« Stuff You Missed in History Class

King Djoser and Egypt's First Pyramid

2015-03-16 | 🔗

The pyramids at Giza are iconic Egyptian landmarks, but they weren't the first to appear. Djoser and his vizier Imhotep are credited with starting the pyramid trend.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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is all about from one of the most honest voices between the ropes that is seeing honesty, the journey will take you from wide a pebble, Augusta Asia and everywhere that allows max at tea time and a free players buffeting free food remains undefeated dinner, MAX Solomon, Kane, Bacon from yours February? Third, you can listen and follow on the Iheart radio. App apple podcast ever you listen, podcast work and they must in history, has tat works. How come I will look into the park humbling and accuracy bewilderment we're going to do a little bit ancient history today so almost instantly when someone mentions Egypt, the image of the pyramids visa sort of jumped to mine
This is not the only saying in Egypt where pyramids exist and frankly, it was not the first place in Egypt. Were pyramids existed north west of the city of Memphis sits the Sakharov Acropolis, and that has a an older claim to this particular piece of history them a visa site by about a hundred years. So we are going to talk a little bit today about King YA, Sir. That is one version of the pronunciation. His name is spelled DJ. O S, e r and you'll hear pronounced in a number of different ways of working with basically a dead language. Here we have consulted many.
France sources and we have got many different variations on his name from Jos or to eat gesture. To you know I mean you can almost picture pronunciation and someone out there in some feel that expertise on it has used it. I think we're gonna go with the author fell, as often as is the case with ancient history. Similarly, to weed have a consensus on how to say his name. We don't have a thorough consists of consensus on the biography of Yasser you well, by the way. Also see the spelling with a z, sometimes Yeah that, as we say, often the further you go back, the less consistently information gets- and this is definitely the case at this point. So keep that in mind, as we go forward, will try to point out the port, the parts that are really in Kansas. Yes, there was a king in ancient Egypt, third dynasty in the twenty seventh century BC. So during
period that was known ass sort of the old kingdom. His parents were probably because a cam way and queen may atop, although that So not entirely certain at this point long ago that I went. I rarely feel the need to double check any thing that you ve handed, but I went twenty seven, a b c. Let me make sir that's right for what it's worth did that to myself several times firm. It did. I put those numbers it only right, so the line of succession that led to the authors rain. Is it a hundred percent clear a lot of dispute as to the time line of basically all of the third dynasty Pharaoh's and so far there's not nearly enough solid evidence to clarify things with certainty. There is also the problem of different forces being inconsistent with one another, so we have sources that are sort of the official established sources we use for for the the
and of succession back that fire. But they don't agree with each other ye yeah and just out to do a quick sidebar on the word Pharaoh's. I don't use it much of this outlawing, because that's not a word that was actually being used. I think it started to you somewhere around the. I want to see the eighteenth dynasty. Dont quote me: I'm not I'm going from memories. So, if you're like, why are they thinking all the time and not Pharaoh? That's kind of why just out of respect for sort of that historical divide, but it is possible going back to users ascension to the throne. Then he took the throne after Nebuchadnezzar and that I was in fact his brother, however, now because identity and his position in the chronology of ancient Egypt also remained sources of debate. there is also another Pharaoh, Sir knocked who may have proceeded Chaucer just the muddle things further. There is also the possibility that those two men with the same person
There are historians they they were. The same person and historians say there are two different people supporting me. I, At the two of them were, the same person is source that shows his horse name or his ruler name, which was snapped and followed by a name which is partially obscured but ends the same way as Nedda so to give a little bit more context. For that and the quick word on names and ancient Egypt names were considered to be incredibly important during this time It was routine for a person to have an use, multiple names, as various situations warranted. If you ve read any egyptian mythology sometimes to know a person's true name is to have power over them. So that's one of the reasons that names would shift a little bit but horse. Aims were some of the earliest king me
and they were always written as part of a subject which was sort of a formal rectangular framed representation see you in the idea was that this naming convention likened the ruler to Horace, and it put him forth is a physical representation of that God, and so he kind of had a god like position that entitled him to rule. So today's focus Yasser, for example, had the horse name of the Jericho gets. I've also consult the people and heard it for now.
