The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture has come up in a lot of research for the show. Schomburg the man was an Afro-Puerto Rican activist and collector, who historian and journalist Joel Augustus Rogers nicknamed “the Sherlock Holmes of Negro History.”
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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hello and welcome, but about ass, I'm Tracy be well, then I'm how we fly over the last eight years. Working on this show the Schomburgh Centre for real
and black culture in Harlem New York has come up in a lot of my work. Research into the Tulsa massacre reference documents in the Schomburgh collections, research into red summer included one of the centres online exhibitions when I refer
surely to them that reference them interview in the Schomburgh Centres, oral history, tape, collection,
a while back. We interviewed John, be King Jr about the preliminary emancipation proclamation. He took that document on a seven city, tour that started at the Schomburgh centre. So I've personally used the Schomburgh Centres online resources and then the centre is also just all over the footnotes and the papers that I have read for this show. I just put the word schomburgh into the new folder, where I have a ton of stuff save and it was like Bla hears
thirty, five documents that I'll have the word somber again them somewhere. So honestly, I'm really embarrassed that it has taken me this long to wonder way who is schomburgh when that happened thanks to stumbling across the name, Arturo
Alfonso Schomburgh in another context, and then wondering is that the same person that the Schomburgh Centre is named after it was the same person. He was an afro puerto rican activist and collector and
to make an american historian and journalists Joel Augustus, Rogers, nicknamed him, the Sherlock Holmes of Negro History having research too.
Then work. Now I just really annoyed that his name was not immediately familiar to me. The very first time I ever heard of the Schomburgh sent her. He is far less well known, then, a lot of his contemporaries from the Harlem Renaissance.
today. So our gonna try to rectify that little bit with this episode, our true
found. So Schomburgh was born on January twenty. Fourth eighteen, seventy four in, what's now the same tour, say: neighbourhood of San, Juan Puerto Rico. His mother
was Maria who suffer a freeboard woman from certain Croy who was a midwife and the laundress. His father is often cited as car
Frederico Schomburgh, who was born in Puerto Rico and had german ancestry artery.
Parents were not married and it doesn't seem that he ever met or was legally acknowledged by his father
true, also had a younger sister named Dolores. At the time, porter Ego was a spanish colony and although there were schools, there was no free public education system accessible to everyone yet and most of the schools that did exist charged to wish in it's possible that Schomburgh spend some time at one of these
rules other their records that could have confirmed that were destroyed when the United States invaded Porter Eco in eighteen. Ninety eight, it seems that most of schomburgh education was more informal, say things like clubs and study groups and self study
libraries, but he described one of the experiences that had a particular impact on him as happening in a fifth grade classroom. They did not
about any black figures. When studying history, am he asked the teacher if black people had a history,
and she said no, so he does
the one day he would prove her wrong. At one point, Schomburgh mother returned to Thank Roy,
So we ve spent some time there while growing up as well, but a lot of his more formative. Experiences took place in Puerto Rico. Puerto rican journalist, Jose Hooligan Acosta, was one of schomburgh mentors and had a huge influence on him. Acosta had been part of the abolition.
Met before the spanish Assembly abolished slavery in Puerto Rico, in eighteen, seventy three that was just a year before Schomburgh was born
another big influence was Salvador brow.
Like Schomburgh, brow was an auto died act and in spite of being self taught, he went on to be Porter, Regos official historian, brows work and his
three also included the contributions of black people. When many other histories did not. Schomburgh eventually became an apprentice at a print shop in San Juan and at the age of
seventeen he moved to New York City. There aren't really any details documented anywhere of what led him to make this decision, and especially to go apparently by him
of the arrived there on April, seventeenth, eighteen, ninety one carrying some letters of introduction. These included one from
quarter, weaken nationalist, Jose, Gonzalez Pont, who was his boss at the Prince Shop and from Tibet euros or cigar workers. In Puerto Rico,
Will you lived in New York for most of the rest of his life after this moving from Manhattan to Harlem and then to Brooklyn when
Hamburg arrived in New York, the Porter Egon immigrant community in the United States was quite small and the
the idea of a porter weaken racial or ethnic identity had not really evolved. Yet that started happened
more in the nineteen thirties after more people started.
