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Cosmetics From Ancient Egypt to the Modern World

2014-07-14 | 🔗

Makeup has a rich and lengthy history that spans the globe and crosses cultures. From 10,000 B.C.E. to the 20th century, people have been using cosmetics to enhance their looks -- sometimes with unintended side effects.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
by her mars the newest resort in the bahamas a short flight from the u s fifteen minutes from the airport easy family vacation kids will be entertained at the explorers kids club where parents explore casino golf course spot in over forty restaurants pours enlarges kids under five eat for select restaurants to book specials including up to thirty five percent savings on your stay visit baja or dark com that's ba each a m a are dot com i just realized that the first letter of every line of this region spells help me it seems like everyone's acrylic these days blessing the work with our slightest opinions on our own many platforms i'm scotch and of its breakin this february tenth guns citizen critic a new podcast where we predict the critics in review the reviews of your favorite movies music television toasters toiletries in paint colors this
do citizen critic on the iheart radio an apple pie guests or wherever you get your broadcasts will continue stuff you missed in his reply from house networks icon luckily the path tat how right and i'm crazy wilkins so here is a thing that everybody sees all the time may or may not think very much about it does make up
it's a common part of our society that we really don't think about it outside our own use normally unless that is your field of interest or per year but it really has a rich and lengthy history that spans the globe it crosses cultures echoes so far back in its been in so many sort of places in terms of where it stranded in what kind of things have been used so that all the time that today and just a kind of set it up for you were gonna jump around a little bit from location to location and talk about like how things develop in its location so the timeline isn't gonna be strictly followed although we will start in the oldest known location of make up and then kind of end up in the west in that nearly half of the twentieth century where the it really became an actual industry and so we're covering this very wide swath so i feel i came to you know just give everybody a heads up front that there's probably there's will there's definitely stuff it isn't gonna get covered and if we miss something that you're fond over you know
want to know more about or if it's your favorite thing in you wish we had mentioned it that's all was a good reason to send us an email and will have the compact and fill the under the episode like we always do so for right now climb into your time machine oreo tardiness if that's the thing and we're gonna whisk away first to ancient egypt fail as early as ten thousand bp and egypt moisturising millions were being used to protect people skin against the very dry desert climate and perfumes were also popular during this time they were pretty much used in ceremonial religious events and it's interesting because these included ingredients such as peppermint lily lavender almond oil came a meal things that are still popular in cosmetics today later on and egypt history so around four thousand to thirty five hundred bc that's when we see the first no news of true make up
galina which is the mineral form of lead sulfide and malik height which is a green hued carbonate of copper were used as i enhancement you see there s really often in a jiffy art beaver metal i've been ground down and combined with burn almonds lead and ass also ground into a fine powder created coal eyeliner so one of the most popular looks green shading would be used on the lower i sort of under thy while the charcoal gray and you know solid black would be used for the top lid and this is creating a look that sometimes is still in a start his version mimic today and called cleopatra i although she actually falls a little bit later on the timeline than this during this time it also became really pocket for people to carry around small make boxes with them when they went the social events this report of the first evening clutches
some sort of representative certain class level like if you are a very fancy person you could have your own fancy make it boxes carried around with you and both egyptian women and men used lipstick as well and some lip color during this time was made from a combination of a population had died which was taken from sea weed there was also a bit of iodine and a broom and many that were used but this is one of those many instances where people suffer for what's fashionable because since bromide mandate is a toxic plant derivative this made the potential price of unique varies big very steep not just for the wearer but also anyone that the wearer kissed it can really cause some very severe illness and even death with a surprisingly small those during cleopatra era which her it was from fifty one to thirty b c e live color with a really big trend ground carbine beetles gave her lip tent this lush red tape
i'll nine royals had to go with this mixture of watered down clay wilson is also see accounts that say that she combined carbine beetles and ground ants decree this color that she liked and one of the interesting benefits of these various concoctions that were being used by the ancient egyptians for beauty specifically for their eyes was that they also had antibacterial properties in two thousand and nine a team of scientists published a report in an illegal chemistry detailing the study that they conducted using fifty two makeup samples and these are all samples that are held by the loose
and this team use electron microscopy an x ray diffraction to analyze this make up and they were able to identify galina which is mentioned above and it was used to make dark tones as well as lighter colored compounds of serious site lorry night and foster nine and all of these chemicals are led based so the lead content acted as the toxins a kill bacteria
