The Battle of Cajamarca, also known as the Massacre of Cajamarca, ultimately led to the end of the Inka Empire. But it might have gone much differently had the Inka not just been through a massive epidemic and a civil war.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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This will include alive, show em to our listeners can get discounted tickets using the offer code history and for all the folks who have asked us to do is show in the Boston area of which there have been many we, finally on the way, with a show in Quincy Adams, National historical Park on Sunday July. Eight at two p m that one is an outdoor show. It will happen rain or shine, and we also have her appearance of that will be announcing soon, as well as more details about both of these shows wheel, but that all our website, also at miss than history, dot, com, welcome to stuff. You missed in history class from how support Stockholm Tallow and welcome to the pond cast I'm Tracy. We will qualify today we, going to talk about a pivotal moment and south american history, which is the battle of Cajamarca market, which is sometimes
way more accurately known as the massacre at copper market. This, ultimately led to the end of the Inca Empire, a lot of the history of spanish conquest of the Americas. A lot of time. This is boiled down to an image of very heavily armed conquistadores sweep through indigenous armies, that we're alot larger in number not merely as well armoured and armed there is some truth to that image. This whole thing might have gone much differently, had the Inca not just been through a massive epidemic and a civil war. So today we want to tackle the Inca Empire before the arrival of Francisco Pizarro and how his conquest of the Inca was about a whole lot more than just the one battle. The way that is often described before that both of the Inca empire. South Amerika was already home to a huge range of indigenous peoples and cultures by the twelve hundreds
One of these was the kingdom of coups co ruled by a leader known as the supper Inca which, in the catch you a language. Roughly means the only Inca title was hereditary and the supper Inga was considered to be a divine being in fourteen, create a man named patch. Acuity became the supper Inga and he started an aggressive political and military expansion of what had been the kingdom of Cuzco. Soon, instead of one of many individual kingdoms. The city of Cuzco was the capital of a much greater empire, Within a hundred years that empire stretched about three thousand miles or forty eight hundred kilometers down the western coast of South Amerika long but Miro stretch of territory was huge it was home to about ten million people living in aid. Different provinces, which were arranged into four quarters. These working
did by a network of twenty five thousand miles or forty thousand kilometers of roads which converged on the capital of Cuzco. Relay runners carried messages along these roads covering hundreds of miles a day. The empire was all so diverse. The land itself included parts of the Andes, mountains, valleys planes, tropical jungles, dense forests and a desert most depending on where they were living. People might work, mining, gems and precious metals. Raising lamas and I'll pack is growing crops, making ceramics our textiles all kinds of other things. Many of these skills craft and forms of art had come from the various indigenous peoples that were conquered or otherwise absorbed by the Inca Empire, rather than something that the Inca brought with them from Cuzco the empire. People were also diverse. Many people living in the empire word ethnically Inga, but some their leaders to be educated in Cuzco. Although
How do I was the primary language? At least two hundred other languages were spoken as well the ink. religion had its own pantheon and practices which included the use of oracles, ancestor worship, the care of the mummies of previous Inga leaders and on particular The disastrous occasions, like massive earthquakes, are the death of an emperor, the sacrifice of children, but the same time when other indigenous peoples were absorbed into the Inca empire, by whatever means they usually added Inca beliefs and practices into their own existing religions, rather than abandoning their previous practices and replacing them. In spite of it, huge size and diverse geography and population. Empire was efficient, orderly and very wealthy, like the Romans the Inca were highly effective administrators. The roads and the structures in cities they connected were extensively planned
The advantage of everything from the shape of the land to water sources to religious symbolism, They included incredible feats of engineering. Like the city of much repeat, you lying along that huge network of roads were strategically placed storehouses to keep the runners and the military supplied screwed This records were kept using collections of nodded multi colored cords called keep who, making an using keep. Who was a specialised job that involved years of training they empires wealth was also tightly connected to its labour, because for the most part that was what the empire taxed rather than taxing money. goods the Inca Empire had no centralized currency or concept of a market. Instead, the state used a labour tax called meta. The state would essentially right
