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Commercial Aviation in the U.S., Part 1

2019-10-07 | 🔗

Since the possibility of air travel became a reality, many entrepreneurs were trying to figure out a way to make flight into a business. This first of two parts covers those early efforts, and the growth of the airline industry up to WWII.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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with eighty will you're about to here is marking. Will you won't see when they see who tells guest room is marketing? We will seize room designed to maximize space and destitute of clutter. That's actually meant to be used, and that's precisely how it should be easy hotels. The perfectly precise hotel welcome to stuff he missed in history class. The production of I hurried use, how stuff works hello, unwelcome and upon cast iron Holly fry at I'm crazy wealthy. So this is one of those ever said that I thought would be. Others will be a pretty quick one to do when I'm travelling in really busy and then it balloon never came to episodes so it'll be today and the next episode that we're gonna talk about how commercial aviation developed in the twentieth century and is one of those things that the as I said it just kept growing and growing. As I worked on it because there's a lot of innovation and regulation and tragedy that have all been part of
keeping this relatively young industry and even at two episodes, I would still only call it a brief history of commercial aviation. I feel in many of the things that come up over the course of these You episodes are things that we could do entire episodes on and in some cases, even series on pressure and in the interest of expectations management. While we are going to talk about some things that happened on an international level, I am going ahead in tabling this commercial aviation in the. U S, because we do talk a lot more about you. Companies and regulation than anything else and speaking of regulation. This is only gonna run up to the year that the? U S, deregulated, the airline industry in the late seventies, there's a whole lot more. That happens after that. But we're going up to that, cause to me that sort of, like the what I would categorized as the early aviation industry, even though it spans seventy years, today in part one. We are gonna go up to and a little into world war two so buck
uh, because here we go since the early nineteenth hundreds when the possibility of air travel became a reality at all many Two procures, including Orville and Wilbur, right we're trying to figure out how to make flight into a business we discussed a lot of other contenders who come up when we're about who gets the true credit for the invention of flight. But apart from that, question the rights put a lot of hustle into monetizing. This new mode of travel specifically I started talking to the U S Army, about possible applications of their new technology, although they had to do a lot convincing to get the army on board. With that yeah I may I mean they were talking to other people.
other countries as well, but they were really trying to sell to the army and a Navy man named Charles Furnace had first seen the right fly in one thousand nine hundred and four when he was on leave for the holidays, and from that point he became a huge fan and every years of following their work, he helped the rights by assisting Charles Taylor, who is there mechanic so he became their employee. Officially, in the spring of nineteen o eight, when they desperately needed, help rebuilding their North Carolina camp to prepare for new test flights. They had been away from it for some time and when they came back thinking that they would do new test flights in prep for this army stuff there like Alice camp is a mess net, helping to actually take a lot more effort to get it. Up to the point that they can work from their than they had anticipated at that with their rights had cut a deal with the: U S Army, to build them an airplane and other interested parties have liked. The army suggested that they would be willing to buy if the rights could build a plain that had the capability to carry a passenger as well as
the series of manoeuvring and speed requirements. On the morning of May fourteen nineteen o eight Wilbur right piloted the first known passenger flight and he that man, Charles Furnace, on a beach flayed the lasted less than half a minute, as thanking Charlie for his help and support over the years, because even where they hire them, he would It's in when they needed a hand and later that day, Charley was once again a passenger in a much longer two mile flight. This time with Orville right as the pilot So nineteen o eight became a milestone year in commercial aviation, but it also marked a serious tragedy in the effort to turn air flight into a business Amber seventeenth of that year. Orville carried an army lieutenant named Thomas Suffrage in a demonstration flight at Fort Meyer, Virginia fell for it was really knowledgeable about aviation, he was a member of the Aerial Experiment Association and had designed as an airplane. He was also