civically bacterial infections of the i were a big problem in ancient egypt so this use of heavy call around the i probably did a good job of warding off a lot of theirs infections we also know from our that cosmetics are believed to be a form of magic and ancient egypt so the researchers make the case that these antibacterial formulations on the part of ancient egyptian chemists word deliberate and they weren't differs accidental offshoot of the quest for beauty here the initial use may have been but they develop it and there's a passage in their report that reads quote one cannot evidently go so far as to propose that the lorry and i was purposely introduced into the composition of the make up because of any recognised antibacterial properties yet one
i presume that ancient egyptian chemists recognised empirically that whenever this white precipitate was present in the make up paste their bearers were enjoying better health and thus decided to amplify this empirical protective function by specifically manufacturing lorry night oh the problem here which was probably obvious is that lead while toxic to bacteria is also toxic to human beings though there is a problem so that was is sort of the c of egypt is that i think we hear a lot more about sort of the lead being toxic people which it is of course but it also kind of helping them with their their vision and to prevent ocular problems is less discussed so having hit on egypt were now gonna pop over to asia around three thousand b
ie and this is where we to the best of our knowledge we first see the use of people colouring their fingernails which is happening in china this time and is often referred to as the first nail polish but in truth this was more of a stain situation color pigments were mixed in with egg bees wax gum arabic and gelatin to create these stains and vibrant or deep colors were reserved exclusively for
oils for other people would have to go with much peeler tones if we move ahead into about fifteen hundred bc e in both china and japan the aesthetic of pale miss became the pinnacle of beauty and rice powder started to be used to create the illusion of a flawless white complexion and at this point hannah dies were also used stayin here as well as facial features so it's almost like if you ve ever seen someone have their makeup tattooed which sometimes women will still get eyeliner tattoos this was sort of like the the semi permanent version animal last much longer time than if you use coal then we can hop over to greece at about the same time as fingernail spain's or becoming popular in china in greece having why led face paint was really all the rage and they would add a flush to their cheeks over
white paint using this compound that was made of crushed mole berries and they would crush him oh varies down and then use the juice as a stain fake eyebrows also became really popular and they were usually made with the hair of oxen which sounds very itchy to me it does it also sounds kind of funny to me just the idea of you know augmented vague eyebrows since it's not the aesthetic of the modern world for the most part currently mother western not her world big idea of people purposely giving themselves really heavy eyebrows strikes me as a kind of entertaining so if we move forward a couple thousand years in the history of greece
few one thousand b c e you'll see that the white complexion was still very favoured at this time and the white led was still used but chalk was growing unpopularity as an alternative lip color also became really popular and it was usually made with clay and red iron and now we are gonna once again shift gears and locations and we're going to mesopotamia sits on a long journey at this point and we are once again going back to three thousand b c and this is actually the space between two thousand and fifteen hundred bc that these things are happening in mesopotamian ladys at this time had a pretty spectacular approach to lip color they would actually grind semi precious stones to dust and use that dust as a lip anna face a dormant there was
also a lot of use of spiced perfumes during this time and coal was also used to line both the eyes and the eyebrows people in mesopotamia also used as a nail spain and perfume concoction was actually taking pretty serious in this area by the ninth century i think perfume on its own could be a whole other pon castle will be completely in depth but i will mention a couple times since it is technically cosmetic as well so at this point we have crossed over from bc to see this point to common era and perfumery a clue about candy who lived from about eight hundred and three to eight seventy wrote a book called the book of perfume chemistry and distillation and this described the uses of many essential oils and even former pont cast subject ever centre introduce new chemistry concepts around this time that really changed the distillation of alcohol for both men
can only improve emu significantly so there was some pretty important groundwork being laid in this area at this time in the year one hundred in rome a personal interest of mine has always been a trouble spot for me as when pimple treatment really hit the scene people in rome or using a mixture of barley flower and butter to apply to blemishes detritus through them and remove the irritation and this is another location where we see a fingernail color becoming popular they used a combination of animal fat and blood and then applied that the nails to give a pink to read tint to their fingernails depending on the formulation like it what kind of varying how peel or the was just by playing with the amount of blood in the formula over in india between three hundred and four hundred is when hannah became really popular as by the hair i ended men the art
had i and many are both still around as popular cosmetic practices in india today india's the like the hannah artwork on people's skin yeah it's often so beautiful legacy of the really intricate designs and before we get to europe and kind of what was going on there throughout all of these times gonna take a quick word from a sponsor sure welcome one welcome i welcome you do yours and marchers to the beat of any drum at starbucks we know wellness has a lot more to do with finding your unique journey then following the latest trends that's why we have something for every taste every craving every mood and every you like our new cocoanut milk latte an almond milk honey white because no to journeys are the same and what makes it right is that it's yours but zone is brought to you by the all new twenty twenty four explorer tracy i know that