position labour to do something like build a building and irrigation system or a set of terraces to make planting possible and mountainous terrain. The province would provide that labour rotating through its populations, the same people weren't disproportionately, the one serving out the town eggs, and this wasn't just about manual labor. The meta also applied to agricultural labour and to specialist labour like creating elaborate tapestries Sometimes you will see the system described as forced labour, and while it is true that this wasn't voluntary, it generally viewed among the Inca as part of a reciprocal relationship. People were working for the empire a certain number of days per year and in exchange they were getting whenever tools, clothing, food and resources they needed to do the work when it came to things irrigation systems and new homes. They were
So getting the benefit of the thing that they were building an underlying all of it was the idea that the empire would take care of the people in the event of something like a war or a famine there. definitely cases where the tax was used mostly or exclusively to the benefit of a wealthy leader who wanted something but it's a lot more nuanced than simply calling it forced labour and thence. Folks are also likely to ask, while the Inca did make a practice of using prince, of war as servants and other labour. That practice did no. Seem to extend to the idea that they were actual property, so you could probably describe the the prisoners of war as slaves, but it wasn't chattel slavery, as we saw in like other parts of the Americas. After this point, and this part of the Americans really after this point, a ruling over and leading this empire was a layered network of nobility at the top
the emperor and his immediate family, and this topic. could be quite large, since Inga emperors often had multiple wives and concubines with children by most or all of them to increase their chances of having suitable air, the strong downward descendants of previous Inga kings, who were not as closely related to the current Emperor and then came the more distant relatives and the last were people who related to the current or past emperors, but were empty in some other way like people from families that were particularly wealthy or had a lot of political pull for whatever reason, keeping such a massive dive empire going meant that the emperor typically spent a lot of time travelling from one part of the empire to another. He basically had to make very charismatic personal appearances too, reinforce the idea that he was a hereditary ruler with the divine mandate, the emperor's realm.
than other trusted leaders also acted as surrogates in the various provinces. When emperor could not personally be there. It also wired, a huge military because much empires expansion had happened through military conquest. There ongoing uprisings from those previously conquered peoples all able men had military training and the supper Inga had a huge army at his command, which could be increased at any I'm through the meat attacks in the fifteenth century, The Inca had what was almost certainly the largest military in the Americas. This massive complex diverse empire reads the peak of its size and power.
Less than a hundred years after Pachakuti became Sapa Inca of what was back then just the kingdom of Cusco, but in the 1520s two events happened in quick succession that set the stage for the empires fall. The first was a huge epidemic which struck between one thousand five hundred and twenty five and one thousand five hundred and twenty eight. been smallpox, the mumps or both whatever it was. It had been introduced to the American, by the Europeans and the indigenous Population had no natural immunity, people who came ill also experienced a range of complications, including encephalitis Henriette. diarrhea and Blindness Emperor Weymouth Pack was campaigning. Your Cato in, what's now Ecuador. When this epidemic struck, he die
in one thousand, five hundred and twenty eight, as did both of the governors, that he had left behind in the capital of Cuzco, multiple important leaders in both cities, as well, when at the park named one of his sons as his successor from his deathbed, that son died of the disease before he could even be informed and then wait a couple died before he could informed about his sons, death. This led to a civil war,
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a our aid dot com, slash history, to get twenty percent off your first order. That's sick, Cora, dot com, slash history, when both when a car park and his successor died in this epidemic that interrupted the Inca Empires line of succession and then what Fun was a huge rivalry and outright civil war between two of the emperor's surviving sends his nineteen year old son was scar was back in Cuzco, where he had been spending has time among the capitals political elite. He wasn't particularly experienced as a leader, and he had his share of both supporters and detractors. Thanks to all this political hob nobbing that he had been doing when the line of succession was interrupted. He was chosen as his father successor