moving from the island to the continental? U S, but the cuban
The current community was larger, particularly in Tampa Florida and in New York City people
It moved from Cuba to the United States at this point. For a number of reasons, one was the ten years war which had spanned from eighteen, sixty eight to eighteen. Seventy eight, like Puerto Rico, Cuba was a spanish colony and the ten years war was an uprising. That's generally marked the beginning of the cuban independence movement. People fled this violence and instability, or they were exiled because of their involvement. Tariffs also made it a lot more profitable for companies to import tobacco to the United States
it's rather than importing finished cigars from Cuba, so cigar makers built factories in Florida in New York and then they hired cigar makers from Cuba to work at them when
who arrived in New York, the first community he found was among cuban Taboo Cairo's in Manhattan. He described his
own identity, is afro boring Kenya, which was a cuban term for black Puerto Ricans, and many of the tobacco
were politically very active. Continuing to advocate for cuban independence and
providing money and supplies to support a potential armed uprising against spanish colonial rule. Many cuban activists also extended their work to include Puerto Rico, since Cuba and Puerto Rico were Spain's two remaining colonies in the Caribbean. Some of the first connections Schaumburg made in New York, where, with afro cuban activist Raphael, Sarah and with
what region floor barrier and both of them were deeply involved in the independence movements for Spain's caribbean colonies. The also became a friend and collaborator with cuban Revolutionary,
Jose Marti, along with other activists Schaumburg and Sarah CO founded last dose and TIA's, or the two islands on April. Third, one thousand eight hundred and ninety two
This organization contributed money, medicine and weapons to independence, fighters on both islands Schomburgh, Sir
does the organization secretary. He also
well to New Orleans, which was another locus of cuban independence activity in eighteen. Ninety two m jointly puerto rican section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, in addition to his work and the Independence Movement Schomburgh, also taught spanish while taking night classes at a high school and studying
English. He joined a predominantly spanish speaking masonic lobby called elsewhere that Cuba number thirty eight in eighteen. Ninety two, this large was affiliated with the Prince Hall Masons, which was established as a branch of Freemasonry for Black Americans in seventeen. Eighty four schomburgh had become a leader in this
large by nineteen. Ten. Many also worked at a variety of different jobs, including being an elevator operator. A bell hop and a messenger on June
thirtieth. Eighteen. Ninety five schomburgh married Elizabeth Hacha, who was known as Bessie, and she was a black woman from Virginia EM,
They would go on to have three children, Maximo Gomes Arturo,
Sancho Junior and Kingsley Guardian exe
could have died in one thousand nine hundred, at which point their children went to live with her family in Virginia. An armed uprising started in Cuba in eighteen. Ninety five:
and in eighteen. Ninety seven, amid active fighting in Cuba, Spain, applied the rights of spanish citizenship to both Cuba and Porter Rico.
including giving men over the age of twenty five, the right to vote, and then on November, twenty fifth of that year, Spain also gave Puerto Rico the right to self government
the first elections under that new system held in March of eighteen, ninety eight
the ongoing conflict between Cuba in Spain was also sparking tensions between Spain and the United States. Spain's efforts to put down the
Been uprising were widely covered and sometimes sensationalize in the. U S: press demands for the: U S:
proceed in Cuba grew after the: U S: s main exploded in Havana, harbor on February fifteenth eighteen. Ninety eight
April, Spain and the U S were at war in this conflict is often
the spanish American more. But since the EU
was entering an ongoing conflict between Spain and Cuba is also called the spanish cuban american war. He has occasionally
also include the Philippines and that, since the Philippines was involved with all of this and had its own outside the scope of this podcast stuff happening. So this war formally ended with the treaty of Paris on December tenth. Eighteen. Ninety eight and under the terms of this treaty, Cuba became independent, whilst Spain seated Porter Ego, Guam and the Philippines to the United States, and that means that Porto egos time as an autonomous island had really been pretty short lived. Obviously, this is the absolute thinnest of overviews of all of this, but the end result was that the independence movement that Schomburgh had been so involved with in the United States, most
came to an end. Cuba had become independent, although it was still occupied by U S, troops and many, but certainly not all of the porter rican community had started to focus more on cooperation with the. U S rather than independence and division started
really grow within that part of the movement. The last meeting
The porter Egon section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party was held on August second, eighteen, ninety eight, and at that meeting its member
devoted to dissolve it less doesn t s dissolved as well
and some of the people involved with these and other organizations returned to the Caribbean. Some like Jose Marquis had already return,
and had been killed in the uprising.