the direct, its very subtle but different, and that means divine of body. This is why, in the case of the nub currents and act situation, they could potentially both be naming the same person so back to the time line. The term king list is a pirate that has been made to the time of Ramses the second and he rain from twelve seventy nine to twelve thirteen Bc Ii, which is during the middle kingdom. This place has never got the beginning of the dynasty with Yasser being his successor and another piece of evidence that supports that lineage is the obvious king list. This is also called the obvious table and its carved on the walls of the Temple of Seti, the first and at least seventy six rulers of ancient Egypt in these three rows of thirty eight cartouche is each so that the bottom row is kind of a repeat, robot. The topped he rose feature the names of kings.
and it echoes the turing king list, in that it features nabbed first and then Yasser also a Federalist and its from the ram aside period and that the period of rule that included eleven different kings named Ramses in the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties. This table is different from the other two names. Yes there as the first Pharoah of the third dynasty following his possible father. Consequently- and there are other various pieces of evidence and examples, these are just three, so we can kind of giving the flavour of like this doesn't always match according to the turing king list, for example, youngsters Raymond may have been longer and that the ways of marking the years are not necessarily the same from source to source. He does appear to have extended Egypt's border south to Oz Wan, and it's actually in as one that, the as one and its actually allows one that the first evidence
the name Yasser to the kings. Horace name, the Jerry CAT was discovered, an inscription that was as one on the island of Hell, claims that the swath of land south of Oswald, was granted to the priests of the God, Khartoum of Elephantine by the ruler that Britain in your answer, and it uses youngsters name in both ways, both his horse name and then an answer, and it claims that the land grant was in exchange for the pre. God ending a seven year. Drought in Egypt and this curving is afford Three. It is legally bunk in terms of property rights. This is basically someone claiming that they had authority from the king when they did not. However, It does establish this historical connection between the two monitors, regardless of exactly how things went in terms of the time line and the the succession of day the kings. The authors rain does mark the beginning of a period of great peace and economic
for Egypt. The country's resources were organised on a really grand scale, allowing for mass of projects that employed lots of skilled laborers architecture became a cultural and governmental focus. so it should be no surprise that under Sir leadership. Major advancements were made in the area of stone architecture, and this is really why he remains the most prominent figure of the third dynasty, and even the old kingdom he's kind of one of the most famous of the old old kings of Egypt, because he is credited with the building of Egypt's first pyramid and before we dig into how that project came to be in what it is going to have a quick word from a sponsor this episode of stuff. You have been history glasses, brought to you by love book. If you ve ever wanted to share a love story with somebody, but you weren't really sure how to start that is where love book comes in. These are totally customizable books that you can give as gifts to the people that you love and care about. Most
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Steve a special twenty percent discount, but is only fur listeners again love book online dotcom slash, I heart to receive a special twenty percent discount. so one of the main shifts of the third dynasty from the second dynasty was this move to Memphis as a royal burial spot. This is in part due to the fact that this was also the place where Egypt's burst, known pyramid emerged. Prior to the reign of Yasser, though the Sakharov site, which sits about fifteen miles or twenty four kilometres to the South West of Cairo and its part of the Memphis necropolis. already a burial ground, the oldest burials, unless the current cemetery sit on the north side of the site and they date back to the earliest times Egypt, history, although there are not tombs of kings but of other hiring in government officials, the earliest too,
these are really pits that are carved into the hard stone of the bedrock and then covered up with other stone and the too many design that became favourable or properly eventually evolved into a coma. Stop us. These were long flat. Buildings with slightly sloped sides must stop, as had burial chambers, they were Doug underground beneath them, as well as a number of rooms that could be entered by the living to pay, respect for the dead and the first two dynasties of Egypt buried there kings in the stock is south of the oldest tombs as where yet the Yasser Pyramid was built and you'll also see it named as the step pyramid in some sources. I think that's what I remember it being called when it came up in the sort of the egyptian pyramid. The of school and his final earthly resting place.