largely thanks to his mother's, sizeable political pole and Cuzco where's cars, Half brother Otto Album had been away with his father on military campaigns near Tito. Ottawa Papa was about five years older than horsecar, and he had extensive connections within his father's army include to fail: powerful generals who had been active parts of the military, campaigns queen a cop arc had been pursuing at first like Ottawa Upper accepted his half brothers, essential to the throne. He sent gifts to Asgard, Cuzco Buddy, didn't, go there himself when it of an bearing their fathers body arrived back in the capital watts. Car was outraged that at a whirlpool was not with them. had some of his father surviving advisers who had made the journey killed include torturing, some of them under the guise of finding out whether out a wall by was plotting against him. It was
unheard of at all for newly installed emperors to have other possible airs, killed to protect their own claim to the throne. But why scars tree and of other nobility, was alarming. There's some discrepancy in the accounts Here either onawandah declared himself emperor from Cato after learning about what his brother was doing, or their fathers former general went to our welfare after hearing what was garments doing and told him that they would support his claim to be emperor, should he choose to make that claim, either way what followed, with a devastating civil war that went on for nearly four years, causing extreme this disruption and loss of life and an empire that was barely out of a massive epidemic Moscow, mounted an army and attempted to bring his brother back to accuse by force. But Oscars Army lost every age when it had without a wall buzz. A lot of this was thanks to the military tactics of the generals in charge
one of them. Chalco Chima had never been defeated. Eventually, Ottawa Buzz Army defeated while scars and Moscow. captured and confined to a cage and buzz force, embarked on the same sort of purge that horsecar had tried before, including killing law scars, wives, concubine in children in a number of gruesome ways. At this point, a whopper is concerned to be the emperor, but before he could even get back to the capital of Cuzco, he encountered Francisco Pizarro. This happened in car market the city in the mountains northwest of Cuzco, and that is where well. But in his army were Bevil act at the end of the civil war. We to back up for just a minute to talk about how Pizarro came to be there. it is sprouted in the forest. So Pizarro was born in Spain in one thousand four hundred and seventy six and he traveled to the Americas in one thousand five hundred and ten welser,
As mayor of Panama City, he heard story, he's a vast wealth to be found in South America on November, Fourteenth fifth Twenty four he embarked on the first of several small exploration voyages from Panama in fifteen too seven on one of these voyages, his navigator, Bartholemy Ruiz, spotted a large ocean vessel crewed. By about twenty indigenous people, they overtook that vessel killed most the people of board and found that it was filled with the exact sort of treasure that they heard they might find in South America This included a large number of personal adornments made of silver and gold, precious gems, Finally, embroidered textiles car Figurines or name eating and drinking vessels and armor. Having made this discovery, Pizarro wrote back to Spain today. Authorization to go on a larger expedition. He got the author.
play some. He wanted from the ground. He was to conquer the area and make himself the governor on December 27th of one thousand five hundred and thirty. He left Panama, with a small force intending to do just that. They made their way slowly down the western coast of South America, which, at that point, Spain had not really explored as they so they slowly got information from the people they encountered about. Madame and the ongoing civil war, Cesaro and his translators gradually pieced together that the Inca emperor was the sole authority over the empire, people viewed him as a divine ruler and that they saw
surrogates in their local areas as an extension of his own authority, not as an authority in their own right so cuz, I decided to do the same thing that her Non Cortez had done, and the conquest of the Aztec Empire, and what's now, Mexico, starting in fifteen nineteen Cortez, had captured the Cortes Emperor mocked Zuma, the second. According to Aztec accounts court. as and his men killed the emperor, but according to spanish accounts, he died after being stoned and shot with arrows, while trying to speak to his own subjects. Bizarre reason that if the Inca emperor was really the only source of authority in the empire than capturing him would allow him to take it over and he could replicate himself Amerika what Cortez had done and Mezzo America, Pizarro in his force of one hundred. Sixty eight men took a treacherous mountain road from the coast. Inland a under normal circles
