that, on the rest of the letter, included some episode suggestions. Also. So thank you so much Shannon for writing and with that. If you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast or history pike ass, it has two works: that common rules on Facebook at Facebook, that calm Flash missed history and on twitter I miss than history, our tumblr and our Instagram and our pinterest name. We are missed in history and all of those places even come to our parent companies website which how stuff works that farms look up. Information on anything your heart desires, I'm sure there's lots of things that thereabouts whipping giving Through our website, which is myth in history, dot, com and you'll find a total archive of everything Holly, and I have ever done on a shout and all of the work the past hosts of which there were many you'll, find shouts, probably episodes the highly.
have we learnt together? We will find some other cool stuff there to you, so you can do all that a whole lot more. How that works that com, I've been here. Three dot com for more on this, and thousands of other topics visit has tough work. Stockholm where's your first musical member for sale or the first consequence, Evertsen premiums course love what service croup and those of the kind of questions I like to warn corselets suppression of Supreme is my weekly passed for I m. I t Supreme, sit down nerd out with her favor creators and thinkers and find out what makes them and you'll learn something. That's a really good. Listen the castle of Supreme on the radio at Apple part, gas. Wherever you get your blog,