planned ever must follow in line with what earlier leaders have been doing. But yeah authors, vizier impetus is credit. With the shift in design, but actually want to creating the first pyramid, so basically at some point in the process, tab and Yasser decided that they should build a smaller Mustafa on top of the first one, and then why not you another and a few more so eventually it looked similar to a mesopotamian ziggurat like my father's that, where traditional up until the authors rule, there is a series of underground tunnels and shafts beneath the base of the pyramid and
I, thus out their initial design had a number of challenges, because, as is so often the case, leaders at some point had dug their own tunnels to get to them, and a huge shifting construction techniques also took place in the building of youngsters tomb. So this project marks the introduction of true stone architecture into the record in hotel is basically credited as its inventor so prior to this point, most must stop as were made with a company
of primarily mud bricks and some stone combining the durability of an all stone construction with the pre existing aesthetic taste. I sort of love this. It's like they didn't want to jar people's perception of it too much by making it look completely different, even though they re using different materials. So the rock was actually carved pretty artfully to look like materials that were commonly used prior to that time, so it had a softer look where they would carve reed and would green and softer material tones into it. So it would still have that same aesthetic transition, so while we tend to think of pyramids is like singular entities that are self contained within themselves. There really more a part of a greater grouping of buildings. There, temples and similar other structures that are part of them also and Yasser Step Pyramid was what set this trend.
Year by the time you answer died in about twenty six eleven b c e, the pyramid that somehow TAT had been building for him was two hundred and four feet high above sixty two meters, it had six stepped layers, stacked, atop one another. In this complex to give a sense of what trees he was talking about. One thing this is not a singular building had swelled to this. A large town. It took about forty acres. If you do hectares, that's about sixteen ended, included multiple supporting buildings to serve his temples and other places of worship. A thirty foot highs were ten metre wall surrounds this vast complex, and this wall actually is fascinating, fourteen doors, but only one of them is a real door. The others are presumably aesthetic.
The chamber where the ruler was buried was made of pink granite and abided by beautifully tiled rooms depicting the king in various rituals and ceremonies. Yeah and one of them he is apparently running a race, and I don't know why. I love that. But I do I think I know why. Yes, course as trace events in the earlier Yasser burial, complex like so many in Egypt, was eventually looted. At some point, the only remaining evidence that we believe to be of the ruler himself is his left foot, which was found in a tunnel on the side of course, and also found in the underground passages was the body of a small child, a Mamma fight child estimated to be about eight years old, and that was in an
often there are also numerous stone vases someone names of previous rulers etched into them. There's also a life size statue of the ruler that was recovered in a complex during british exploration of the site in the early half of the twentieth century. That statue Just found in a limestone seller near the pyramid, isn't the Egyptian Museum in Cairo now and if oldest known, wifi, sculpture from the egyptian culture, its belief that this sculpture may have been used in have said festival, so offerings could be made to it so the kings Jubilee, which is what they have said, was also called celebrated. His reign. when he was alive. This also offered him the opportunity, reaffirm his ability to rule sort of that. He was still this fits and vigorous person that could absolutely handle. job and then after death, these this statue, presumably
Still made offerings, and the idea at that point was that the Spirit of the king would partake of the offerings in you know a spiritual. Otherwise, ants and then, at the end of the day, the attending priests chew the king to the deceased king would enjoy these offerings in the physical sense. The south tomb of the complex, which is separate from the pyramid, is where the kings removed viscera were stored, have Mummy was placed into the pyramid to the north and one theory about, dual placement, which is being laid to rest and a southern and northern tomb was symbolic and that it was right sedative of the lands of upper and lower Egypt. Emma Tab, who, as we said, was the grand architect of the two: had started life as a commoner, but then had obviously risen to very trusted position within the government and with Yasser himself, but
architecture was not his only talent. He was also an astronomer. He was ascribe he was a doktor long after his death, he was named the people. Scribes and then even later, in Egypt. Late period he was deified, is a God at Memphis and priesthood grew in service of him. There, focusing on the belief that he served as a bridge between the gods and the healing of humans, and we actually theirs. kind of interesting side. Note in that we are not sure of him who taps final resting place. His mummy has never been located. It is believed that he is somewhere in Sierra in most likely users pyramid complex and there have been various excavation, some of which think that they might have found where in hotel was laid to rest and others,
