The Chinese Exclusion Act was the United States’ first major immigration law, and as its name suggests it specifically targeted people from China. It led to Supreme Court cases that set the stage for later restrictions.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to stuff missed in history, glass, a production of Iheart Radio, hello and welcome to the pond cats and Tracy Wilson and I'm howling frying. We ve gotten several requests through an episode on a chinese exclusion ACT of eighteen, eighty, two about something that we ve mentioned and I feel like a lot of previous episodes and it's got no longer discussion and some specific episodes like the delay, no great strike and cannery row and our brief history of foreign foods in the? U S and then especially, are to partner on executive order night, Sixty six and the mass incarceration of japanese Americans during World WAR two, so those chinese Exclusion ACT was really the first big piece in just a long history of United States immigration laws intended to keeps
called undesirables out of the country and to Maine. in white racial purity. It was the United States first major immigration law and, as its name suggests, it specifically targeted people from China. It made it legal for chinese laborers to enter the Eu S for ten years, and then it was extended. The jury act in eighteen. Ninety two and then made permanent in nineteen o to it that we're repealed until nineteen forty three, that was under the Magnuson now, though, that act also set a quota on chinese emigration that worked out to a maximum of just about a hundred and five people a year not many at all, but the chinese Exclusion ACT.
also had a much broader impacts beyond its exclusion of chinese emigrants and beyond its setting the foundation for later laws that targeted other groups when it was challenged before the Supreme Court. The court's decisions established once known as the Plenary Power Doctrine for immigration law. Basically, that's the idea that the? U S government, legislative and executive branches have virtually unlimited authority to regulate immigration without a lot of oversight from the courts, even if they same regulations would be considered discriminatory if they were applied to U S citizen. So today we are going to talk about the chinese Exclusion ACT or also going to talk about the Supreme Court case. That's most closely associated with all this, and that is Chacha ping versus the United States for the most part, immigration in the? U S from China started after the end of the first opium, Warm Briefly Britain
wanted to import chinese goods like tea and silk, but China didn't really have a need for Britain's usual exports. So to offset that imbalance, Britain started trading opium from India into southern China. Opium, of course, is highly addictive narcotic, and although it has been introduced into China before this point, the british opium trade with socially and economically devastating the emperor started issuing edicts against opium in seventeen twenty nine, but Britain kept exporting it into China in defiance of chinese law. Eventually, China destroyed a shipment of british opium by throwing it into the Sea and Britain with. Palliated with force. The resulting war lasted from eighteen, thirty, nine to eighteen, forty two and it ended with a treaty of Nanjing which heavily favoured british interests.
Although the? U S had also been involved in the opium trade, it wasn't one of the belligerents in this war. So it was not a party to the Treaty of Nanjing, but the US did want acts. as to the same trading, ports and other concessions that Britain had secured through that treaty. So you as president, on Tyler, sent a delegation to China in eighteen, forty, four and the rest, was the treaty of one Shia, which was described as a treaty of quote: peace, amity and commerce. It called for a quote perfect payment and universal peace, and a sincere and cordial amity between the? U S in China, it was the first step an agreement between the Eu S in China and although it primarily covered, U S, trading rights with China, it also assume with the right for Americans to live in five specific chinese ports. The treaty abandoning and Wonka are two of the unequal treaties that China
find with other nations in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These treaties heavily favoured interests of other nations over those of China. China had strictly limited its trade and its contact with other nations before this point, and so it went through just massive and tumultuous social and economic changes. As a result of these treaties and the concessions that they granted to other nations on top of that, the piping rebellion was partially fuelled by this upheaval and dissatisfaction over these new foreign influences in China. It started in eight fifty and led to the deaths of more than twenty million people there unresolved issues from the first opium more fed into the second opium, more that started in eighteen. Fifty six there were massive AIDS and famines in China in the mid nineteenth century as well. In the wake of all this violence and chaos and destruction, people understandably started emigrating from China to other countries,
and while some people were able to pay their own way, others were essentially indentured workers or, in some cases, were the victims of trafficking. During same years. The United States needed a new source for laborers, especially in California. The! U S, took possession of nearly all of what is now California, Utah Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. After the end of the mexican Eric and war in eighteen. Forty, eight that same year, the discovery of but launched the California gold rush. So the? U S needed people to farm this newly acquired land to my Gold to build infrastructure just on and on they needed people get undressed from up practical, but also unpleasant level. People were going to have to come from somewhere else the indigenous population of California is estimated to have been at about a hundred and fifty thousand people at the end of the Mexican American WAR, and they face disease