says he would have encountered opposition at several points along the road, but because of that epidemic in the civil war. He faced. No resistance once here, and got to the city. It was nearly empty, although on a well by had an army of between forty thousand and eighty thousand men near by there in the city, Pizarro, and his men laid a trap. They hid the men and their horses and they also had a couple of cannons group of buildings around a square, and then he invited our well but to meet with him night before the meeting on a while back The people closer to him had held a ceremonial dinner celebrating their victory over his half brother the sort of celebration they went late into the night and involved heavy consumption of intoxicating beverages, but well. But it doesn't seem to have been worried about whether he or his attendance would be putting themselves in jeopardy if they arrived
Pizarro still recovering from the revelries of the night before after all He was a divine emperor. He expected Pizarro to see and acknowledge that fact, and that how he entered KA markka, carried on a litter and accompanied by about seven thousand retainers, not at the head than armed fighting force. Once our wealth I got in the car, how Martha? On November, sixteenth fifteen thirty two dominican friar named been sent aid. The Valverde approached him with an interpreter, the friar tie to him about the superiority of the christian deity and delivered a document called. The requirement is a document first drafted early in the sixteenth century, which representatives of Spain were supposed to read to native peoples, which reportedly gave Spain the moral, religious and legal rights to Conquest Spain's. conquest of the Americas was motivated by both religion and search for territory and treasure, and the require,
mealy tied both whose ideas, together it essentially explained about God, had given the Americans to Spain through Saint Peter and the pontiffs that followed it allows person hearing it quote, Time shall be necessary to understand and deliberate upon it before going on to say quote, but If you do not do this and maliciously may delay in it, I certify to you that, with the help of God, we powerfully enter into your country and shall make war against EU in always and manners that we can and shall subject to the yoke and obedience of the church and of their highnesses. We shall thank you and your wives and your children and shall make some he was of them and ass such shall cell and dispose of them as their highnesses may command, and we shall take away your goods and shall do you all the mischief and damage that we can as to vessels who do not obey and refused. Received their lord and resist and contradict him, and we protest that
deaths and losses which shall accrue from this- are your fault not that of their highnesses or hours, nor of cavaliers who come with us like an incredibly messed up, in of the Miranda Rights for spanish conquest of the Americas. Like yeah. Oh that's a hit piece of paper and horrible, heavy and horrible, and although there was an empty interpreter, present and common market, the requirement was also delivered, often in Spanish, to people who didn't speak Spanish, that they would get the sort of lecture about converts, submit or die and be enslaved. but in a language that they did not understand, which generally people found completely baffling and if you not understand it is your fly back hard. That really is. Its Your fault that we came into this to you so that eventually Emulous vacuum. It was
for a while it was either drafted and fifteen ten or fifteen thirteen. I found two different bates both for whom reputable sources it was eventually abolished and fifteen fifty six but at, but that was that was what that was what they were basically read: their rights as conquered or vanquished people's did. Their rights, which we have to put in scare quotes because things aren't rights at all. Bring. All of this, the friar had a bible, and there are multiple conflicting accounts of what happened to it. One thing they agree on is that that Bible wound up on the ground floor, this code, the hair is who is one of Pizarro personal secretaries, wrote that oughta wallpaper ass to see the Bible and wasn't able to open it after the fry handed it to him closed He said the outer wall, but finally got it opened quote an marvelling at the letters or the paper like other Indians. He threw it five or six
This is from him to the words the friar had said via the interpreter. He responded with great arrogance. I believe that he was the post. A marvel at the letters on the paper is in European, as in european accounts of of showing writing to indigenous peoples. All over the world and it s really, a lot more about european perceptions of how indigenous people we're supposed to behave like that. The idea of writing with this model, When meanwhile, the Inca had a system of keeping up with information that was so complicated who is no, how it we stood on read it anyway. That was, of course, not the only account of what happened that day tee to queue, see you, queen, who is an income emperor following the events that were talking about here, said that the day before
