On Sept. 19, 1356, one of the decisive battles of the Hundred Years War took place in France. It was the first major battle after almost a decade of relative quiet, and it stacked a small English army against a French military three times its size.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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subscribe on the eye, radio up apple podcast or where ever you get. Your favorite show. Welcome to stuff you missed in history class from house up works. How can I would welcome to the package crying and I'm tracing me well said today we are going to go back quite a ways to the thirteen hundred, because you don't. I get enough time to kind of dig into that older history. It takes a little bit it work because the records are not as clear as some of the more modern stuff so did time. So we're gonna talk about one of the battles of the hundred years war, which is the battle of forty eight. This happened on September, nineteen, thirteen fifty six and it was one of the decisive battles of the hundred years war,
it took place in France. It was the first major battle after almost a decade of relative quiet and we'll talk about why there was a decade of quiet and it actually is pitted a small english Army against a french military that was three times its size feature. Some interesting approaches to combat them Some kind of wily moves on the part of the English and you'll see how it plays out so just to start off we're gonna do a quick and dirty in trail on the hundred years war in case. Anyone the quick catch up. So when the last direct line completion king of France, who was Charles, the fourth died in thirteen twenty eight, the third of England made a move for the throne of France because of his lineage as the grandson of Philip, the fourth of France, who ruled it for Charles the fourth. I thought the fourth day Isabella was ever the third mother, but instead of taking Edwards. as their regions, Philip Avow, who was the nephew fulfilled. The fourth was given rule of France,
nine years later and thirteen thirty seven king, Philip, the six, the France confiscated Edward two Thirds Duchy of Acquitaine, Five term, which sat on what's now french soil in response at the third once again challenged Philip, the sixth right to the throne. So Edward had closer blood ties to fill up the fourth as grandson than Philip six dead. As a nephew bob, of the fact that Edwards Bloodline passed through his mother rather than a male relative, and this is an issue of great contention, the the women being able to keep the royal line was a big problem and handsome echoes later on. There's a reason. There were no female rulers of France. After this whole thing, I resolved that part of it and this challenge of the king's validity is a ruler, is often pointed to you as the events that ignited the hundred years war
We should also mention that there is already a very long history of tensions between France and England, which had really lead up to, There were a lot of factors going in and it even though this is the one event that people pointy there were many sort of smaller catalysts and play already as well, There should be one of those single use websites where you like. was England at war with France, and you just type in a year, and it says yes or no to a lot of the time. It will be. Yes, yes, a hundred years were actually went on for more than a hundred years. It ran from thirteen thirty seven to fourteen fifty three. So in terms, the larger, ongoing war. That particular event that we're talking about today happened at the end of the second decade. For his part, Edward. The third was really skilful strategies that he was able to use his claim to the throne, to win over french royalty and no you weren't entirely on board, with Philip six and, in particular the flemings, the Montfort
and trials of Navarre were all sided with Edward. The third Edward was able to use these alliances with discontented french royals to really break of King Philips Power, and he made it extremely difficult for the french regions to govern huge portions of free. and must also served Edward Imminent, fuelled in fighting among the french royalty new nobility, because they, arguing over whether this person or that they decided with England or whether they should be loyal to France. In this, raw weakened the country's ability to stand against England. As a united front, Edward. The third other tactics involve the mounting of shovel shea expeditions. never say, is french for promenade and that these military moves and going through an area and burning and pillaging territory that belong to the enemy. This broken the economy and morale of a region rather than engaging in a direct military action, so the entire generally
king was either to force the hand of the enemy and make them fight or two. credit, their power and interest in the common good, because they moving to defend the lower class subjects and ten years prior to the events returning about today that happen in thirteen fifty six Chrissy France had been soundly defeat. by the English who had had a much smaller army and, as a consequence, the french position kind of from the battle of Chrissy on had really been largely one of defence. In the time between the two bottles, there had been not a whole lot of confrontation between new countries, because a much more pressing issue took precedent, and that was the black death. So from thirty forty eight thirteen fifty cents Most of the skirmishes and the disagreements between England and France were kind of pushed aside as Europe dealt with the loss of at least one third of its population and some estimates