loss of land and genocide at the hands of white settlers in the California government over the following decades and there's. Some newcomers to California did bring their enslaved workforce is with them. When California was admitted to the union in eighteen fifty it was as a free state, so the United States was just meeting to bring in workers from some other source. One the people proposing that these new labourers come from China was Erin, Hate, Palmer Memoir, geographical, political and commercial on the present state, productive resources and capabilities for commerce of sites, Maria Manchuria and the asiatic islands of the Northern Pacific Ocean and on the importance of opening commercial intercourse with those countries. We live long title. That book was addressed to President James K poke in eighteen. Forty eight, in addition to summarizing, quote the present state, productive resources and capable,
Bodies were commerce of several comparatively unknown countries in the east. The eighth chapter of this work was titled, quote policy of encouraging immigration. chinese agricultural labourers to California, semi, colon railroad from the Mississippi to the Bay of San Francisco. This chapter began quote with the view of bringing the fertile Lands in California under early cultivation. I would suggest the policy of encouraging emigration of agricultural labourers from China to that territory. No people in all the east so well adapted for clearing wild lands and raising every species of agricultural product, especially rice, cotton, tobacco, sugar and silk, as the Chinese partner goes on to describe how a colony of chinese labourers in California would also bring entry. from China and from other parts of Asia. He also advocates the Construct
of a railroad connecting the Mississippi River to San Francisco, which would connect the stern: U S to the West Coast for Trade with Asia. The United States would, under such a railroad under the Pacific Railway ACT, which was signed into law in eighteen. Sixty two as side now here Palmer would also go on to draft such documents as plan for opening Japan, which form the foundation for Commodore Matthew, Parrys voyage, to open Japan to western trade by Force Palmer Petition Congress for key population and recognition for his work. He was apparently very annoyed that he had not been recognised or paid for out of this that led to an act for the relief of Erin H, Palmer in eighteen, sixty one and under that He was paid three thousand dollars in the wake of all this, the number of chinese people living in the. U S rose dramatically in eighteen, forty, there were four people
Pull up chinese origin known to be living in the United States in eighteen, fifty there were just over four thousand, but by one thousand eight hundred and sixty. That number had grown to almost thirty five that's a big number and it sounds like a huge increase in it is, but it's still timey compared to the total. U S, population thirty one million people at the time. So at a national level. Looking at things from the federal government's perspective, these were desperately needed. Relatively end Spencer workers who were doing critical manual labor some about labour was incredibly difficult, unpleasant and dangerous. That was especially true as chinese workers started. Building the Trans continent railroad they made up between eighty and ninety percent of the workforce on the railroads western portion, but locally white people in the western- U S, especially in California, saw chinese immigrants as a threat. This
especially true during the gold rush as white minors, tried to exclude chinese people from mining camps and prevent chinese people from staking claims. Finally, as soon as chinese immigrants started branching out beyond doing manual, labor white people resisted we get into more about that after a quick sponsor break. My friend kept com In about car insurance, I need affordable insurance to get back on the road I gotta get to work. So I played this sound body and she was like played out again say final believes. Everyone deserves affordable coverage. In just three minutes. You can save big with low down payment on state minimum coverage. This is my job call one eight hundred safe all over your quote today: hey it's Holly
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During my eighteen. Fifty seven sixty is the state of California started really trying to discourage immigration from China and to place restrictions on chinese people who were already in the state in eighteen. Fifty four, the California Supreme Court issued its decision and people Verses Hall, which ruled that chinese people could not testify against white people in court. The language of the court's ruling was explicitly racist, including describing chinese people as inferior in eighteen. Fifty eight California passed a law that barred chinese and mongolian people from entering the state. More generally, there are also just the same kinds of discriminatory. segregation laws that we ve seen in other contexts and laws that word is applied only to chinese population and not to everyone else. At the same time the United States was signing new treaties with China in eighteen. Fifty eight, the