the five men committee that the army had established to evaluate the White brothers efforts and meeting the requirements that were outlined in their contract endure The test, one of the plains propellers, had a problem, its wooden blade split in orbit cut, the engine which had started shaking very violently and the attempted the glide the plane into a landing, but a real rudder shifted position and the plane was pretty abruptly tipped news down the flight ended in a very hard crash landing in which suffragist skull was fractured. So died later that day and was the first fatality in the commercial aviation business or will write. His leg and several ribs, but he did recover over time The army allowed the right some time to recover and rebuild, and they ran some test to determine what had caused the failure in the fourth Meyer test and to try to address it after another, a series of demonstration flights in nineteen o nine they were awarded. A government contract may adopted this new technology, the? U S, army
required there, pilots to wear helmets because of suffrage is death. There my brother's continued to diversify their business strategy to counter the many other entrepreneurs who wanted to get into aviation. They were definitely not the only the hateful China make planes for money and one of the ways that they did so was to open the first flying school to train commercial pilots in nineteen ten, and they did that just outside of Montgomery Alabama. The pile strain and the alibi I'm a school were taught so that they can fly for the rights. Travelling exhibitions try to drum up sales, and then they in turn were expected to be able to teach the buyers how to fly their new aircraft occasion was chosen because the warm weather of the south offered a longer period each year to have flight training, and there was a of open flat farmland, despite
the community in this area doing everything possible to welcome the rights in their school, including clearing the land for them and building them a hanger. The school only operated for a short time, and it only had one graduate Walter Brookings a series. Play malfunctions and the need to start their next tour led the rights to leave the Montgomery area after only a couple of months, and they have behind Ricans and some other people to sort of keep it going. But it really wasn't happening. The farmland that have been set up for the rights eventually became a repair depot during World WAR, one and then it evolved over time to become Maxwell. Air force base and one thousand nine hundred and eleven the Burgess company became the first license to manufacture of aircraft. They operated of marble had Massachusetts Sterling Burgess, who owned the company, had shifted his interest to aviation after running a successful shipyard cut it.
with the rights to build planes with their patented technology and they introduce an aircraft called the moth that was very similar to the rights model, be during the years that Burgess was in business. Things got fairly heated between Sterling Burgess and their rights as disputes. Up did over royalties and shipping schedules, but the way, still recognise the Burgess, was really a worthwhile business partner and even as Burgess in their rights, also competed in there competitions to advance the aviation field. They continued this partnership, the bird This company was awarded a military contracts during World WAR one, but it took a significant efforts to meet the demands of the deal, just as the war was coming to a close on November. Seventh, nineteen eighteen Burgess plant were to which at that point was the main manufacturing facility was destroyed by fire. This spells the end the company outstanding orders were completed by the number one facility, the five honey Employees of the company were giving their last paycheck, and then the company was shuddered and coming
we'll talk about the first commercial airlines to open the first. pause for a little sponsor break. It's no secret, that the best part of any social gathering or any special event. Is that beautiful moment where someone proposes a toast, and I'm not talking about just the bread here folks on talking about that move where you take a glass you extended into the air, and you see something kind, generous, dignified and true about your closest friends and family SAM Adams agrees and that's why they started the toast someone campaign created to encourage all of us to take a moment through a simple toast to let more people in our lives know that we care about them and to remind everyone that life is better with dignity, better with respect and better together.
while there were a number of flights being made for money in the nineteen teens, the first actual airline didn't launch until nineteen fourteen January. of that year marks the first time that an actual airline, the Saint Petersburg Tampa Airbus line, opened its doors as a business with a regular route schedule and the real was just as the airlines name advertise. It ran passengers from Saint Petersburg Florida Tampa Florida by going across the bay in this I took less than thirty minutes. That was a significant improvement over the two hours. A steamboat would take to make this Twenty one mile, it's about thirty four kilometers, run of course, going our driving around the bay would have been even longer than that. The mayor of think yours Burg, Abrams E, feel, was the airlines first customer and he boarded a so called flying boat, designed by Saint Louis entrepreneur named Thomas, been Wa Bill had purchased