of think had offered some of the spanish a drink in a golden vessel, but the Spanish had pointed out on the ground. His account said that our wealth through the Bible on the ground to mirror the disrespect with the Inca had encountered from the Spanish the day before, and there are Numerous other accounts of this as well They all have their own various nuances, but all of them end up with somebody either throwing or dropping the Bible and, however, it too place, swim that happened. Pizarro men burst out of the buildings where they had been hiding, they master. nearly all of Ottawa Buzz Retinue mode, or all of whom were unarmed and they took out. Papa prisoner about zero had been doing this in the hope of just sort of now having the Inca Empire, It did not have the immediate effect of destroying the empire or putting it into the hands of Spain, and we will talk more about that after another, quick, sponsor break
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His capture led to kind of an odd stalemate. The space allowed him to continue acting as emperor while he was captured and the Inca continued to behave towards him as they have for a while, but pray the Spanish than he provide them with vast amounts of silver, gold and other treasure if they would Allow him the time to gather it clear whether he just intended this as gifts as a show of goodwill, a lot of times as written about as him ran swimming himself, regardless, though, with this offer a vast amounts of silver gold and other treasure, the spanish thought it would be in there. Interests keep Ottawa alive and to treat him pretty well, like you promised, there is now a source of treasure Meanwhile, Ottawa ordered why scar in any of his remaining supporters to be killed to stop them. Making their own similar deal with Spain after several months,
stirring, which he got reinforcements for his fighting force. Bizarre, declared that oughta, while buzz ransom, had been paid and ordered everything that had been brought for it to be melted down. This was a man. save destruction of Inca, our work and artifact side. It didn't buy ottawas freedom since then anthem had been paid. There was no longer any particular reason to treat him all that. Well, at this point, he was just a prisoner strive among Weena Car park. Sums also was not over Two young men arrived in car marker and said that they were the sons of Weena Car Park and one of them to Bahama said that he was horsecar. which intimate air bizarre, kept this revelation secret from Ottawa above, and he kept the two men hidden in car markka. What followed was an attempt by Weisgerber, supporters to try to use Pizarro and his fighting forest to their own ends. One of white scars, former support
went to Pizarro and claimed that a whopper was plotting against him, including having a military force approaching aha markka. Without really look into that claim. Pizarro level that accusation against out a whopper. He ordered a trial with the leaders who were in car market as witnesses Adam but denied that there was any plot going on and only afterward did Pizarro send anybody to investigate whether there really was a military force on the way, including sending too digital men as scouts, Hernando De Soto was one of Pizarro captains and he had become friendly without a wall by during his captivity, he offered to look these reports for himself on July. Twenty six, fifteen thirty three, the two men who had been deployed as scouts came back and said that Ottawa his army was three leagues away. Pizarro responds to this was too
being a military tribunals, try out a while back and execute him on that very same day. Desoto got back to Cough America after. All this was over and said that there was no army to currently been a ploy by what scar supporters to get rid of out Ottawa Papa and put their candidate on the throne, and with that to bewail bar was presented as horsecar successor and the legitimate heir to the throne. He was correct, and and swore allegiance to Spain, Bavaria, coup early meant to use them as a puppet emperor, but to beware of rain, did not asked for very long. He, Pizarro and retinue were en route from Cairo marker to Cuzco. When super while but died there. Were rumours among the spanish that general Chalkley Cima believed to be still loyal to add a whopper had poisoned him after tuba help us death, his
porters, and shall good Cima each put forth different man as who should be next in line for the throne and with the sun pics of who should be emperor still in question the procession. military engagements, at least four times on rooted Cuzco general ass from a well buzz previous army, were trying to stop Pizarro from getting to Cuzco, while bizarre army was trying to stop the attacking army before it could get the Cuzco and passing We combine with the units that we're station bear before they got the Cuzco Tupid, while as brother Manco India presented himself as the legitimate heir to the throne and as with Tuba Whelp up as our own hopes to use him as a puppet and at First Manco Inca did swear loyalty to Spain and he ordered the execution of cow catcher. Emma cow Katrina was executed by burning at the next time that they reached on the way to queues