Ass in China signed the treaty of gin which supplemented and revise the treaty of one she up the tree of ten June, again emphasise this idea of establishing a quote: firm, lasting and sincere friendship between the two nations Freedom of Tianjin and once are both outlined. Various rights and protection for America citizens who were living in China, but they didn't really. do the same for chinese citizens who are living in the United States or really hence in chinese emigration to the? U S at all that changed with the Burlingame Seward Treaty of eighteen. Sixty eight was named for U S, minister, to China, Anson Burlingame, who had started working directly for the chinese government and for a secretary of State Williams word in addition to again reiterating and expanding american trading rights with China, this treaty
also specified that both chinese and american citizens had a quote inherent and unalienable right to change their home and allegiance in other words, Americans, could immigrate to China and chinese people could emigrate to the. U S without restriction at the same time quote nothing you're in, contain shall be held to confer naturalisation upon citizens of the Eu S in China. Or upon the subjects of China in the United States? U S: since could also enjoy all the privileges of a public education under control, the chinese government and I mean citizens could do the same in the. U S. chinese and american citizens were each allowed to establish their own schools in the other country as well, but even as the federal government was establishing this pretty unrestricted right to emigrate between China and the United States, the screen-
nation against chinese people already in the United States was really increasing. The same types of racist stereotyping that had been used to justify slavery was used to justify discrimination and violence against chinese emigrants, China, his men were described as being useful. Only for manual labor, while chinese women were cast as sex workers compounding all of this were perceptions that chinese people would work for such low wages that they made it impossible for white people to compete. employers, also started bringing in chinese workers to break strikes and that, through the eyes of the workers, they were this thing, and the unions that represented them in the language used to describe chinese workers, often carried a connotation of damage and destruction. These immigrants, described as an invasion or a flood they lose or even a plague of locusts,
The idea was that once the railroad was finished or the mine was played out or the crop was brought in, then these were Hurstwood swarm into another area and destroy everything in their path. This was worsen, by the panic of eighteen. Seventy three, which kicked off a financial depression and also lead, to increased competition for fewer and fewer jobs. White communities than business leaders along the West Coast, especially in California, started pressing the federal government to take action against this supposed chinese threat and eighteen Wendy five less than a decade after signing the Billing Game treaty. Both federal government responded to this with the page act. The page act barred; U S, it was from bringing quote any subject of China, Japan or any oriental country into the Eu S with their free and voluntary consent. In other words it band Americans from bringing indentured or otherwise and free workers to the. U S: from these countries, section three of
Age ACT also began quote the importation, into the United States of women for the purposes of prostitution is hereby forbidden and empowered port collectors to inspect vessels and their passengers to confirm that this law was being followed, the pay to act essentially assumed that asian women emigrating to the? U S where sex workers and subjected them to degrading and humiliating exams and interrogations. Upon arrival before this point chinese emigrants to the? U S had been predominantly may Since so many were being contracted to work of manual laborers. But the page act became an even bigger deterrent for women and it reinforced stereotypes that connected asian women sex work, combined with a rise in anti assassination laws which made it illegal for people of different races to marry. This meant that the vast majority of chinese people in the? U S were single men,
or men whose families were back in China was basically a deterrent to forming actual please and communities here: in the. U S. We talked about some similar stuff in our delay. No great strike episode with filipino workers who were not permitted to have wives or to boring, wives from the Philippines yeah eighteen, seventy five was also the year that church on paying arrived in the: U S to work, and he in the United States for the next twelve years, and during for years, the? U S continued to pass new restrictions on immigration from China and other parts of Asia and chinese immigrants already in the country. Caliphate adopted a new state constitution in eighteen, seventy nine, which included article nineteen, who simply called Chinese Two of this article began quote no
operation now existing or hereafter formed under the laws of this state shall, after the adoption of this constitution, employed directly, indirectly in any capacity any chinese or Mongolian. Sir some three reads in its entirety quote: no. Chinese shall be employed on any state county municipal. or other public work, except in punishment for crime. Also in eighteen, seventy, nine, the? U S Senate, and how we passed a bill that mandated that ships arriving in the United States could carry no more than fifteen chinese workers. President referred behaved vetoed this bill because it conflicted with the treaties in place with China, including the Burlingame treaty, but then to address that he sent a commission to China, headed by diplomat, James Angel, to negotiate a new treaty and the result of that