are not sure that we found it yet, but that sort of an ongoing thing. I will talk about it, a little more in the next section about sort of the precarious nature of the. U know ancient sites like this and how losing them. We're gonna lose the potential to discover some of these. The answers to some of these questions that we have so Emma taps final resting place. Still the jury is still out and that still being investigated with various leads in various Pages of development right, what we do know is that for two thousand years after the death of Yasser M hotels, design styles would be emulated, copied and revised. They just appear all over the tombs for Egypt royalty. Eventually it evolved into that smooth. Look that we see, I'm like the pyramids of visa, but he reliefs and set the standard and started that whole architectural upheaval
It will give talk about, can of what's going on in the modern day and some restoration efforts around this step pyramid, but before we do, let's have a word from a sponsor This episode of stuff you missed in history, glances brought. You buy Norton three sixty with lifelong, let's just say shopping online with your smartphone. I do it all the time. They sure feels that your personal info is right there in your hand, but that's not always the case Yes, because as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going other places in fact, sharp bank or browse online. Your personal info can get out, your control, which can leave you vulnerable to cybercriminals more threats, demand more protection, why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company, Norton, three, six he would lifelong is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and of GPS for online privacy. No one can
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is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and a VP end for online privacy. No one can prevent all cybercrime and identity theft, but nor in three sixty with life, is your ally in today's connected world, because your information is out there sign up for Norton three sixty with lifelike today and save twenty percent or more off your first year, go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton! Dot com, slash history for twenty five percent off to it. Into the world of pyramids, because the water table has risen. There's wind that just routine, we sweeps through the egyptian desert, and there was also an earthquake that measured five point: nine on the Richter scale and ninety. Ninety two, along with you, know the ordinary passage of time.
They also pyramid started- is a really serious where and the egyptian government started to explore ways to help preserve the important historical treasure. The pyramid has been closed to the public and historical experts for decades, because so delicate and dangerous. At this point you have it Definitely some things falling, however, since nineteen eighty to you that earthquakes sort of put in painful focus the fact that something needs to be done if they were gonna, really preserve this historic site- and there have been multiple restoration efforts mounted to save the Yasser pyramid. But this project has constantly been plagued by issues. The ancient structure, as we said, has been in a really precarious state for decades, and multiple teams have been true:
figure out ways that they can preserve it. Occasionally, engineering teams have been given access to gather information about the status of the structure, but for the most part there is still a lot of guessing. Every team that has gone in a sort of found surprises that they did not anticipate. And one of the eleven a UNESCO report stated that the updates to the structure didn't quote, absorb any load and if they weren't actually helping with the structural stability, one point: a Welsh Engineering, firm, called syntax was called in and they specialise in Ankara systems for restoration and reinforcement of historical buildings, for example, they worked on the restoration of Windsor Castle after a fire damage, the structure and some of the art there. during the unrest in Egypt, starting in twenty eleven. The project was also plagued by looting and financial issues, and all of the work was briefly suspended once intact got back to work. They want this plan to buy
Where is the structure by using a massive balloon to support it from within and because it was really quite dangerous for men to be in the air and then they were able to implant some anchors to give the step pyramid a little bit of support that it hadn't had previously a company called your body is the most recent group contracted to manage the reconstruction of the pyramid and the competency of the company has unfortunately been called into question and advocacy group claim. This that they ve never restored a historical and archaeological site and others just not the right group for the job. There are also being claims the can He was already other under investigation for other jobs that weren't properly handled Emma, I feel compelled to say we don't know the veracity of those claims. There have been a lot of a lot of accusations levelled and that is still being investigated, in late twenty fourteen, more concerns about sure were raised,
work being done on the pyramids facade, which you can see their pictures of it and will pose some of them on Pinterest. Look too many people to be far too modern and really quite out of step with the rest of the historic the texture and the color of the new materials do not really match the rest of the pyramid. The news things are much smoother and much later in color than the surrounding facade, and there is concern that What this is adding more to the structure that is normally allowed in these sort of restoration guidelines. I think of something like five percent new material can be added in the seems like much more than that, and there's also concerned adding the things that they are adding are actually doing some interior damage to the structure and once again putting too much load on it. In September, twenty fourteen, the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, contacted Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities.