Now an anchor force made a final attempt to block Pizarro from entering Cuzco, but its ultimate. Withdrew this love this image and Manco Inga in control of the city and the rest of the empire. But eventually he turned against Spain, leaving a series of rebellions for about a decade and establishing a separate capital invoke Obama before being killed. Spain continued to try to install puppet. Burma is over the Inca Empire over the next few decades. With varying amounts of success. The man whose considered be the last Inca Emperor was Tupac Merou. He was executed in Cuzco on September, twenty fourth fifteen. Seventy two roughly two hundred years later, Jose Gabrielle, Condor Conky would take the name to pack. Mario, the second, while leading another rebellion against Spain so
what's often described as Pizarro and his force. Lay waste to the Inca Empire was really more like. The Inca empire was still reeling from an epidemic in a civil war and multiple political factions tried and failed to use, Spain against one another and the spanish present than what. Peru had its own internal factions to deal with. Bizarros faction eventually prevailed in part because he had a former, partner Diego day Imago killed the go day. I'm son then killed Pizarro on July. Twenty six fifteen forty one eight years to the day after at a wealth of execution,. In spite of internal divisions, spanish colonization of the western coast of South Amerika continue after bizarre is death. Spain, Adopted the labour tax idea of meter but moved it a lot closer to the idea of ST up forced labour. We
a lot more about this progression in our previous episode about Tupac among the second and all together cause the indigenous population of this part of South America to plummet. It didn't recover to its 18th century levels for roughly five, hundred years. A lot of the key issue that we discussed earlier were destroyed before, during and after this time, and the ability to read them has been lost. There are still peoples, Andy? You have keepers that are important to their own community or history, and they know in a general sense what the keepers says, but not how to actually read it. Although the NGO Empire fell in the sixteenth century, there are still people descended from Inca leaders living in this part of South America today and related languages are still spoken as well, and the word catchword is now used grab indigenous peoples in Peru and neighbouring countries. Have you wanna hear
about sort of more about the time, but We then, and now that prior episode in the archive about pack of Marie Rebellion and tobacco Mary. The second is a good place to start. Do you? some listener mail that hopefully involves less factions in fighting and torture and death. more than that, I mean that we talk about death in a terrible thing. So often on the show. This is from Brittany. I don't think I've read this already before Adam sorry, Brittany says high treason, Holly riding into data both thank you for all the wonderful podcast and to say just how much the nine hundred ninety nine and one thousand episodes meant to me. I'm a pediatric nurse who also happens to be pediatric on quality, certified, hearing, sad,
Our societies story was thus deeply affecting it struck me how little has changed and the treatment of pediatric leukemia in the last sixty three years. For example, the drug mentioned in the episode met the tracks. Eight is. The main chemotherapy used for our pediatric patients there have been three drugs ever approved, specifically for the treaty a pediatric cancer and met the tracks. There was not one of them. The first two were approved the nineteen eightys and the last one in twenty fifteen Fortunately, we now have other therapies like radiation surgery and stem cell transplants, the name a few that were not. Available to satisfy Saki and others of her generation that greatly increase the survival rate, but we still have a very long way to go anyway. Sorry, for the day We of an email. I realize It is a weird way of expressing my gratitude for the Pike ass, but it seemed a good way of showing you how you always make me think, even when you discuss things, but I didn't miss in history class, you always have
Nick Way make him you think about it. Thank you for all that you do Brittany. Thank you for this Emel, Brittany. I actually didn't find it too. He a downer, largely because, like we said in that episode, there was really so little that could be done at all for a second society when she was diagnosed with leukemia and survival rates today have come such a long long way. I realize for a lot of people. It has lifelong effects on their health, even having been successfully treated, but the fact that today, that it's not an immediate, ok, we're gonna have to like hospitalized you for the next couple of years, and that will be the end like that's him. He is a huge step forward. If you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast we're history, podcast at Helstone works, dot com
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