He was an art patron. He loved science. He spoke many languages. He was also known for a dark temper and instability, and his poor decisions as a ruler are credited with leading to the Thirty years War.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to you still, you must, in history class, from how support slacken allow in one minute I can on how we frightened- and I'm sure you see where we are talking about a member of one of the houses of Europe. We had lots of requests to talk about royalty all the time we do you in there's lots of half raining story. Clear today, subject was in art patron. He was the lever of science. He spoke. Many languages is also known for having a dark temper and being a little bit unstable, his where decisions are as a ruler are credited with leading to the thirty years war. saw Rudolf the who is from Austria and he ruled the holy Roman empire from fifteen. Seventy six to sixteen twelve though, that last year, largely figurehead, really ruling status, I came to be known for his reclusive and gloomy,
really melancholic behaviour. This. Start. Ruler was also really instrumental in starting an era of scientific exploration and discovery in his ring is considered by to be the golden age of Prague. and they were mostly focusing on, will include the historical events that were happening around him, of course, that most of the focus has ensued. His personal, goings on throughout his life, because the very fascinating tail, his character, he's a fascinating person. You can help us little sad for him at times like this, we feel bad about lots of the royal yeah. That has been something I'd. We haven't you and I haven't talked a whole, about royalty, but that has been a favorite theme
some of the past hosts in a lot of times. They are sad, sad royal stories. You almost can't help but feel sad for them. It's one of those things were its in many ways: a place of great privilege, but there so much weird baggage that often comes with it, that the actual stories behind the portraits are not particularly delightful. Now they are unhappy very often we can start course at the beginning, Rudolf was born on July, eighteen, fifteen. Fifty two in Vienna, Austria and here is the oldest male child of his family, father was Emperor Maximilian. The second and his mother was Maria of Spain Maria really ended up came in having a big impression on his life through her beliefs and actions, not because she was so involved, but because of kind of the things that she catalyzed she had a total of sixteen children, but not known to be an especially warm mother and
Her marriage to the austrian ruler, Maximilian the second she really maintained her spanish identity and she pressured her husband to send their children to Spain. to study under her brother fill up the second and strongly that the children really needed a catholic influence rather than protestant ideology that they were largely exposed to in Vienna. Which is a big part of this whole story and what was going on in the holy roman empire at the time route, and his brother earnest travelled to Spain and early fifteen sixty four, there there uncle Phil at the second, who was a really farmer man compared to their father, something really rigorous course of study They went to the monastery Montserrat and then the summer palace, and they studied fencing language, dance and rhetoric among all kinds of other scholarly subjects, during this time. For what the second, who is, also a fascinating story
was having problems with his own son, Don Carlos who is about seven years older than red off and reduce, had met him. While they were there don't Carlos had a hunchback and several other physical deformities em historians suspect that he likely suffered brain damage during his birth because it was an extremely difficult birth and his mother only survived a few days after Don Carlos was born And on Carlos would experience these. Its of rage and madness, and he exhibited extremely impulsive and violent behaviour, and that sort of personality issues only grew worse and worse after he experienced a head. Injury in the early fifteen sixties in January of fifteen sixty eight, which was almost four years after rude often his brother, had gotten to Spain thanks was locked away at his father's command and it became forbidden to ever speak of him Carlos dying six months into his imprisonment.
a few months after DAWN Carlos died, Philips. Third wife, who was Elisabeth avowed LA die, you're having a miscarriage any you can imagine these two events happening close together, causeless, the core where Rudolf in earnest were still living. In studying come even more somber than ever. It had always been sort of a serious place that it. It really had through the gloom over the the whole thing, and it they'll be two more years that they would be there before they could return home Fifteen seventy rude often earnest were joined in Spain by two of their other brothers amateur sister Anna and she was to become Philip seconds. Fourth and final wife and biology, that was pretty happy marriage. Just a fly So when Rudolf returned with his brother to Vienna in early fifteen. Seventy one, therefore, Maximilian, the second immediately noticed a signal,
It change in their demeanor Rudolf had only been twelve when he left for the spanish Courts and MAX He was troubled by the darkness of now nineteen year old, Rudolf Mood and of influence that the boys time with Philip the second had had on them. He sort of felt like he sent you know, young men, bright boys away any got back really just They serious overly serious, am reluctant to pass judgment on On historical figures, when I really have no idea of of all of their internal motivations, but pardon me wasn't say, Maximilian honey if you wanted to have a hand in their upbringing, maybe should occur, home, but there mom really wanted him to go tricky his disdain and his sons Demeter's than caused all kinds of strife with his wife. So he really wanted a liberal ideology that was designed to avoid religious conflict and Marie.