depending on what you will get will actually put the death toll closer to sixty percent of the population, but one third is generally accepted, is of pretty solid gas and it could have been more, but even after the first worst, eve of the plague had passed. There were these waves of smaller outbreaks to contend with, so that people are still dying, but in smaller numbers that sometimes those waves took the populations by surprise. So it's easy to understand why fighting kind of took a back seat. They would say we don't really have time to work on this right now were kind of busy. All to survive and not catch the plague silver. We go back to sort of how this conflict gets restarted. Gonna take a moment for a word from a sponsor, let's that will a century of professional flooring experience boat, clean means one big, spilled snow, big deal, so looking for the best to care for hardwood floors, use bona hardwood floor, cleaner, the residue, free,
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occasion I wanna Baja Mars three iconic hotels and explore true specials, including up to thirty five percent savings on your state visit, Baja Marduk that be a h, H, M A are dark, come so to get back to the story once the black death was fading into history. Edward. The third son, who was the Prince Ales Edward of Woodstock, was ready to mount a new effort against the French. The prince of Wales, nicknamed. The black prince in the historic record probably was not ever called that during his life You made a name for himself at the battle of crazy and thirteen. Fifty six under orders from his father, He started once again burning and we're doing all three France in this really immensely successful. The black prince was really good at this and he was able to loot so much in these raids, and he shall Shea that his baggage train was often overloaded with plundered treasures on August for
arrayed was mounted against the city of borders and why usual burning and pillaging. We're still use this mission also incorporated military force spreading. The attack between boars and the city of oddly is estimated at somewhere between. Thousand seven thousand men were part of the younger Edwards attack. Yes, he had got into France with that number of men and that that becomes important later on. When you compare it to the numbers of men, the French had at their disposal Oddly was taken by the english prince in this effort, although bores was not, and in the course of a raid Prince Edwards forces also defeated several small bands of french knights, and they also captured, town of rubber on TAT by the time and ten was taken. The french monarch had mounted an army against the English, and at this point the French were under the rule of Philip six successor, John, the second. I, So now it is time the good origin, the ball Johns forces were
pursuit of Edward and his men, with the intent to intercept them before they could get back to their base in Bordeaux, learning that Edwards forces quite near by King Shah, released and estimated fifteen thousand a twenty thousand of his lesser man, he dismissed them in an effort to his army nimble. He wanted them to be able to move quickly to cover with the English were doing so he could already let go. two thousand and twenty thousand men, so they give you some sense of sort of the numbers of people he had his at his Beck and call for military action when he found out about the food militaries approach. Edward made his way along the Luar River toward the west, and he eventually landed at the city of swore where he tried to take the city's castle. That move didn't work out so the castle, was a little too well fortified, and I was really the strength of a lot of french towns was that their their castles were fairly well built in. They were difficult to take and the efforts of Edwards men were pretty much for not and once they became
aware, it was apparent, they were not gonna, have a six Season tour, they were not able to take up the town, Edward commanded, his troops is to burn the surrounding area in the standard shiver shea style, once the savagery at tour was complete. The english forces headed to Bordeaux, they were pursued by the french and Dutch. cat and mouse game that would go on for nearly two weeks before finally culminating in a decisive action here they were the each other around, and sometimes one would try to search one part of the UN he would try to search forward around the other and the kind of this case each other through than the countryside. At this point, but on Sunday September, eight, the english forces had passed through Quartier, and they had settled several miles south of the city it throughout the day there were these efforts made to strike a treaty between England and France. They were people on boys.