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into europe while there is definitely evidence of the use of rouge call bath oils and perfumes in the roman empire at the start of the common era the fall of the roman empire in the fifth century really marks the sort of vanishing in cosmetics in europe for a time at least as any sort of common practice it was probably happening in pockets or in some of the very in a sort of upper echelons of society but it really was not a common thing for people who make up there for a bit that started to change around twelve hundred when thanks to the crusades perfumes and other cosmetic started travelling from the middle east into europe and were reintroduced into the culture and between fourteen hundred and fifteen hundred this is when we really first start to see cosmetics as an industry start to heat up and this is happening in italy and france primarily other places in europe are using them that this is where they were
we being made but even so the concept of perfumes in cosmetics was really still the privilege of the upper classes thou so the period when the art and science of perfume as we know it today was born in france here we mentioned perfume happening in other places earlier but this is really where like what we would call like our today's sort of perfume production and development this is really where the modern versions of perfume started and between fifteen hundred and sixteen hundred in a we are now into elizabethan era and it's no secret that clean host with the first popularized read here in europe she also as the virgin queen was a trendsetter when it came to the use of white led for creator
this illusion of youth series was made from white led combined with vinegar and it caused a number of in problems it caused the skin to become gray and shrivelled and queen elizabeth is said to have developed this pockmarked appearance to her natural skin which she does covered with progressively heavier and heavier layers of sir so the thing that was really ruining our skin she was also using to cover up that ruination and it just kind of tipp getting worse and worse and it began to be noticed that this white led based paint was really causing a problem with people skin in their health and so while some women opted instead to use egg whites they just use plain equates and sort of delays their faith
decree the solution of a smoother paler complexion there were plenty of others that just thought that applying any cosmetics was gonna creed health threat because they believed a compromise circulation people later figured out that series was toxic and it was linked to a number of physical problems including facial tremors and muscle paralysis which given that it contains though much lead is not surprising the toxic compound was also recognised as being lethal with cumulative use and its possible contributed to queen elizabeth their ear that she was also getting older men they were probably a few different factors involved in that but it is sometimes mentioned as one of the possible contributors and in less dangerous beauty doings though elizabeth the first had also used a lip color that was made i find this so charming from bees wax and crushed flowers i'm glad you said that because i feel facts they weigh less sums much less
a the ruined pockmarked skin from the make up she had been wearing prior sought to achieve the queen's locks and even you get lighter blonde tones people used concoctions of sulphur honey and alum i was sort of the renaissance version of sun in if anybody else remembers that product i would be applied to the hair and then exposed to the sun to create life and brighter hair and that's another let you know i mean we mentioned son in which was very popular in the eighties is a thing that people would spraying their hair and have hydrogen peroxide onward lightner but i also think of evenly breakfast activities where she would put lemon juice on her hair and sit in the sun it's the same concept has been around for a while my mom and her sisters few in our growing up in there in the forties and if these would talk about putting lemon juice their hair in laying down the sun
yeah don't you that it's bad for you please see a licence stylists colorists huge during your color less air but for the laying out in the sun now to get here all of its there are a number of potential problems there especially because the others the complete aside but some citrus will really react poorly with your skin in the sun if its exposed and you can get some really really dangerous and bad problem so again we're not try me this beauty treatments and if you go online in fact there are places where you can find like recipes for cosmetics that were popular and queen elizabeth era but they will even say please don't make these this is for historical you certainly not as an instruction manual for you to create toxins put on your face i can if they want to make some lipstick out of bees waxing crash flowers though i worry it would be woefully disappointing and then i would be like riding
by something so in eighteen hundred zinc oxide started to become popular as a face powder and of course this is a much safer replacement for the lead and copper that were being used prior and by this point in time line the use of make up has permeated through almost all of the classes and the development of cosmetics popularity throughout europe specifically in great britain was arrested a little bit headwind queen victoria denounced makeup as completely improper suitable only for the stage and it was make its association with prostitutes at this point that led her to this very vocal stance and so