Others remained in the U S and shifted their attention towards socialism, labour rights or other social and political issues. Schomburgh shifted his attention some as well, and we will get to that after a sponsor break.
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After the end of the spanish cuban american WAR, I'll zero are found,
So Schomburgh turned more of his attention to looking for works by black writers, artists and historical figures from all over the world and collecting and documenting that work. This really wasn't knew for him. He had studied and worked with numerous collectors and bibliophile, many of whom were mostly self taught like he was when they were all collecting and documenting books and articles in our work and other works that were related
their own lives than communities, Schomburgh had a really good memory and he had a knack for seeking out information, and he put that to use trying to build a collection that would demonstrate the achievements of black people all over the world.
At this point, this was not something that he could turn into a paying job, though
nineteen o one. He got a position as a clerk at a law office and he told people that he was studying for the bar, but because of his lack of food,
education, or at least the lack of any documentation of one he was denied from taking it on March, seventeenth night
or two he got married again. This time to Elizabeth Mauro Taylor, a black woman from North Carolina, they were
on to have two children, Reginald Stanfield,
in this annual Jose in nineteen O. Five Schaumburg made a trip back to porter ego and also very,
did the Dominican Republic and in one thousand nine hundred and six, he was hired at bankers, trust company, and he would work there for more than twenty years
started out as a messenger and worked his way up to being a supervisor of the caribbean and latin american male section, especially at the start of his career there. This job really didn't pay him very much, but it did give him enough money to buy books and documents and artwork for his collection. He also did some of his writing cause. He wrote a lot which are going to talk more about in a bit. I hated some of his writing in his collecting on on company time, sometimes really to the annoyance of his own supervisor. Is he has of letters that he's written the friends that kind of like man, my boy
will not get off my case because I am trying to track down this book right now by the early nineteen teens Schomburgh was becoming widely known in New York for that growing collection and his research into black history
nineteen eleven, he cofounded the Negro Society for historical research with journalist and pan African is John Edward, Bruce also known as Bruce Grit
we have served as president and Schomburgh served a secretary and treasurer like schomburgh
Bruce was an auto died act. He had been enslaved from birth in eighteen, fifty six and had largely educated himself after the- U S, civil war. According to its charter, the Negro society for historical research was established quote to show that the Negro race has a history which anti dates, that of the proud, Anglo Saxon race. Other David Fulton was formally tat should be the societies librarian Schomburgh ultimately took on
lot of that work. Over the course of the societies existence Schomburgh collected about three hundred volumes for its library and when the society eventually disbanded Schomburgh folded, those into his own collection, which was housed in his
home, but was somebody, but he made available for other people to use
in July of nineteen thirteen schomburgh delivered a paper to the teacher summer class at Jamie Institute in Pennsylvania. That's now China University and is recognised as the oldest
currently Black college or university in the United States. This address was titled
racial integrity. A plea for the establishment of a chair of Negro history in our schools
colleges, etc. It called for
versus ease to have chairs of black history, just like for any other subjects and to adopt standards. That included quote the practical history of the negro race.
from the dawn of civilization, to the present time? But he went on and this address the walk through the contributions of various black writers and thinkers who were largely omitted from history texts before can
genuine quote. We need in the coming dawn the man who will give us the background for our future. It matters not whether he comes from the cloisters of the university or from the rank and file of the feed
but we need the historian and philosopher to give us with trenchant pen the story of our forefathers and let our soul and body with phosphorescent light brightened. The chasm that separates us
Schonberg saw all this knowledge about black history as something that could uplift people of african descent all over the world and his other
work touched on that idea as well toward the end of
or two. He had some involvement in Marcus Garbage, United Negro Improvement Association and African communities League, although he was never formally a member, his work with Garlic,
included assisting him with historical research, am doing
translations between English and spanish and nineteen fourteen John Wesley Chrome.