his ticket by auction. Alot of people wanted to be the first passenger and he ended up paying four hundred dollars for it. It wasn't a per flights, the minor engine trouble made them, make a brief water landing and then restart before they made it is hamper. But this is still considered a success. The Saint Peter her Tampa. Airbus line did not have longevity jeopardy and only ran for four months, because, as the winter moved in spring. Most of the wealthy people in the area of snow birds made their way back north and then they're. Just wasn't enough interest or money to keep it going. But for months, the airline made two flights a day. Six days a week at a ticket price of five dollars again that four hundred dollar one was an auction to be first and then they had another five dollar charge. They would make per hundred pounds of freight if they were carrying freight it Tony Janis, flew a total of twelve hundred five passengers in that
time at the airline was an operation. One of the legacy of this Saint PETE Temple Thine is then a word that was established in nineteen sixty four by the Tampa and Saint Petersburg Chambers of Commerce, the Tony Dennis Award issued by the Tony Bennett distinguished aviation society, continues on to this day and recognizes quote extraordinary accomplishments in the field of commercial aviation. What are the major steps in the progression of commercial aviation? Was the establishment of the? U dot S National AIR Mail service in August of ninety a team and this new influx of money that it brought into the aviation industry, bolstered that new made in it lately burgeoning industry. At a time when passenger affairs were just a few over non exist, they were there were some people interested in paying to fly, but they really were not enough to sustain this,
carrying male offered a real ongoing business that provided as much as ninety five percent of all revenue for some companies. Early airmail pilots were operating on what was called cams contract airmail roots. They were mapped out by the post office department before the estate men of an official airmail service, the Post office, was using military aircraft and pilots on its airmail service roots. They re between New York, Philadelphia and Washington D C Transition from military craft and pilots to the Post Office department, managing things on their own was enabled in part by Army Captain Benjamin Listener, who resigned his commission to become the airmail services. First superintendent in nineteen nineteen, the oldest carrier in the world that has retained its original name, launched. That carry is Kayo M Royal. Dutch airlines emerged with AIR France in two thousand for, but it still operates under its original name
in the following year. Nineteen twenty a began offering flights between Amsterdam and London, a route that it still offers. Almost a hundred years later, the first of Tail M illustrates what we are saying a moment ago about passengers versus cargo. As the economic drivers of early commercial aviation, the companies flights transported three hundred forty five passengers in year, one and twenty five thousand kilos of mail and cargo today a single flight routinely carries almost as much cargo at about twenty thousand kilos and even more passengers topping out more than four hundred within a decade, Kalen Royal Dutch Airlines was travelling a regular route to Indonesia, which was still a dutch colony. At that time, by the MID nineteen. Forty as they were running flights to Mexico and New York, the late nineteenth teens and early nineteenth twenties was when commercial airport started, opening around the globe
London's Hounslow Heath Aerodromes opened as a commercial airport. In nineteen nineteen, though it had been an airfield used by the royal flying corps for almost a decade before it became a commercial entity. Australia, Sidney Airport in Minneapolis, Saint Paul International Airport, both opened in nineteen. Twenty east pray I got a dedicated commercial airport in nineteen twenty two, a few governed avow, the first it continental nonstop light took place in nineteen twenty three fucker tee to aircraft piloted by two. U S: Army AIR Service officers who were Lieutenant John, a MC ready and lieutenant Oakley g Kelly may this year firm, Roosevelt Field Long Island to Rockwell Field in San, Diego California. They did that over the course of twenty seven hours there speed was ninety one miles an hour
I always thought that was a good reminder right. Air flight was not speedy, speedy. Now this today, on February, second, nineteen, twenty five, the contract Airmail ACT, also known as the Kelly ACT, passed into law. In the? U S and this essentially led the: U S: postal Service, delegate, their work, managing roots, pilots, etc to contracted airlines and the first I've contracts went to Colonial air transportation, National AIR Transport, Robertson ERA, corporation, western air, Express inverting airlines, the you. Airmail service still had its own dedicated pilots and aircraft. They were running male along the transcontinental fly way, while the contracted airlines were handling shorter regional routes.