active all women did not pay their faces make up did remain popular in france during this time though even their respectable society in britain in the americas did not look upon it favourably at all a kind of reminds me of the reality show frontier house that was on pbs they may take the make up away from all of the women in some of them are extremely sad about that pact but so remembering that france this time was like no worse took unawares and make up should not surprise you that the first modern lipstick was actually manufactured in paris in eighteen eighty four in this came wrapped in silk paper which to sound so luxurious to me and it was made from dear tallow which is solid rendered fat which some less glamorous castor oil and be
tax and justice had been using cleopatra time carbine die gave this lipstick its red tent in the late eighty nine these color for the lips then cheeks was offered for the first time in this year's roebuck catalogue yes so this were we not just in europe but also in the americas and independent western culture at that point the before we go on the wet starts to happen next which is pretty exciting do you wanna do another word from our sponsor sure so to return to the story of make up we're gonna jump over to the early nineteen hundred after victorious death at warning in society started to really embraced idea of make up in cosmetics although often they use of it was still highly denounced even by people benefiting from them this is basically the edwardian equivalent of denying that you got botox or had the surgical touch ups
yeah people would be like oh are you you know using may you wearing a lift it knew this is my natural look color was kind of funny and this is really the period when beauty salons became relatively common in the western world although because this denial mentality about using any sort of cosmetics was still pretty common people also denied going to see this you know to beauty salons patrons would actually often come and go through a back or a side door so they wouldn't be seen patronising these establishments industrial as they should lead to use various developments that really stowed the seeds of the cosmetics industry as we know it today there was the invention of photography which meant that people started having portraits made you know not fitting for a portrait forever from a painter he was gonna maybe touch you up as he went but actual photograph it became pretty clear to people that having the make up on would make the pic
look nicer and since most people had to save up for these photography sessions they had to really make them count so people started really relying on make up as a way to make sure they would look their best in the pictures that they were spending so much money on yeah meanness time when you would maybe have your picture taken a few times in your lifetime so each of these pictures had to be the best possible and additionally this is the time when mirrors became a commonly manufactured item so looking glasses have been around since at least six thousand b c e and they were certainly familiar objects in european high society in the renaissance but the lady teen hundreds and early nineteen hundreds was really the first time that mirrors were inexpensive enough that they crossed all ass boundaries as though this meant that everyone became more aware of their day to day appearance in this meant that air one grew a little more interested in cosmetics and then
we're movies as actors made the transition from the states to screen there make up had to adapt quickly became clear that stage make up did not look good on film which if you ve ever worn stage make up is not a surprise stage make up does not look good anywhere except on stage was especially on it was really too heavy and looked very clownish and this is where famous named start to appear because max factor who was primarily a wig maker at this time for film developed foundation paints that had a more subtle effects the he really is often referred to as the inventor of pancake makeup
and these make us look more natural on cinema screens and he even if this development happened in nineteen fourteen and this kicked off his now famous make up company which initially catered exclusively to the acting world a year later and nineteen fifteen the may believe company was founded by tee earl williams the cell and adapted version of his sisters petroleum jelly and coal dust mascara to the public this version of mascara came in a cake form and eventually mascara went through o waxed bathe before becoming the liquid that most people are from with today however may baleen still makes one of the most highly reviewed mascara is among the general public and make up artists like yeah that famous sort of pink and green two of mascara that may believe me
i sure for years and years and years it's really quite funny if you ever talk to make about as most of them will mention that that's though their favorite just kind of interesting has been around for a hundred years not in that form by the company has also in nineteen fifteen the metal retractable lipstick too was invented so this is when it went from being kind of a round cake that you would apply to actually being a thing you could you know twist up and down and toss in your hand bag and not be a problem it was easy
area it was easy to apply i'm ago although this is also a time when stem cells were marketed to assure that users could get like a perfect clear about pout those that have been a little trick here to tuck into a handbag zero sort of estimating the sizes but you know i've seen pictures of people where they look like they're probably about a four by for foreign by foreign card with this little kind of heart shaped lipstick stencilled cut out of the middle and you put it over your lips and apply your lipsticks that it would be the perfect shape after years of catering to film stars max factor decided to expand business by filling his formulas to the masses and as the decadence and the glamour of the flapper girl was on the right the nineteen twenties make up which is the term he said to have coined made movie star looks available to everybody and this really started a landslide of popularity so