Well and John Edward Bruce recommended Schomberg for membership in
American Negro Academy, the american negro,
Category was established in eighteen. Ninety seven by John Wesley Cromwell and its founding members included w e b D boys and Paul Lawrence Dunbar. Its purpose was to produce and promote academic scholarship. By and for black people, Schomberg became its prey
the debt and nineteen twenty serving in that role. Until the academy was disbanded in nineteen twenty eight schomburgh leaders
of the American Negro Academy was criticised by some of its members.
The organization already seem to be starting to wane when he became its president, but his
complexion and his puerto rican upbringing led some people to question whether he was black enough to be their John Edward Bruce
recommended him for membership? But when it came to his presidency, he described Schomburgh as a quote halfbreed, who did not quote, think black,
Schomburgh made a point to remind the rest of the academy that there were black people all over the world, not just in the United States and that many were facing similar racism and oppression to what they experienced in the U S, but that really just fed into perceptions that his attentions and his loyalties were to the hispanic world and not the black community, which really was
almost the opposite of the point that he was trying to make. It didn't help that Schomburgh had probably over committed himself by agreeing to become the academies president. He had become the master of his,
Masonic Lodge, which had been renamed as Prince Hall Lodge in nineteen fourteen. This name change reflected a demographic shift, the spy
speaking membership of L sold a Cuba had declined and the lodge had boosted its numbers by recruiting more english speaking black members, Schomburgh had personally translated the largest spanish language records and documents into English so that they would still
we accessible to its members. He had also become grand secretary of the New York State, Grand Lodge of the Prince Home Mason. So between this the academy his day job in his collecting
which will remind you. He also made his home publicly available. He had a high
lot on his plate, nor yet, and also he had gotten married for the third time in nineteen fourteen after the death of his second wife. His third wife was Elizabeth Green and they went on to her
three children together. Fernando Alfonso Dolores Maria and Carlos Placebo, and yes, each of the three women he married was named Elizabeth.
Nineteen eighteen, the Schomburgh, moved to a house on what some people would call cost
you go street that streets name is apparently a matter much debate. Yes, I watch I washed up
Video of New Yorkers disagreeing on how to say the name of it, but in any case
It is in Brooklyn, and that became part home and part private library. Just in terms of
will that we ve talked about on the show before the librarian
clear, Frederick, Douglass newspapers assigned copy of Phyllis Wheatley's poem
along with numerous volumes of her work, Benjamin Ban,
curse, almanacs Paul com,
he's journals letter?
by two sullenly, real true play bills and posters from IRA, Frederick outrages, stage, performances and
one thousand eight hundred and three edition of Ignatius Sanchez letters I really feel like if there is a figure from black history we know about today, he had their work in his collection. Sure seems like it yeah, so Schaumburg had bought. Some of this.
himself while travelling for his work with the Freemasons or through book buyers located in New York. Although he did make a few international trips during his lifetime, it wasn't really something he could do very often on his salary. So he also asked the writers and activists he knew
to keep an eye out for particular finds when they were traveling internationally, is included. Finding spanish language were
by and about black people in Spain and in Spain's former colonial territory in the Americas, as
mentioned earlier. Schomburgh kept this private collect
not just for his own use, but as a resource for others. His private library
came both a research collection and the gathering place during the Harlem Renaissance and we're gonna get into that after we have a little sponsor break.
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The high level of violence as a cultural and artistic flourishing? That was centred around Harlem New York in the nineteen twenty and thirty,
It's also known as the new negro movement or the new Negro renaissance, and in the words of by
refer Eleanor diverting the net schomberg was the document her of the movement gathering the work of the movements, poets and novelists and musicians.