go situation. Was the angel treaty signed in eighteen? Eighty? The angel treaty was written to apply only to laborers, although the definition of laborer expanded over time, it read in part quote: Whenever, in the opinion of the government of the United States, the coming of China laborers to the United States or their residence therein affects or threatens to affect, the interests of that country or endanger the good order of the said country or of any locality within the territory thereof. The government of Chad, agrees that the government of the United States may regulate limit or suspend. it's coming or residents, but may not absolutely prohibited the treaties. Second, article declared back quote chinese subjects: whether proceeding to the United States as teachers, students merchants or from curiosity, together with their
body and household servants and chinese labourers who are now in the United States shall be allowed to go income of their own. free will and a cord and shall be accorded all the rights, privileges, immunities and exemptions which are accorded to the citizens and subjects of the most favoured nation, However, just two years after signing the angel Treaty, the United States pass the chinese Exclusion ACT or, as it was probably known and act to execute certain treaty stipulate. Shins relating to Chinese. It banned these laborers from coming to the U S for ten years, and it defines labourers, as quote both skilled, an unseen, he'll labourers and Chinese employed in mining and then also include
this clause? No state court or court of the United States shall admit Chinese to citizenship. May you can make the argument that, because this applied only to laborers, it was not absolutely prohibiting people from coming from China to United States which, like the angel Treaty, had said that the? U S could limit, but not absolutely prohibit, still kind of like well technically level of argument. This act did not apply to chinese people who were already in the U S before the angel Treaty was signed or people who arrived within ninety days of the passage of the exclusion ACT, at least in terms of the ability to come and go, but the fact that they bring could not become citizens that applied to everyone, and this established a process to take place at american ports, which would document the right
of these people, who you know, were exempt under this part of the treaty to come and go the customs collector. What document all chinese passengers on departing vessels and then these passengers were entitled to receive a certificate that would quote entitle the chinese laborer to whom the same, is issued to return to and re enter the United States upon producing delivering the same to the collector of customs of the district at which the such chinese laborer shall seek to re enter so basically pure already here you're supposed to be able to come and go, you could return to China or go somewhere else and then come back in the United States. In practice, this act band virtually all immigration to the Eu S from China and it also sparked a massive amount of horrific anti chinese violence. In the U S there. Ben Mass anti chinese violence before this point as well,
ample on October, twenty fourth eighteen, seventy one, a white man, was killed during a shoot out involving several chinese men and italian nation, a white mob attacked the chinese community of LOS Angeles lynching, at least seventeen people, but after the exclusion ACT was poor Ass white communities on the West Coast felt empowered to purge there. These populations and they subjected try. These neighborhoods to riots and other mass violence, multiple cities and towns expel their entire chinese population, including Tacoma Washington, which force marched its remaining chinese residents out of town on November. Third, one thousand eight hundred and eighty five at least twenty eight chinese man were massacred and Rock Springs Wyoming. On September thirtieth of eighteen, eighty five, this whole period. came to be known as the driving out and it really
A lot of similarities to the mass violence against black communities that we ve talked about in previous episodes, including our episode on the red summer of nineteen nineteen There was a widespread perception outside of the chinese community, the Chinese immigrants were ignorant illiterate but really the chinese immigrant community, in the U S was deeply interconnected, organised, and legally, very savvy choice He's benevolent and mutual aid associations had started to form in the. U S. Almost as soon as chinese immigrants had started. Arriving in aid mainly to the six most powerful form. The chinese consolidated, Benevolent Association, also known as the chinese six companies, its leadership included chinese merchants and other wealthy and prominent people, and it kept attorneys on retainer to deal with legal issues that involve chinese immigrants. So did the
chinese consulate. This led to a huge number of court cases as people started arriving from China and the United States. Without that certificate that was described under the chinese Exclusion ACT that would guarantee them the right to return in some cases, the splits because they were really new arrivals. They hadn't been in the United States before, but there were plenty of reasons that people might really be returning to the? U S, having left previously, but without the right paperwork. To prove that they had previously been in the country, they could have left the United States before the exclusion ACT was passed at which point no such certificates are being issued or they just might not have been issued. One vast said that they were entitled to it. Not they were gear. team to receive it. This caused problems at the ports, as officials had to work out whether people really were legally allowed to enter the. U s these cases