feel strongly that an entirely catholic state was really the ideal and the more serious bearing the young man had taken was in line with this. Yes she's. It felt like she got back exactly what she wanted, which was serious, very We know Catholics, highly educated young men were ass. Her husband was like that very funny anymore, and Maximilian was a humanist christian, but really, above all, he favoured open minded. Compromise among different religious ideologies stance on religion, which was really quite liberal, had allowed this sort of pockets of peace in the ongoing struggle between Protestants and Catholics in the holy roman empire. He was not so much forcing dogma. Anybody in any way yeah really unusual. Well, and while he did try to help his sons move into a less somber state of mind, the time in Spain really seem to have just left a permanent gloom on them and
made matters. Worse me, no Maximilian was advancing in age and he was at this time suffering from a number of different health issues. Have heart attacks. He had gout he had kidney issues and they are also rumours that he had syphilis at this time and as health got worse and worse was train of position, rudolphine, the air into a position of authority before he died. So he would know everything was cool and he had Rudolf crowned king of Hungary in fifteen seventy two and then king of Bohemia and fifteen. Seventy five zero women the holy roman empire. There were all these smaller states that you could have dominion over. While travelling to regions where, in the summer of fifteen seventy six Maximilian, got sick and once he arrived at his destination, he rally briefly, but then he got even sicker apparent that he wasn't going to survive this illness and he died on October twelve of that year,
golf were all his bedside and just a few weeks later, Rudolph was crowned as the holy roman emperor. There was really no debate over whether or not he was gonna take the throne. He was in his men twenties at this point. He was in his men twenties. At this point he was smart, fluid and multiple languages. You might think that you would be kind of on top of the world after being crowned emperor, but this gloom that he had acquired in Spain just seem to get worse once he ascended to the throne and the king this time was marked by religious fighting between the Roman Catholics and Protestants. You know with the death of Maximilian and very liberal approach to religion and trying to get everybody to cooperate. In it, of reignited. Some. Some issues amongst the different factions in all of this fighting had a really disastrous effect on the empire. Rudolf, abandon
fathers time of religious tolerance initially, and he actually downgraded the role that the protestant estates could have in politics. So a lot of this, while its quote really ideology. It was really had to do with power balance and meaning political ownership. The different aspects of the government, What else did eventually come around his father's way of thinking and favouring a more tolerant and conciliatory approach to religion? those early decisions really causing problems in fifteen, seventy seven, so just the next year after he had ascended to the throne, he had his first nervous breakdown, the stress of governing just have an intense negative effect on him, both mentally or physically, and in fifteen eighty he became strangely ill and lost a lot of weight. we got a better but his mood while ruling in Vienna was always. Dour
So in sixteen eighty, three Rudolf who had become obviously weary of the pressures of the court of the both physically and mentally, it then decided that he was gonna, move his residence and thus the seat of power for the holy Roman Empire to Prague, which is the voting at this time and he also became deeply interested at this point in astrology and magic in alchemy. Rudolphine pro became us epicenter of art and science. Architects this than philosophers were all welcomed into the city payments. Danish astronomer, Tito Bra, hey, who we have some stuff on an archive He had made the most accurate, pre telescope observations of the Heavens and he advanced our knowledge of the solar system. Significantly, you stand an observatory in Prague so did your Highness Kepler, who is recognised as the first person to correctly described planetary motion. hey, was named as the imperial mathematician oppose, was eventually assumed, like Kepler, who had at one point been brought his assistant and rude off.