Visual artists and others and adding them into his collection, and although Schomburgh himself was no
we are living in Harlem, the library served as a resource for the people who were creating all of that work. People like Langston, Hughes and Gwendolyn
Bennett and Eric Wall Rend and Zoran you'll hurseton all consulted him and his collection and heated research work for writer and poet, Claude Mackay,
Schonberg also contributed an essay to Alan walks. Anthology the new negro in interpretation, which is considered
others, seminal texts of the Harlem Renaissance. This essay was titled
the Negro digs up his past and it was first published in survey graphic magazine. This is schomburgh most. Why
we available and widely known piece of writing today and it became a foundational text for the discipline of black studies. It begins
The american negro must re make his past in order to make his future. Before going on. To say quote for him, a group tradition must supply compensation for persecution and pride of race, the antidote for prejudice. History must restore what slavery took away for. It is the social damage of
every that the present generations must repair and offset Schonberg also outlined three outstanding conclusions that had come from extensive study of black history quote: first, that the negro
has been throughout the centuries of controversy and active collaborator and off
a pioneer in the struggle for his own freedom and advancement. This is true to a degree which makes it
more surprising that it has not been recognised. Earlier. Second,
by virtue of their being regarded as something exceptional, even by friends and well wishers negroes.
Attainment. Ingenious have been unfairly dissociated from the group and group credit lost accordingly, sir.
that the remote racial origins of the negro, far from being with the race in the world, have been given to understand, offer a record of credible group achievement when
scientifically viewed and more imports
still that they are a vital general interest because of their bearing upon the beginnings and early development of human culture a year after this, as they was published, Schomburgh sold his collection to the New York Public Library for ten thousand dollars. This was funded by the Carnegie Corporation and brokered by the National Urban League. At the time of the sale, Schomburgh collection was described as a Trans National archive of Black culture and it contained books, poems sheet music photographs newspapers, another periodicals, written and multiple languages, especially English.
Spanish, it totalled roughly five thousand items, many of them quite rare. The collections first home was at the one hundred thirty fifth street branch of the New York Public Library in Harlem.
was known as the Arthur, a Schomberg collection of Negro literature and art schomberg heads
did you go by the name Arthur some time. After the end of his involvement with the puerto rican independence, movement and
time he'd gone from Arthur Schomberg to a schomberg before circling back around to Arturo towards the end of his life. Schomberg continued
require more items and donate them to the New York Public Library after the sale of the collection? He also worked with James Weldon Johnson and a women's group known as the James Weldon Johnson Library Guild, to build out a collection of children's books written for and about black children, but Schomburgh acknowledge
That, in many cases, these books just did not exist yet, and he saw the role of children's librarians as including working towards getting books like that into prints
Amber used some of the money from the sale of his collection to go to Europe and they
scoured european libraries, especially in Spain, to trace the history of african people in Europe in the Caribbean. This included visiting the
keep odorless India's in Spain and he
to track down previously unknown black writers and historical figures in the spanish speaking world. So he poured through archives making note of people described in spanish words that meant moorish or black. He also made a point to view the work of two Blue
spanish painters in person, Wanda, Panama hat and Sebastian Gomes, both of whom had been enslaved for most of their lives,
on his return to the United States. He wrote a series of essays about his research experiences in Spain
On January, first of nineteen, thirty schomburgh retired from the bankers, trust company he'd been experiencing headaches than nose, bleed and that had contributed to his decision to retire, but he didn't stop. Working Charles S, Johnson President of Fisk University in Tennessee, asked him to help build Fisk's collection of black history and
the richer fisk is historically black private university in Nashville, Tennessee and Schomburgh was there for about a year from nineteen, thirty one to nineteen. Thirty, two shots
I work at Fisk was largely funded through the Carnegie Corporation and the Julia
frozen walled fund in nice,
one thousand and thirty one Fiske Library in Lewis, shores noted that Schaumburg had added four thousand five hundred and twenty four of the four thousand six hundred and thirty volumes to v collection.
of purchases of individual volumes and already established collections get some. Almost the entire initial collection at the fiscal library was through schomburgh research and work. There have also been some questions about his work during this period, though one was about what was expected of him as the curator of this collection. It seems like he hopes to travel and personally acquire more books for the collection, but the university was more expecting him to be on site. Most of the time the
other, had to do with how he was appraising books to potentially be added into this collection, and this leader issue is a little bit complicated, although she
Borg was not in appraiser. He had a lot of experience in buying books, the biggest reason
He had been able to get that experience. Was the book dealers didn't see books by black authors as valuable, so he was
able to afford to buy lots of rare works by black writers on a pretty modest salary. When Schomburgh said
the collection being sold as part of an estate wasn't worthy of the fiscal library. The collectors widow accused
him of misrepresenting the collections value.