often wound up in courts. The collector of the port of San Francisco Clay and that of the more than twenty six hundred chinese people allowed into the U S and the first fourteen months after the act was signed more than a third of them had come through the courts without Orient researchers, the kid this was a big deal on January, twenty sixth eighteen, eighty four judge, Ogden Hoffman of the: U S: district court for the northern district of California included this statement and his ruling on one of these cases quote. If the chinese immigrants come in there, future in anything like the number in which they have recently arrived. It will be impossible for the courts to fulfil their ordinary functions. There remain on the calendar of the district court. I am informed a hundred ninety cases for five or six weeks. Even with night sessions, I have been unable to make any great impression
I am all ordinary business, public and private of the court is necessarily suspended, or if resumed these passengers, men, of whom may be entitled to their discharge, are left either in custody or on bail awaiting the determination of their cases. It is therefore an urgent necessity that Congress, by committing that thirty two commissioners, or by some other mood, should relieve the courts of the burden of passing on these cases to close these legal loopholes on July. Third, eighteen may be for the: U S: government broadened the chinese Exclusion ACT, make misery entry certificates issued at port. The only evidence that could establish a person's right to re enter the United States, but this expansion didn't make, the provision for people who had left the? U S before it was passed. This led to a Supreme Court case involving too young.
it left, the? U S for Hawaii in eighteen, eighty one and had tried to return to the? U S and eighteen. Eighty four, in this case Young was loud to enter the Eu S, because the court found that the law had not intended to strip people of rights they had previously had under the treaty, which included being able to come and go justice, Stephen field who will come up again, the Santa with this ruling, arguing that it was quote wholly immaterial to enquire whether by the act of failed, it has departed from the treaty or not, or whether such departure was accidental or designed and The latter, whether the reasons therefore were good or bad. During the Earl arguments field, it also said quote: Congress never suppose that Chinaman intended to go back to China and stay several years. If they do not come back at once, they should not be to come at all, were going to get in to chide shown pinks case after we pause for a sponsor break while
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that earlier catch on paying travelled into the United States from China in eighteen, eighty seven and he worked on the- U S for the next twelve years. Beyond that, we don't know a lot about him. I have a lot of unanswered questions specifically about his name like I dont know how his name was written in chinese characters and how that was romanized, because the renovation methods that exists today like had not really been developed. Yet when he re emigrated. There are just some question marks about how he would have written or said his own name on June. Second, eighteen, eighty seven he set sail for China
aboard the steamship gaelic for a visit before the ship left the port. He got the required certificate that would allow him to re enter the United States when he got back on September. Seventh, one thousand eight hundred and eighty eight he set sail from Hong Kong aboard the Belgic. That was a british vessel that was under charter to an american company, and it was bound for San Francisco. The Supreme Court's decision in his case says that he arrived in San Francisco on October eighth, but newspaper reports about the vessels I will say that it was on the seventh, however, on October first, one thousand eight hundred and eighty eight, while he was still in transit. President Grover Cleveland signed the Scott ACT into law Scott ACT Board Re Entry for chinese immigrants to the: U S, no matter when they first arrived in or how long they had lived in the country, the you. In China had been working on yet another treaty. This time China had proposed that it
tail immigration to the Eu S with the hopes that it would ultimately protected since who were in the United States, but the resulting greedy band immigration to the Eu S for twenty years and the return of chinese workers to the? U S. This led to a huge outcry and China refused to ratify the treaty. So the EU has acted unilaterally and put the same basic provisions in place with the Scott ACT. At this point, China really had no confidence that the United States was willing or able to protect chinese citizens who were living on american soil. The Scott acts made that re entry certificate that charge on paying had obtained before leaving the United States in valid, and he was not at all unique in this situation. Even though only a few
Of these cases made it all the way to the Supreme Court, its estimated that the Scott ACT invalidated the re entry permits of as many as twenty thousand chinese people, and that as many as six hundred then we're in transit to the United States when it was past just in terms of the passengers aboard the belgic, there were a hundred and seventy six people from China, all of whom were kept their confined to the ship under hard by port officials, attorneys, began filing petitions on behalf of those one hundred seventy six people, some of them arguing that they had technically Ben under. U S jurisdiction before the Scott ACT with sign, since the Belgic was operating under an american charter, a petition