concerns about the restoration led them to ask if recommendations that UNESCO issued in twenty eleven had been followed, and UNESCO also requested a detailed report of the project's status mood of the Monti, who is Egypt's, antiquities minister and has been since June of twenty fourteen has defended. The work of this group, Michael Gabriel, for red I may be it is proposing that who is executive director of the project has told the press that, in fact, the pyramid is being restored to its original look and that things are progressing exactly as they should have been a lot of updating the last several months. at the fall of twenty fourteen was not that long ago, compared to when we are recording this. So we don't at this point. No, the fate of what the world's oldest pyramid is going to be, yeah, it's actually, but all the same. stone building according to some accounts. It's just that. We now have a wee wee,
no. So I imagine this is one of those things where we're gonna get lots of updates in the coming years, which will be interesting, and hopefully it will be good news, because if we lose the sights, we lose some history that were still trying to uncover and understand. So that's the scoop on the first pyramid and King Yasser who you may have heard about to some degree at some point in school. I dont think I ever got much on him. He was new to me when I'm breached it And so there was something new or I had friends it's at all. I can have heard his name in relation to the first pyramid, and that was about it so hopefully more in depth into than you have before, and now I also have some sooner meal. One is from our listener Carolyn, and she, where it is a really fun letter. having green and she says dear Holly and Tracy part of my job as an attorney- is to conduct legal research on a wide range of topics. Imagine my surprise.
Researching the issue of domicile. The state and individual resides in for purposes of establishing diversity of citizenship under federal law. When I came across a case involving former podcast topic, heavy green in the case of state of Texas versus State of Florida, three o six: U S! Three! Ninety eight thirty nine after Hetty son Edward each our green, died the states of Texas, in New York and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, far flung themselves, over which State NED was domiciled in at the time of his death He died in New York, Nedda own property and had tangible personal property in Texas. New York Florida an Massachusetts when he died. The reason for this matter legal battle was that each state had a rival claim for the deaf taxes upon his estate of approximately forty four million three hundred and forty thousand five hundred dollars, which he had inherited from his mother. The cases heard by the: U S Supreme Court,
Nineteen thirty nine, which found NED, was domiciled in Massachusetts. At the time of his death, had each of the four states been able to claim estate taxes, the entire forty four million plus would not have been sufficient to cover the tax bill had he would like to have taken any steps to avoid paying taxes while she was alive but having it I restate taken in this way, had he's probably rolling over in a grave. Knowing background of this case made the morning research and case law analysis much more enjoyable. that is so cool. I never would have stumble across those levels of detail and probably would have struggled to comprehend, because I will confess that when I read legal things, I get a little glassy, I'm so thanks for breaking down for us Carolyn in kind of explaining it and also to bring it or attention. So, if you would like
it was about legal things are otherwise you can do so at history. Pike has to have the fourth dot com. You can also connected ass. It thinks the coms latch missed in history on twitter, at least in his dream at Lisbon, history that tumblr com, unconscious dot com, Slash missed in history, and if you want to do that, are spread church door to buy shirts or banks more upon cases or any number of other You can do so. It must, in this free got spreadsheet. Darker you'd like to research a little bit more about what we talked about. Our appearance site has the works, like the word. You remove into this bar and evil dead, how Europeans work it has mentioned this pyramid. He answered,
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