Regardless Schaumburg played a huge and important role of establishing the collection and Fisk sometime around one thousand. Nine hundred and thirty Schaumburg also started working on a cookbook which favorite topic of the show he didn't ever finish or publish this work, though PASA
because what he conceived in his mind was really an enormous undertaking. According to his notes, it would not just be recipes, it would be an international history of black cooking, with biographies of notable people and black folk traditions related to food, along with things like love, charms and
quote: fines and superstitions and cookery. That is an enormous scope for a book, and then that was hampered by a lack of primary sources. Alot of the cookbooks that were written and known about at that point had been written by white people and the very few cook
by black people that were known of work, really rare and very hard to find copies of. There's also that problem with cookbooks, which is that they get used
yeah don't turn the last. The way a book in a library would in nice
thirty two schomburgh travelled to Cuba, where he reestablished his connections to afro. Cuban leaders,
activists an rekindled, his sense of
Tino identity. He also search through archive
for work by afro cuban writers and on his return he published my trip to Cuba in Quest for Negro books. Also in nineteen thirty, two schomburgh returned to the New York Public Library and this truce, the more controversy w e b D boys launched a campaign against Stetson Schomburgh appointment as curator for the collection that was named for him was effectively going to demote Catherine Alan Lattimer, who was the New York public libraries. First, black librarian two boys and his supporters said that this was not about schomburgh as a person, but that it undermine.
and an ongoing effort to get more black people on staff at New York, public libraries and then that circles back around to the idea that, although two boys used and respected schomburgh collection, he did not really see schomburgh as authentically black
We ve been focused mainly on schomburgh acquisition of written texts, but here
thought the visual art was critically important to black history and the black experience he carried. It should
by black artists and nineteen thirty four. He
tried to raise money to buy a bust of Othello, which he believed to be
modeled on IRA, Frederick Aldrich. This was a challenge. The United States was just
being out of the great depression, but ultimately
attorney and civil rights activist Arthur Spring, aren't donated enough money to bridge the gap in funds. The statue was
located on January thirtieth, nineteen thirty six. This led to an unfortunate dispute with Aldrich, as daughter Amanda, though
she had written a biography of her father and had asked schomburgh to help get it published, and it really seems like Schomburgh was just overly optimistic about that project and how quickly it might have been two years passed before Amanda asked for the manuscript to be returned and when she did, she accused him
using it to suit his own ends. This happened shortly before the end of schomburgh life. He died.
June aged nineteen, thirty eight he had become
seriously ill after having an infected tooth extracted. He was sixty four when he died. The schomburgh collection had faced difficulties with reason
says and funding even before Schomberg death and that continued afterward by the nineteen sixty is some of the materials and the collection were falling into disrepair in part because the library didn't have a climate controlled place to store them. But today the Schomberg Centre is regarded as one of the world's foremost research lie
various focused specifically on black culture. It's a library and a research and cultural space in ninety ninety one it was expanded to include exhibition galleries and the links to you.
not a tory em in twenty fifteen dil
Mary was awarded the National medal for Museum in library service, and it was
aimed at National historic landmark in twenty seventeen. In addition
sue historians and academics who use its collections for research. It has also inspired poets writers, playwrights
makers and visual artists. According to a twenty fifteen,
paper by Howard, Dodson Denzil, Washington, use the centres, film collection, to study, characters and prepare himself for different roles and that papers as he would basically disguise himself
and go to the film collection, ass, Fer Schomberg himself. He was included in biographical collections of notable black figures from the nineteen teams through the nineteen thirties. But after that point he mostly fell out of you for decades. The first full length biography of him was Arthur Alfonso Schomberg, black bibliophile and collector, which came out in nineteen eighty nine another book by a specific blackness, the life and times of Arturo Alfonso Schomberg by Vanessa Cave outdoes, came out in twenty seventeen. He was also honoured with a postage stamp
as part of the United States postal services. Voices of the Harlem Renaissance Series was just came out in twenty twenty. There has been a surge of academic work about him very recently, though, in twenty two
The journal small acts published a special section that included multiple articles on Schomberg, the spring summit
Twenty one issue of the African American Review is entirely dedicated to him, which Tracy fortunately discovered after she chose the topic, but before she got into the research that doesn't always happened,
us no there. It really doesn't. There was a whole a whole special issue that was a hundred percent about a historical retrospective on the nineteen eighteen flew that came out like right after we finish that up. So a lot of academic work on Schomburgh has kind of wrestled with his identity, both as he saw himself and as other people saw him and sword
how to interpret it all. We talked about how he was seen as something of an outsider at the American Negro Academy and how his latino heritage lead at least some people to question his blackness during his lifetime. Critics also told him to go home. Support Rico, but kind of the contours of that is also true. He also face
races and cholera them among porter, again and cuban activist communities. Because of his african ancestry and his embrace of that ancestry.