I also wanted to redesign and expand the palace in Prague, as well as several other structures that were owned by the government all as part of his desire to patronize and reinvigorate the architectural arts in the area, really, though his greatest patronage of artists within painting and sculpture, the empty, court welcomed artists from all over and rude off, with especially fond of foreign artists. He, this collection of thousands of paintings, including works by dimension, for, as and broil the elder there so a beautiful painting by Giuseppe Arcane Bordeaux. That listeners will probably recognised when they see it. If they don't recognize. The name of the painter of
off as returnees, who was the God of seasons and plant growth and ruin mythology, and in this painting, which I just love rudolphine, his features are rendered a sort of a mosaic of fruits and vegetables, for they all come together to make his head and face and will hopefully linked. To that end, the show notes at some point cause it's a gorgeous painting. This episode of stuff you missed in history, glances brought you buy Norton three sixty with lifelong, let's just say, Your shopping online with your smartphone. I do it all the time. They sure feels that your personal info is right there in your hand, but that's not always the case Yes, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going other places. In fact shop, bank or browse online? Your personal info can get out your control, which can leave you vulnerable to cybercriminals, more threats, demand more protection why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company Norton three, six,
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and prevent all cybercrime and identity theft, but nor in three sixty with lifelike as your ally. In today, the best for you, I'm on the blue plan, and it has made such a big difference or me in terms of encouraging means, eat healthy foods, join W W, formerly wait. Watchers unlock your customize weight loss plan that can make losing weight easier for you had gone over to Debbie Debbie dot com, that's w w dot com to joint Debbie Debbie. Today, with a limited time offer during this time. Rudolf also developed what would become quite an impressive Koontz calmer cat of curiosities, that all these bronze statue using stonework drawings, paintings scientific items, but also rumoured that he purchased the vintage manuscript at one point as part of this collection, no, that's a little clear many things regarding the voyage manuscript yeah. It's a lot of question marks him circumstantial evidence data,
actual solid data on ass. We have an episode on that and I have not heard it, an Rudolf is also rumoured to become somewhat obsessed with the occult and, as you know, for alchemy during this time which, you have to remember that this is a period when the concepts of science and magic had fluidity between them. So to he was a man of science and also was into the occult, was not particularly disparate concept. They were all sort of flowing together because you were learning about all of these things. and this is also the period during which Rudolf is associated sort of with rabbi love and his go alone, which is covered in a previous episode with canvassing Katy There was a lot of sort of meaning, scientific exploration. As we said in me go who investigation going on progress just really bed of new ideas in you, no freedom to explore and encourage new ways
at the world food all of this enthusiasm for art and science seems to be a sort of an attempted antidote. The rude off me to try to counteract the old outside which to him was this ceaseless stream of stressors the first. decades of his rule, as emperor were troubled to say the least. There was plague Turks invaded Vienna stuff huge earthquake and he really struggled to meet the challenges of his leadership? the long war which Rudolf got into with the Turks and fifteen. Ninety three would drag on for years and the sixteen hundred. Hence the name- and it to the people, as well as your when he was bothered to be engaged in public affairs hiding in solitude or having a depressive episode where he didn't want to talk about things or to anyone.
I sympathise Huda every we ve all heard that, but as a ruler of a nation and an empire, you can't really just go. I will talk to anybody in high more now by the way Fifty nineties, his mental state have gotten even more unsteady his Melanie cap assailants got longer and more intense and his moments of anxiety would lead him to this extreme agitation and paranoia. Became really convinced that somebody in his family was plotting to murder him. He became fearful that people were attempting to exploit his generosity and steal from him. So so that he insisted on keeping his gold under lock and key amiss got real crazy. It sounds not crazy. Of course you want to protect your wealth, but he didn't the point that he would sometimes not even release any money for the purchase of needed goods and foodstuffs for the castle, so there were literally be no food in the palace for anyone to eat
driven by the fear and anxiety. He even started completely decline audiences with foreign ambassadors. He was really starting to withdraw from his duties at a level that, even though he had been sporadic before it really bad. Despite immersion in Catholicism, while he was studying in Spain. It looks like you ultimately distrustful of the Catholic Churches Power structure, He also started to refuse to see people ambassadors, and he can We need to see protestant guests, though he's really seems not to have any particular affinity for their religion, fifteen. Ninety five Rudolf brother Earnest, who he had been close to and studied within Spain, died in that left. Their brother material as the heir to the throne Rudolf had never married, despite several attempts to the truth him to various houses of Europe. Here, as is stated, there have been rumours- and some evidences built up by historic, throughout the years that he was bisexual and had affairs of both men and women. Though we