change the rift. Early short of time, though, and my one thousand nine hundred and twenty seven commercial airlines were handling all of the mail by the end of the 1920s. Almost four dozen airlines had postal service contract. Once again, the airmail business helped move the industry forward. Prior to the airmail ACT of nineteen twenty five. A lot of flight was still really precarious and kind of improvisational pilot flew a lot closer to the ground between two hundred and five hundred feet. That's between sixty one in a hundred fifty meters, they did because they were navigating from visual cues below along with their compasses. There was not a lot else to the navigation process, but the era, male made the industry financially sustainable. It also open the doors for companies to start offering regular commercial passenger services with established consistent schedules,
it also was right on the heels of the airmail act of the first flight touchdown at gambler field outside of Atlanta in nineteen, twenty six on a plot of land that had once been a race track gambler field would but of course, eventually become one of the busiest airports in the world and somewhere I spend the shocking amount of time. Hartfield Jackson, international airport, I spend less time than you, but I always marvel at how gigantic it is These changes were taking place in the world of Airmail President Calvin Coolidge signed by AIR Commerce ACT of nineteen. Twenty six into law, thus placed a lie responsibility regarding the aviation industry in the United States in the hands of the Secretary of Commerce You're Commerce ACT gave the Secretary of Commerce the authorization to license pilots of aircraft and to establish and define air routes and allocate resources to develop navigation aids, but also the Secretary of Commerce, the responsibility of investigating aviation accidents
The international field of commercial airlines continued to grow as well done. lift Hansa, which is today simply Lufthansa, started offering regular service in Germany in nineteen twenty six, it operated. continuously until after world war. Two, when it was down with the defeat of Nazi Germany and a reformed in nineteen. Fifty three rebuilding. company from the ground up we're about that about the beginnings of an airline that much beloved by nostalgia enthusiasts. But first we will take a break, and here for one of the sponsors that keeps our show going. This message is brought to you by eighty home security made easy. What does real protection mean for your home and business? It means the latest innovation and smart home security, combined with twenty four seven monitoring from eighteen, the most trusted name in homes, security you get a team of professionals designing and installing a secure, smart home. Just for you, you get eighteen thousand employees, safeguarding you with connection to first responders. You get the nation
number one: smart, home security provider. You get a secure, smart home with everything from video, doorbells, indoor and outdoor cameras, smart locks on lights, controlled from the eighty app or from the sound of your voice. You professionally monitored carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. You get a system custom designed to fit your home. You get safety on the go in the are or when your kids are at school. With the eighty t go up complete with an s button, so go on secure your home or business today with eighty in nineteen, twenty seven PAN American Airways, no more commonly as PAN Am began, running mail service between key West Florida. Havana, Cuba, hey man, went on to hit a number of significant milestones in commercial aviation history.
the course of the late twenties and up through the nineteen forties Panam innovated by being the first to run a regular schedule over water, the four, to carry emergency lifesaving equipment, the first to develop its own air traffic control system, the first to sell all inclusive international packages and the first to provide round the world service in team to what he ate, a company called half dollars. Dusters was operating out of Monroe Louisiana as a crop. Dusting company that was incorporated as a new organization called Delta AIR Service name, further, Mississippi Delta, which was central to its business region dealt. Started, offering passenger flights and nineteen twenty nine with stops in Dallas, Texas, Jackson, Mississippi and Shreveport End Monroe Louisiana. Bandit to include Tuscaloosa in and Birmingham Alabama, Meridian, Mississippi, Atlanta, Georgia and for Worth Texas within a year. But allow
set up a government airmail contract method, not enough money was coming in, and delta ceased passenger offerings until one thousand nine hundred and thirty four, when it finally got its airmail contract. That is also the year that it began operating is Delta Airlines. One thousand nine hundred and thirty marks a significant moment and commercial airlines. Staffing Ellen shirts was hired that year as the first female flight attendant Boeing AIR transports who hired her you would company today, as United Airlines? Turtle story? Is one with both triumphant and frustrating a lot like a lot of the other stories that we have had about women in aviation. She was a very accomplished woman, including being a nurse and a licence to pilot but of core airlines for not hiring women to pilot their aircraft in nineteen thirty. That would not happen until one thousand nine hundred and seventy three when Emily Howell Warner was hired at frontier airlines Ellen Church was determined to get into the industry one way or another, and so she
started. Making her case to airline executives quoted in the New York Times are saying quote: don't you think it would be good psychology to have women up in the air. How is a man going to say? He is afraid to fly when a woman is working on the plane she so pointed out. The nurses would make excellent staffers to have on board and suggested that nurses could be the ones to help the passengers with their luggage and dispensing with snacks, which was business at the co pilot had been handling up to that point, it does not I mean that anyone suggest that perhaps a nurse would be a good person to work as a flight attendant. But the idea that co pilot was the person who had been handing out snacks attack on me bowing air transport leadership was sold enough on this idea to start a three month test programme that I'll tiring eight women, including Ellen Church, to take here the passengers which freed up the co pilots for other duties and then, when the three months were over, an entire new career had been established. It was so six
small for the airline that other airlines quickly started their own similar programmes and other travel industries. Like railway company, you started hiring women attendance to offer hospitality to their customers. Of course, The career of airline, stewardess as it was called for a very long time, was riddled with a lot of sexist requirements for the women applying for those positions they had to have nursing degrees. They had to fall within a narrow and very low wait range. They had to be in their early twenties and they had to be pretty and single, and if they met requirements. They also had to be willing to clean the plane, be able to manage heavy lifting and be ready to serve as first responders in the event of a medical emergency. I think we really get it into it on here, but then there was also a lot of sexism, unlike the standards of dress for flight attendants and you're like the uniforms were made and what was required to be worn with them. I mean it's not.