usually running back and forth between the two sides that were attempting to find a peaceful resolution to the conflict and avoid a battle happening. The black princess said to have eventual offered to return all of the pillaged goods in return for a seven year truce. But this point of men, really weakened by weeks and weeks of Troy oh- and they were running short on provisions. King John, the second was having none of it. He rejected the offer. His army was significantly larger than Edwards that earlier so exact numbers were unknown, but if it's one of those things were because we're looking so far back to the thirteen hundreds and count is difficult to get you'll, see estimates the pudding anywhere between fifteen thousand and sixty thousand men, but according to most currently used estimates. The most modern historians, it's likely that it was somewhere between fifteen thousand and twenty thousand, but in any case his troops
outnumbered those of his english rival, which, at their greatest estimate, were around seven thousand men, his counter by which he almost certainly made. Expecting it to be rejected was that the black prince and his finest one hundred nights would surrender themselves. So naturally this did not lie, and so with no success that an accord the next step would be battle. I feel I should give a bit of it yachts as we discuss the arrangement of the battle, because there is some disagree then on the exact lay out of how the troops were position and where they were positions. It seems like about fifty fifty between two of the most popular one, so I kind of way one? So if you do additional research on this and you find descriptions of the battle was slightly different placement details. That's why we're going off. You know elderly history recounted orally and some of it some of the details, just don't quite match up, but they're. Pretty close, none of them really contradict each other, so much as they just aren't quite
aim, so Prince Edward at this point, was working with the knowledge that the woods in the area where almost impenetrable, and so he kind of use that is he about strategizing the placement of his men, and at this point there was degree to which he was traps. Kind of up against some of these very dense would suit. He was working from a defensive position. the english troops at this point are said to have been so desperate or provisions that they actually gave their horses wine to drink because they were out of water, yeah guess drunk horses will do a better job, the dead horses. So they heard they were kind of coming up with desperate solutions for their their lack of provisions. And Prince Edward Nestled, his men into a position with the woods of Saint Pierre to the left of them, was of no eye to the rear of them, and the dense of this area meant that both the left Flank Anna Rear, could not be ambushed by any sort of sneak attack, and
He also using existing hedgerow to protect his front line, and there was a bit of a dip in front of an almost like a ditch Suez would have been very hard for the French to come up that that incline and through the hedgerow and Also, a trench along the right side of his troops that offered some protection infant Men stood in the front line and they were commanded by the Earl of Salisbury and the Earl of Work and Prince Edward commanded, the cavalry and they rode in behind stood it was a group of archers armed with longbows who stood to either side of the english troops to get a was army, the french military would have to scale the hedgerow and the ridge that it stood on end. On the second army was organized. A bit differently was organised in the three waves, so the first group was led by the inexperienced crown Prince Charles, who was that group, with several thousand men strong and the division behind the defense was held by the
of early on, and that consisted of about three thousand four thousand troops and the last group by king on the second was sizeable. It was somewhere between six thousand seven thousand men, so it was- to the number of the entire english Army and John, the second and almost two dozen of his knights dressed identically for the battle so as to confuse. Wish troops there were you know their primary goal. was in the end going to be to capture the king. In addition to these three groups of soldiers, two thousand crossbowmen from Genoa thought for France. Their mission was to take out the english archers and the French could advance against the black princes forces. and there is actually a little bit of debate about the first move that happened in the early morning of September, nineteenth, which kind of kicked off the events of the battle, so Was troops led by work started to move to the south along an old roman road, but whether this was A plan to begin the battle or attempt to retreat is actually a little bit
clear and its also a possibility that, because the wagon of loot was in that group that they may have been just trying to protect the stuff that they had been pillaging always time, but it did catalyze action. The french it on the works, moving left flank if they also went for the right flank and this left their genuine crossbowmen unprotected. English longbow men. Their archers immediately began firing and they were shooting off as many as ten shots per minute per man by some accounts, many of them did, french troops were brought down with their horses. They had actually been warned by one of the the one of King John seconds WAR Council that the horses were going problem, if, if archers of England could take down the horses. They were going to cause some panic and some may him on the field. Those that survived this volley of arrows struggled in an effort to move forward on this field that was now becoming cluttered with down horses and