we never know with certainty, and he also was not particularly fond of his brother beauteous, which the seed problems that develop he said to have had six children with a woman named Katherine Estrada, one of them Julius Caesar, was quite a terrifying character and it will probably be the subject of a future episode but generally you seem pretty disinterested in his children you're his ability, a brood really had no appeal for him. He was a very involved in their lives at all but ass. His man continued to swing in he withdrew further and further away from court life, his teeth MR votes gangs, whom began to take over more and more of the emperor's duties, and most gang is one of the men. The rude off has been suspected of being romantically involved with, because the pair were so close that paranoia eventually soured the relationship, whether it had been romantic or not, they had been very, good friends and that fell away,
let me name forced veterans to resign, and they made up briefly, but it was a very short lived reunion and there were actually a few of those for they would kind of making with whatever was between them. But then it would follow part again and office assistance I think there is no repairing it also in fifteen. Ninety nine Rudolf fired many of the palace servants and he retreated even further into isolation, an outbreak of play. Hit Prague and he fled to pills and where he lived for a year, You had shortness of breath. During the self imposed exile, he was likely suffering from undiagnosed panic attacks
where we get to his return to Prague. Let's take a moment to talk about our sponsor the thumbs. Grand this episode of stuff, you missed in history classes, brought to you by Katy, keen I love Riverdale, so I M excited the creator of Riverdale. Has a new show a sparkling adventure in the big apple, full of fashion, drama and dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six at eight seven central? It is the new suitable series, Katy Keen we have thing or songwriter Josie, Jorge with his eye on Broadway it girl, pepper and fashion Easter Legend to be Katy. They are in New York City of eight million and they are for of a kind, their friends who would give everything for their dreams and do anything for each other, so the big apple, better watch out, because no matter who or what gets in the way they are about to take a big ol bite. These four determine dreamers take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the New York City Social scene, where they find it more than just careers and the big city they find forever friendships, high style
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is your ally in today's connected world, because your information is out there sign up for Norton three sixty with lifelike today and save twenty, percent or more off your first year, go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, DOT, com, slash history for twenty five percent off. And now, let's get back to talk about what happened after he got back to Prague. Yes, return to Prague in the summer of sixteen hundred and briefly, he seemed okay. People really kind of word, pleasantly surprised that his demeanor seemed less stable normal. He was willing to engage people a little bit that was extremely short lived because soon his mental state really veered south. And he was having these frightening fits of hallucinations. Paranoia, deepened to appoint even beyond what it had been before. He believed that he had been bewitched and he would tell people
he thought he had been poisoned, sometimes that somebody a curse on him. He really just was not in a stable place, mentally in the midst of a series of suicide attempts. The government of the empire just came to a complete standstill where women speak with his counsel or delegate any of his duties. So nothing could happen. Gridlock completely one person gridlock, yet unfortunately and he had all the passages of the palace covered so that he could move around without anyone seeing him and he spent finally all of his time alone. He would eat alone, basically did not not only did not want to talk to anybody. He want anybody to look at him. He was so fearful of all poisoning in bewitching suspicions that even became terrified of the sacrament, so he wouldn't have contact with any religious figures at all
after years of progressively more unstable and reclusive behaviour and just terrible political decisions that word depleting the kingdom and causing revolt in sixty five. The Habsburg Archduke pressure, the emperor to just consider handing over power to a leader more suited to the position that of was his brother materials Tino six, the arts dukes officially back committee, is excessive to Rudolf Aldo. It took several more years to get him to just acquiesce fully and given to this plan once there officially backed materials. He kind of started taking over these. ship roles? Even now, technically was not in a position To do so, but in June sixteen O Aids in much like his ascension into various positions. As you know, king of the