his use of language was also criticized from every side. Editors,
and we worked his english language prose extensively. Alan law
once wrote quote my good loyal friends. Schomburgh can gather facts, but he cannot write. He was true
in Porto Rico. On florid spanish in his English is impossible and spanish, vigorous Gerda.
eyes to Spanish, even accusing him of forgetting in but inside
cases it wasn't than he had forgotten anything. It was that he had learned to speak spanish importer Rico with very little formal education and then move
Monk communities in the: U s that, were speaking a more hybrid ized spangling, although that
Spangler. We should be clear had not been coined yet of the most recent scholarship on him has seemed a lot less focused on trying to quantify Arturo Alfonso shop
again kind of an either or way or in
bidding him as a bridge between the porter weaken and black communities. Instead, there is a lot more recent writing that notes all the ways that he was both black importer again and that really fits right in with his own quest to doktor,
the achievements of black people all over the world and his remarks on how the history of the Caribbean.
Latin America, as we know it today, would be impossible without lack people. I am so glad I just stumbled across his name in a random article and finally made me go.
Who is this person who the library I have you so much as name after I'm glad to do? You have gladly mermaid
I do. I do have whisper mail. This is from Nicole. I am hoping I said that right, because it is a slightly unusual spelling and the culture of high Holly and Tracy. I just wrapped up the
operation, paperclip episodes and had to email you about Fort Hunt Park and National Park a few miles from Mount Vernon. It's your typical park with horses, trails, softball fields, pavilions and spanish american slash world were one era, large gun, battlements and a guard tower. There is also a lovely placard noting operation paperclip and the other topsecret work that happened there during world war. Two. It is certainly a shock when you pull into the park, and you see the old batteries that have been reinforced for people to explore the out
the interior are closed to the public, but also where we held our wedding reception. Our ceremony was at the robber one monument on the National mall. It has always been a favorite spot before I met my now has been, and now we often take our daughter, they are to explore and occasionally leaves our keys
It is a striking reminder that history is all around us and woven into our dna and continues to impact and shape us. I also wanted
mention that you all red mail from my sister after the Bisbee deportation, and I believe she is still ahead of me in the race to keep up to date with your podcast. She mentioned Howard.
other met Martin Luther King and I wanted to mention that our mom went on to serve in the air force as an intelligence officers during Vietnam. She now Spencer time making well over five thousand wounded warrior quilts and I am proud to say my sister has the same skills and kind heart. I am not allowed nearest sewing machine. I've touched a few photos from four hunt to get an idea of the scope of the park. Please excuse the photos of the kissing dogs. They made us for the awkward engagement voters and it was a hundred and five degrees, and I was ten weeks pregnant and forty or so thank you for continued share the good, bad and ugly of our world best Nicole. Thank you so much and a call for this email and also for the pictures I found them to be.
Our main are very charming. I agree- and I also I looked at one of them and I was like there's a little twining vine hanging off. One of those trees in the background is backwards. Here I don't know who was cubs. You were not it's hard to identify a plant, why we often the distance Roma from picture, but any
Thank you so much percentages. I had obviously never heard of this part before me either, but it does look like a nice place said to to wander and explore in Vienna. Think about all the various ways that history has has continued to influence us all. So thank you so much for the emu. If you'd like to write to us about this or any other podcast great history,
podcast. I hurt radio dot com and we're Oliver Social media most in history, that three of under Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest than Instagram, and you can subscribe to our show on the Iheart Radio out and anywhere else. Your pod cap,
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Transcript generated on 2021-07-29.