men who had been thrown from their mounts or able to dismount when their horses were struck, were then at this disadvantage. because they were on foot in heavy armor. Meanwhile works division that had been moving seemingly away from the battle had stopped. There and they turned to fight the oncoming attack and this sort of confused and rapid. Initial volley between the two ended up with the first wave of french to troops being quickly defeated. The fan moved his bent forward next and he focused primarily on the english right flank. This advance was made pretty club You because the remaining men of the previous group, which had met with such a huge failure, were all trying to retreat across the same ground at the same time. not really like living like a swiss clock. They were all kind of car, each other. To have some problems in the French seem to contain, really be their own worst enemy to some degree, so that
as we have attempted to breach the hedgerow and they ended up battling with the English for more than two hours street, which, as you can imagine, was quite exhausting and eventually the defiant ordered a retreat kings second set his son, the dolphins and some of his men away from the battlefield because they were so exhausted because at this this battle has been going on for five hours, depending on the account that you read. Some of the english troops are said to have thought. The battle was over at this point. Didn't actually see all the remaining french fighters because of where they were placed, and so they started and so the wounded and assess the situation so that, theoretically the perfect time for King John, the second to take control of the battle, so the king, Division started to move forward, but at the same time, possibly because they were confused or panic. The do early on, took his troops were the field following the French, the prince. He would already have been on his way away. This disrupted King Johns move forward because he was
to move forward in the same place as the and were running away in different directions. It really was leg sort of if it weren't such a tragic thing to be involved in battle in my head. This is like a Benny Hill moment where every I'm like one French, Gruber french troops, tries to move forward. The ones that have before them are running either at them or to the side and preventing their progression, so they kind of this offer that they had where the black prince Prince Edward of income. You know had his troops kind of they were breakin things down. They were figuring out. You know what they're losses were, but instead they they did. They lost that moment of advantage in english trip. Not ready, because they were held trade across the battlefield in different directions. At the same time as the kings. Large division finally made its way forward. The remaining english now, having been obviously alerted to the fact that things are happening still in the battle was going on there
consolidated all their men, except for one small. Group of somewhere between a hundred and sixty in two hundred and this Cabal of English soldiers was able to quietly mount some horses summoned state on foot road, around the right flank of the english Army under cover of this very dense thicket and they serve behind the french forces. So, as the French finally able to engage Edwards troops, the small group and heads around the battle attacked the French from the left flank in the rear. This probably serve the English more cycle logically, that in terms of actual military force, because the French were completely thirty into chaos, believing they were being attacked on three sides, even though with only a small number of english troops out their rear and their left, and so in this sort of moment of panic, where they thought, possibly for a moment that they were either outnumbered. Stout gunned many of the French there's, ran and who stayed on in battle kind of clubs,
in small groups to fight, but they were basically just defeated, pretty heavily by reinvigorated english troops. The decision eyes, rigours of the king and his duplicate redress nights also worked right up until the king was the only one of them left, fighting he Julie, surrendered to one of Edwards nights. It was actually a french knight who was cited with Edward said. I have to wonder if I didn't sting a bit for the french king, under two theoretically, what should have been one of his own countrymen and before we go on to talk about sort of the fall out of this battle? Let's do a quick word from our sponsor This episode is brought to you by the all new twenty twenty four explorer Tracy. I know that you have been thinking about an interesting thing lately, which is why your pic would be for the greatest exploration vehicle of all time. Yeah.
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so once things had settled down and dusted cleared at the end of the day, roughly two thousand five hundred french troops had been killed at the battle of Quartier and another. Two thousand men were captured, Edwards, forces, on the other hand, was very few men. That sort of biggest estimate is just a few hundred Paris, and they really did very well, even though they were much smaller kings on the second was held by England for four years, while his ransom was decided in the terms of a treaty were discussed. The number that was eventually decided on for the ransom was three million crowns to the ransom Edward. The third was given acquitaine once again this time in a slightly larger version than the territory France had actually confiscated in return, Edward with Wid withdraw his claim to the french, proud that was all lay down in the treaty of Brittany and those terms were established. They
Ngos, and the second was held by England,. of him. His son Louie of Anjou, served his captive and that, That is the second could return to France to raise the money that was now owe to England, but France had broken down. Sid honourably and turns of economic stability, the black death and then the rain. in the battle of what he had taken a really significant tall. It was more difficult than expected to rise, this ransom money in the six months that had been negotiated to do it, and so Louie asked that this is this one of the sons of King John Kind of greeting waiting on this payment. He was stuck in England as the the surrogate prisoner for his father and after it, this became apparent that this money was not coming in. He attempted to negotiate is own treaty in terms of release, but there don't go so well, so instead, the Darfur Louie escaped in thirteen. Sixty three mm