Church on paying was filed on October tenth, and he was issued a writ of habeas corpus. Try jumping hearing was before the circuit court of the United States for the northern district, the California and the judge ruled that his detention aboard the Belgic was legal because of the Scott ACT. He had no legal right to enter the United States anymore, but his attorneys argued that this was in violation of existing tree, he's between the United States and China, including the Burlingame treaty. His appeal went to the Supreme Court where it was argued on March, twenty, eight and twenty ninth of eighteen, eighty, nine, the Fourteenth amendment to the? U S constant, vision, is worded as applying to persons, not citizens. So a person cannot be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, Church on pings attorneys made an argument that his right to re enter the: U S was effectively property and that he could not be stripped of it without due process
They also reiterated the idea that his exclusion from the- U S, ram against existing treaties with China. However, the Supreme Court was unanimous in its decision, which was issued on May thirteenth. That champing did not have the right to re, enter the United States, regardless of what the treaties in place between the? U S, China actually said in terms of federal laws than international treaties, the court rural, but neither of them had automatic precedence over the other. So whichever one was the most recent was the one that applied to the situation, but the word also went way beyond answering just this one specific question, Stephen Job, and field writing, for the majority, wrote quote to preserve its independence am give security against. foreign aggression and encroachment is the highest duty of every nation and to attain. and nearly all other considerations are to be subordinated. It matters.
In what form such aggression and encroachment come whether from the floor, nation acting in its national character or from vast hordes of its people crowding in upon us. The court's opinion was also pretty bride and how it approached the idea of race and assimilation quote if, therefore, The government of the United States, through its legislative department, considers the presence of foreigners of a different race in this country, who will not assimilate with us to be dangerous to its peace and security, their exclusion, is not to be stayed because at the time there are no actual hostilities with the nation of which the foreigners are subjects. This opinion, also framed restrictions on immigration, even if discriminatory as a fundamental part of a nation sovereignty quote the power
exclusion of foreigners being an incident of sovereignty belonging to the government of the United States as a part of those sovereign powers delegated by the constitution, the right to its exe. size at any time when, in the judgment of the government, the interests of the country require it, I'll be granted away or restrained on behalf of any one. Today, champing versus the United States is often referred to as the chinese exclusion case, although sometimes it's also grouped in with three later cases and they become the chinese exclusion cases together as a group, and although these decisions have been highly criticized, especially in recent years, they have never been overturned. As we said at the top of the show. Together they have formed the
nation for the Plenary Power Doctrine in the context of United States immigration law. Basically, people trying to enter the Eu S aren't citizens, so constitutional protection against discrimination does apply to them. And all persons already in the United States, are covered under parts of the fourteen amendments, specifically the guarantee of due process persons not already in the United States, really aren't so through. These rulings, the Supreme Court, took a position that the President and Congress are responsible for immigration law, not the courts and not without much court oversight. As for TRY John Ping, we know he was forced to go back to China, but that didn't happen for a few more months. His case had been national news, thanks to its potential impact on the chinese Exclusion ACT and for weeks after the Supreme Court issued its ruling. There were headlines claiming that no one knew where he was on June:
twenty third one of his attorneys gave a statement to the San Francisco examiner that he would let the federal marshal know when his client was ready to set sail and that it was unusual for it to take up to thirty days for a person to get their affairs in order and be ready to leave, even though he was essentially being deported at this point, like none of the language round, this case is framed of deportation. It's free, of excluding him from entering the Eu S, even though he had been released on borrowed and was already in the U S in August of eighteen. Eighty nine, his bondsman agreed to bring him to the port to board the Arabic, which was scheduled to depart for China on the twenty second of that month. It seems to have asked They set sail a few days after that, according to a right up in the New York Times, which is really insulting and its tone. So I kind of take this with the grain of salt. He refused to pay for his passage because he did not want to leave the United States