mere before he became holy Roman Emperor t feed it a little at a time, so he seated Austria and Hungary in Tunis exceed owing to his brother and then in May of sixteen eleven Matthias was finally crowned king of Bohemia. Other Rudolf did not officially seed until August of that year, Edward The second maintained his emperors crown as emperor of the Holy Roman empire, but it was really in a powerless figurehead thing. Kind of like thoroughly let the crazy man have the crown and think he still the. but really his brother was doing all the work that points. He has moved his brother to watch him castle in Prague and the basically deposed monarch lived on air with his menagerie of exotic animals, When several of his favorite creatures died. He developed a drinking problem which really rapidly deteriorated his health and routine died very shortly. Really after he had been sent away to this castle was January, twenty of the sixteen twelve any
buried in the royal vault, see viruses Cathedral in Prague Castle, his credible art collection was just broken up and disperse. There wasn't really much of it left in Prague and a relatively short eleven year, rain material work towards compromise between the catholic and protestant states, although it was during that time, the thirty years war began, and so it was still going on when he died, but really most people to resolve as the cause of it because he was so ineffectual towards them. and of his reign that he really wasn't addressing any of the problems that could have kept things from getting really agitated and out of control. So it started after his reign. Better acts he is usually cited as the people are happy to point the finger and say lake, you contributed significantly to the thing happening after I, so that is the story of Rudolf. The second who once again as yet another tragic royalty Yes,
also have them preferably less tragic listener. May I have such a tragic with no real at the doorbell, I'm happy to different pieces of their both super cute. The first one is from Kim and says: you think of a name for my new bird, who is an indian we net parakeet and during the Junta, mansion podcast humans and a guy with the coolest name ever ex officio star decided to call my parents Xavier X, for short, and actually, I think, that's what she means: interment pronunciation for not quite a short, its appropriate decency, others, Xavier, I know of professor Ex, isn't me, and my parents blue, which is caused by mutation, included photos of her apparent as well as as well as other delegates, their real horrible. I mostly monetary this, because I will out myself and my level of dark attitude. I haven't cat me. drugs, and I have another cat may laughter really grilled. They litter I have a cat named after a form of poetry,
yeah I used to by now. I only have one very cute she's very lucky speaking of cats, and then we got this absolutely delightful and charming letter from another listener, it's written by sheer and that it is on behalf of our rose insurance. As I listen near podcast, while cooking and doing housework and my four year old daughter rose, has become quite a fan, she was To hear that you are real life. People wanted to send you a letter. She writes this, so this is letter fear history. Ladies, you must be very kind ladys to tell us good history stories. My favorite one is the pirate warm mainly safer, earnest hope diamond. Do you like cats? I, like cats, can you do some history stories about the ocean? Your friend rose and then she sinister, really cool piece of art that is winging
Crayon competition that is beautiful and we'll take a picture of it and preventing spoke very beautiful. Had we not already gotten this fantastic? from a boy, your own, The other may all that we guide in the same week with a sackful of animals and that would have won the prize where the most are something that came in the mail. It was created mail with its edged out. I think, even though the sackful of animals is extremely goal. we haven't, we have watched it yet and I'm sorry did not know the name of the person who sent us the enemy before I came in here, but we will acknowledge that later after we get the chance actually want it throws. I don't think it's any secret that we delay cats. We do I like all the animals increasing and the lady and I'm sure we can learn from history stories about the ocean. Somebody in the not too distant future shipwreck stories are popular with everybody, so we always want to find some new and cool ones. Involving map, for thank you so much.
I love when we can inspire pet names that makes it superfine, If you would like to raise, is you can do so? At history, pike, ass, a discovery dot com can also. this on Facebook, account slash history, class stuff on twitter atmosphere, history, Emma Tumblr, it missed in history, not tumblr dot com, or else I'm pinterest very busily pinning things away of historical significance or delights, and if you to learn a little bit more about what we talked about today, good or website and type in the words Holy roman empire in the search bar and one of the articles. You'll get is the ten most long lived, empires and history of which Korea is one it is. If you would like to learn about that or anything else, your mind can think about
can come into that at our website, which is house reports, dot com, but more on this and thousands of other topics, because it has some works. Audible dot com is the leading provider of downloadable, digital audio books and spoken word: entertainment, audible, More than one hundred thousand titles to choose from to be downloaded to your ipod or mp3 player, gotta audible, pod cats, dot com, flash history to get a free, audio books. Download of your choice when you sign up today. This is Danny. Shapiro post of the hidden had cast family secrets I'm here to tell you that the new season of my show starts February Sex. I hope you'll join for some incredible conversations about family identity and why to both when the secret
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