defied by his sons, behaviour kings on the second went back to England of his own accord, believing that he must uphold the values of chivalry and honour, so unfair, Lastly, while he was warmly greeted in England, he got sick while he was there and he died, and thirteen sixty for Europeans a king, John. The second was a great guy in the English really liked having around so when he came back, Firstly, because he did come back of his own volition to fulfil this agreement after his son. It escaped he was like, given a parade and people cheered for him in the streets It was really interesting is that the battle of forty eight, along with the battle of crazy in the battle of Agincourt, sort of stands as one Three decisive events of the hundred years war, but a lot of times the battle of party really gets less attention in the other two one of the interesting things. Is it the
of longbows during this time, pretty significantly changed. Warfare in Europe and the battle of Protease, often cited by historian as an example of the English being more adaptive on the battlefield than the french and in this instance that whether their success, it kind of shifted. This idea, like we, will line up in the two rows and we will do the old school battle in it and a little bit more to do with strategy in kind of thinking on your feet. So interesting and cool as much as war could be cool, it's cool to see how things shifted during that time. So that is the battle Quartier a now two pieces of wasn't around. This email is from our listener. Mary rose and uses high ladys. I just finished listening to your country, earthquake prone Catherine. I have a question. Many of the buildings in the area. We are vulnerable to quake damage, as they were made of wood where the buildings are referring. Rickety or poorly constructed. The reason I ask is that I live in a very quick prone Wellington, New Zealand and experience
he right illegally strong earthquakes all the time I live in in the house and feel safer when we have a quick, because what is flexible and can move with the shake rather than inflexible, concrete or brick, which tends to cracking crumble. Any who love the packets thinks the great work that you do. we hear it wasn't just that it was an issue of it being particularly vulnerable to the quake, but the fires that came after really consumed all of the wood buildings. So if I characterize that to be exclusively that it was a quick issue, my apologies Cosette was not the intent. Japan at that point was having quakes all the time it wasn't like they weren't used to them. Many of those buildings have been around for quite a while. It really in that case was the fire that distastefully turned those two kindling in seconds. So thank you for that question. Mary rose and I love the term Tief Ramblingly strong Minister Ethan, when the next the email comes from our listening to call this whole,
the entry, see I'm a textile conservator that works at the museum at EF. I t, which is a fashion base history, museum in New York City- oh, my goodness, Nicole. That sounds delightful for she says I would like to thank you. for your part, cast. I regularly listen to you guys while I can serve and repair museum objects for exhibition, as was the case today I wanted to. Fond of the question posed by listener. Alison at the end of the red ghosting camel core podcast we just finished. Installing exhibition on the history of luxury and, if Alison is anywhere to your New York City, she may enjoy checking it out the so called exposed and displays arranged garments from as early as the eighteenth century. Up to present day is me work is too much of a track for our centre. Anyone else interested there's also an amazing catalogue of all the object shown in the exhibition, and then she, the link to the exhibit page. So another article that has really get slideshow of the pieces that arena and will put those links in our show notes. She says also That aside, I really enjoy listening to episodes that you have done in the past about fashion the poor episode from London
go a spot on. My thesis was on him in the rose. Bertha episode was fantastic to you, and then she gives us a list of tat She feels are not so well known today, but famous in their day designers. That would make great topics ratio. Nicole. I am happy to tell you all of those But where are my list already? I just trying to spread the fashion out as well my very favorite things. You know, I cannot be fashioned, talk less a scoop. If you would like to write to us and share your thoughts or any cool exhibits, you know about that. Could help educate us all. You can do so at history, podcast at house to restart coms. had that thinking she missed an earlier. There is a little bit of a changed. Your email address. What kind of going back to an old old email address. You can also connect lives on Facebook. If he's back home, Slash missed in history on twitter at misdemeanours, on Vista history that tumblr com can restart Cobb's lash. Mr history, you can also visit Very our website, which is, I cannot be fashioned talk
We would like to learn a little bit more about a topic that was related to today's package, as you can go to our parent website. and taken the word archery in the search bar and see without it you'll, get our how crossbows work and how both hunting work surplus relieving interpret today, and you can research and almost anything else, your mind can conjure at our parents site, which is how the more or less and thousands of other topics, because it has a workshop com. This episode is brought to you by mulatto
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