In the first place, there were people who came to the US from China while the chinese Exclusion ACT was enforced. This was particularly true after the one thousand nine hundred and six earthquake and fire destroyed most of San Francisco's public records. So people forged documents to claim that they had been born in the U S or that they were related to? U S: citizens, people who entered the? U S through this kind of forged paperwork became known as papers. so it's possible that church on paying returned to the? U S, but it is assumed that he spent the rest of his life in China No, we don't really know a lot about what happened to him after this point,
we don't know a lot about him as a person in general, but we do know that his case had just a monumental influence on how the courts have continued to view immigration law in the United States and, by extension, like how lawmakers make immigration policy, knowing that the Plenary Power Doctrine is the long standing president. At this point I have with their mail, so I was going to ask you for it, but you got it about something completely different. It's from Erika, and it is titled scurvy story for a year, wanted something a little lighter to take us out and Missus o lighter a lighter side of scurvy Erika, says high Holly and Tracy. I just listen to your episode on scurvy, I missed a few weeks of podcast round the holidays and finally catching up and wanted to share a third hand story with you. Both. I graduated with my masters in public health last
bring and, of course, during the mph programme, when we start learning about randomized controlled trials, we start with James Lindh in his work, identifying a cure for scurvy and teaching about the story and its implications for public health. By professor mentioned, his college roommate, who prescribed fully to the Classic College student Diet of Robin and coffee during their first semester at school, the room began to feel unwell, fatigue, body, eggs, generalised weakness, Et Cetera, eventually went to see a doctor who told him that his all instant Robin Diet had him in the early stages of scurvy, the doktor sent him off with instructions to eat a flippant fruit every once in a while, I'm paraphrasing here, and he quickly recovered as a fairly recent college. Graduate myself remembering the story,
never fails to make me laugh and inspire me to pick up an orange. Thank you so much for all that you do are now work and the Department of Health as part of the covert response in it, and I appreciate your mix of topics this year. I always have the choice whether I want to distract myself from public health or learn more about it. I especially love the scurvy episode and the one on the royal philanthropic vaccine expedition thanks again Erika. Thank you so much for this note Erika that I found a pretty delightful just in general. I know that there are like real, serious social and economic issues that can lead to people two people developing scurvy, but the idea of college students developing it because their eating Rahman, all the time I was a little funny or to me it is it's also just a good lesson right. You remember that nutrition is legitimately important, yes, I'll say who we we have not had
Instant Robin on hand at our house for the most part, just as a rule until the pandemic started an especial. in the early days of the pandemic. When a lot of times it was just hard to find basic staples. We weren t getting a big box of of Shin Bowl, spicy roman ends. That has become my traditional thing to eat. For lunch on the days that we record
because very often we have a very narrow gap. You and I, between when we finish, recording and when we start our next bang and and making an instant Rahman bowl, has just become my favorite little thing. Even though today we ve had a relatively short recording session cause we're only recording one episode, I'm probably still gonna do it, even though I have plenty of time to make my lunch. I am I a huge Rahman fan. I love Robin, but Item four make it fancy, rather than making the kind that you put boiling water, and I do both and I I have such fun memories when I was a kid and my dad what is clear: worse, and when I was a kid, he had a friend who was stationed in Japan and would ship us just entire crates. Roman, and that was my boy
fist almost every day in elementary school for at least a couple years, because I loved it so much and it has continued to be one of my big favorites and I loved him play within mess with it am that's one of them one of the many things I miss about normalcy. I note that word has no meaning anymore, but, going to our offices that there's a really yummy restaurant in our building. That makes some of the best Rahman in Atlanta, and I miss it desperately I missed out Robin so much. I make it a point to eat it that restaurant every time I come to the land office, which of course, is not a place. I've been and well over a year. At this point, we did find a restaurant that delivers Rahman during these. As ever, we, did like for a long time. We were just making all of our own food and we started really trying to order delivery are we to try to support our local restaurants found this one restaurant, the dozen amazing job of number one make,
the Roman and never to delivering it in a way that its still really delicious. which is great, though anyway, I back their whole round saga, I'm sure everybody important, rotten Borg. I should like to send us a note about them. Rahman or earlier oranges, or anything like that. We're at history podcast that I heard radio dot com, we're all over Well, maybe I missed them. History, that's real, find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram em. You can subscribe. Our show on Apple plant cast an eye hot radio, app and anywhere else replied tasks Stop invest in history class, the production I heart radio for more plug gaps for my heart rate, by her radio have added mankind's or wherever you listen to your favorite shows my four
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Transcript generated on 2021-04-20.