Access to say that you have to have a nursing degree, but that to say that you have to be young, pretty single, then woman is at the time. The idea of a male nurse was unheard of serve contextual II. Yes to say you have to be a nurse means only women's job right right, the first modern passenger airliner, the bowing to forty seven was introduced in nineteen. Thirty. Three create a lot of new features, including auto pilot and de icing equipment, United Airline started, offering coastal to coast flights within the. U S, with a bowing to forty seven that same year, there required seven stops along the way and it took twenty hours, which is a lot, but that improved the Earlier time of Kosovo's trips by more than seven hours. so funny today that it's like a lion. Tamer six hours yeah
two years later, Boeing introduce the three o seven strata liner, which was the high altitude, commercial airliner? because it had the first pressurized cabin It also had a flight engineer as part of its crew to manage pressurization and other aspects of the plains functions, leaving the pile Frida focus on flying five, of the ten strata liners that Boeing built became part of the. U S: armies transport fleet during World war to the commercial airlines terminal in North Amerika was opened in nineteen thirty five, and that was the deco style, Newark Airport Administration building, which was that did by Amelia Erhard. That airport has been running since nineteen twenty eight and for eleven years after the commercial terminal opened, it was the only airport serving the great or New York area. That was the case in
The Guardia opened in nineteen thirty, nine, any origin story for Le Guardia is based in New York. Mayor fear, Ella Gorgias unwillingness to deep claim in Newark in nineteen thirty, four, the mere refused to exit the plain that had carried him from Pittsburgh to new work on the basis that the destination listed on his ticket was New York. the terrible way flight that he was on continued from Newark to Brooklyn, where it landed in Floyd Bennett Field and there the mayor disembarked, along with several reporters. He had arranged to come along for the ride, because it was a publicity stunt. He then held a press conference to announce that New York needed its own commercial airport and they were not going to depend on New Jersey, any they wrote grounding Queen Queensbury New Airport in nineteen thirty, seven on a five hundred fifty eight acre plot of land that had once been an amusement park. Neo
city. Municipal airport was opened on October, fifteenth nineteen, thirty nine and then had a name change to New York City Municipal Airport Le Guardia field. Two weeks later and then the Guardia AIR or in nineteen. Forty seven in a lot of people like you should it is called the Guardia from the vehicle. As New York in New Jersey were competing for airport dominance in the region, airlines were expanding their root offerings to progressively wider ranges in nineteen thirty six Panam started offering flights crossing the Pacific Ocean, something that take him a great deal of planning the year before, in nineteen thirty five, the company had TAT Captain Edwin Music with running survey, flights to plot the root out, and their out eventually ran from San Francisco to China, with stops on islands owned by the. U S where PAN am at established hotels, because that trip took sixty hours and it included for overnight stops along away panic
started its transatlantic passenger service. On June twenty eight nineteen, thirty nine, when a Boeing be three fourteen, called Dixie clipper took twenty two passengers from New York to Europe, similar to that position. The company had surveyed route across the northern and southern Atlantic depending on their final destination and the year before world war, two Panam established service to fifty two countries around the world in nice. thirty. Eight, the civil Aeronautics ACT was signed into law by President Franklin, Delano Roosevelt on June, twenty third and the establish the civil aeronautics Authority, which included the civil Aeronautics Board to oversee aircrew in pilot certification and the civil Aeronautics administration to manage airway development. Air traffic control and safety programmes world words, he really brought a lot of the commercial airline industry to a halt We mentioned already some specific planes that had been commercial airliners them. They became part of military efforts once the war started.