for mass production make up had been a little bit tedious you know people would have to either figure out ways to kind of concoct their own or they would by these sort of bizarre formulations and have to apply them and they didn't look very natural and is there a lot of barriers to use but as it became easily purchased and easily apply that you didn't need a lot of special skills it became very quickly adopted into the mainstream on average the global beauty market has grown about four point five percent each year for the last twenty years with burma downward fluctuating concurrent with economic issues i think we actually have an article on the website about the lipstick indicator yeah and today the global sales for cosmetics is estimated to be about a hundred and seventy billion dollars a year and that breaks down to about forty billion in the americas about sixty billion in europe about sixty billion
in australia and asia combined and another ten billion in africa the western world spends the most per person on cosmetics but it is really just a shade ahead of asia on this sits interesting to me it feels like you know industrialization is kind of what has catapulted into you know almost this obsession with beauty and looks and sort of always being super self conscious about where we look like whereas before that may be a little more relaxed i had thought about the role of people having easy access to hers in sort of the perception of what beauty is and what you should look like and how much carry should put into your appearance but i had never dawned on me that photography played a role also yeah
i mean it you know it's these various things that kind of folding on themselves and they kind of ad layers of consciousness to this this idea of beauty in looks and it's very easy sort of i think too to see how that eventually develops it becomes a bigger and bigger thing and you know television changing that as well and seeing people on tv all the time who are allegedly air quote normal looking particularly beautiful in wanting to aspire to look the same as them and how you can where we landed today where this is this huge industry so that is of a sort of you no high level glossy version of kind of how make up his developed around the world through the year i wanted to you i would love to go back and do more on asia which we only briefly covered because you're so much greater there and i'm sure there are people within
an image conjuring going on in their head of like geisha with their beautiful and very specific make up rules and some of the theatrical make ups that go on there and perhaps you will get to that on another episode but for today that's where we're i also have a bit of listener me please read it when you ready it is about a bubu that i made and i make it all the time and i promise i will make a concerted effort to not do that so much comes from our wonderful listener laurin and she says high ladys of a big fan of upon cast i've been listening to some past episodes lately and was thrilled to see the bloomers and beyond podcast i'm a fashion historian myself currently a research associate with the largest cost costume collection in the u s lauren that found awesome and she says i just wanted to give you a note on your terminology bloomers in the podcast were referred to as the pants worn under the chinese however those pants are properly called pamphlets
workers are the outer where pants offered in the mid nineteenth century by reformers as a more helpful option for women they would be under a shorter length dress an outer we're option the central seems were so close between the legs pantalone could be worn under bloomers but the two are not interchangeable she is of course absolutely correct and i fall into that habit that i think a lot of people do we're bloomers or anything that is sort of the puffy pants that ladys were in olden times i promise i will make a concerted effort to fix that it's all those things i've read before but my brain just i was busy bloomers not rain it's also just fund to say the word frankly i think you learn that awesome and it's almost get to have an experts touch up to the thing she gives us also some cool ideas for future part care if he would like to write to us you can do so it history prime cast at house have books dot com you can also use it as some place but got com slackness industry or on twitter at missed in history
missed in history that tumblr dot com and your mind is pinning away pictures of believers and pamphlets and all manner of other things that pinterest start com slash missed in history if you'd like to learn a little bit more about what we talked about today you can go to your parents site which is half the works and taken or cosmetics in the search bar and you'll get a couple of different articles many more all but two that i wanted to point out where why did ancient egyptian men where cosmetics and five iconic cosmetics which mentions the revalenko
which we did not talk about and was also kind of developing at the same time it backtracking enabling were happening and their fire and ice campaign which is important because it was the first advertising campaign to overtly link make up insects and sexuality and sexual appeal so is certainly an important touchstone in cultural history if you would like to learn about that you can you can look up almost anything else your heart desires and health to works dot com and if you just want to visit tracy and i on the web you can go to our website which is next in history dot com where you will find all manner of show notes and searchable episodes in an archive
and some fun pictures so we hope you do that and we will see you soon for more on this and thousands of other topic for the howstuffworks com move episode of stuff you missed them history classes brought to you by w w formerly wait watchers they have launched the you might debbie debbie programme is their most groundbreaking and customize programme ever when you join them i d be program you will take a personal assessment that's about your eating habits and you're behaviors and that its scientifically matches you up with a proven weight loss plan i'm on the blue play and it really makes a huge difference for me in terms of encouraging means eat healthy foods so had on overdue w debbie dot com that's w w dot com to joint debbie debbie today with a limited time offer
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Transcript generated on 2020-02-03.