really wasn't unusual. Two hundred of the three hundred sixty airline aircraft that were active in the airline industry were requisitioned by the military. The Airtran, we're command was established in nineteen forty two and manage the use of commercial planes to transport materials and people around the world. during the war earlier, were similar. Things happened with people's like personal ships also, so it's like the whole idea was not a totally new thing. No Non military air travel essentially stopped as priority was given to were related travel needs. The office of Defence transportation started. Printing posters with the text. Is your rip necessary. Needless travel interferes with the war effort airlines like Panam, that had already established global routes were especially valuable to the military and airliners am staff were contracted through the air transport command during the war
President Roosevelt became the first you as president to fly while serving in office, and that is where we will end part one It's you will look at a stretch of a little over three decades during which the airline industry went through incredible growth, and we will also have a special guest at the end of the show. Yet like a little bonus episode at the end of the next one, where we get to have a fabulous personal, degenerate, long time frame of the show, joining Holly yeah Think about this stuff alive it. The reason I wanted to do this episode is because I have of likes hoping that secret occasionally ruminate, unlike how did we get here to the point, the dining that seems so a sort of Monday to us and, like part of just part of everyday life, where I grew up, we're gonna point but literally a century ago that was like a mind, boggling concepts, yeah one for a lot of people like it still is Ed totally like not their experience at all like when it MIKE minor family by my parents did some flying
before I was born. My dad was an army and, like re deployed to Vietnam, you did it on a plane, but like we never had a family vacation that involves air travel at all and I never got on a plane. Until I was in college. I went to a conference. and then I was reading a thing before we came in here like something like eighty percent of people in the world I've never been on a plane, but only one One percent of Americans have never. on yeah, I also my dad, was clear air force. We never took a plain anywhere for eight yeah, even if we are going very far, we always drove it. What for those reasons will talk about a little bit in part two, but it was not cost effective right family to fly at all, yeah commercially, so There are many barriers for a lot of people, yet we had bat plus my mother, being terrified of flying.
Just something I kind of inherited from her and deal with. As I became an adult whose job required some air travel has, I never was free to flying as a kid had a little where I became afraid of it. After a little scared, now, over at a file time, I have a little bit a listener mail from our listener. Katharine am I love it because she sent us a postcard wish you put it in an envelope, so I have no none spearing that we occasionally get here, it's high treason, Holly meaningless, through, and I started listening to your podcast earlier this summer. I work on crew. Ships. As a costumer and one of my friends who I work with introduced me, I'm a huge fan history. As my dad is a history teacher. Thank you to your damned for being an educator says, and I particularly love your spooky episode since my birthday is Halloween look forward to more spooky episodes this October best Catherine Pierre
You enjoy this postcard. I picked it up. While I was working on a ship that travelled to the Mediterranean, specifically Malta, my friend Olivia, who started me listening, and I thought you would like it is a beauty. Picture of Malta. Thank you so much Katherine and also one cool job to happy birthday. Coming up it will. It will only be a couple weeks away when this episode are so. I hope you have a careful.
Toby and hollowing birthday season. Tat sounds fantastic to me tat. If he would like to re, do as you can do so at history, podcast have house of works dot com you can also find is everywhere on social media as missed in history and on the internet as missed in history. Dot com. If you like a subscribed to the show, we sure would enjoy that you can do that, and I hurried EU an apple pie, gas or wherever it is. You listen stuffy, Mr History classes the production of a heart radios. How stuff works for more upon casts for my how radio visit thy heart, radio, Appleton guests or wherever you listen to your favorite shows hello of John and of jobs. It we're the hosts of serious wrapped. A new weekly hip Hop Parkhurst prevailing on our radio, JANET The French for over twenty years and debate about hip hop life for current events has always been a part of it.
And now we recorded every week for yadda. Listen to so check our series rash and I ha radio at Apple Back ass, a wherever you Bacchus back is peace, peace.