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Lord Elgin and the Parthenon Sculptures, Part 1

2020-01-20 | 🔗

Starting in 1801, the Seventh Earl of Elgin removed many classical Greek sculptures from Greece, particularly from the Parthenon and other monuments at the Acropolis in Athens. Pt. 1 covers the events leading up to the early removal efforts.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Greek sculptors that the seventh earl of elegant arrange to have removed from Greece, particularly from the part, nine and other monuments at the Acropolis in Athens and that started in eighteen, o one and this contract. say surrounding these sculptures is really not new. Like there's been a lot, but in the last few months, but it goes all the way back to the early 19th century, even before these sculptures are placed in the British Museum, which happened in one thousand. Eight hundred and seventeen grease has been actively trying to get them back since the start of the Greek Revolution, one thousand eight hundred and twenty one Britain consistently refused to return them and there has been more vocal demand for the sculptures return at various points over the last two hundred years, including now sentence is not something that people just started talking about, and this is also tides, a much broader conversations about things like the role of museums and the preservation of cultural heritage and respect for indigenous and colonized people. So it's really a bigger topic than we can really do
justice too, in periodic updates on earth about where the conversation is at the moment. It's also a bigger topic than we can cover in just one episode. I was telling Holly before we started, recording it even could have been more than two but we're going to cover. It is two parts. Today we will have some background about Lord Elgin, and his initial removal of these sculptures and architectural elements, and the next time we will be talking about how things progressed from their up into the debates about this art work. Architectural material today Thomas Bruce Seventh Earl of Elgin, an eleventh of can Cardan, was born on July. Twenty in seventeen sixty six as a young man, he was considered to be quite promising in one thousand seven hundred and ninety at the age of twenty four he started serving in the House of Lords as a scottish representative, pier he embarked on his fur, diplomatic assignment at the age of twenty five and he served in the british army reaching the rank of late
colonel by the age of twenty nine knee was also chronically ill and in his early thirties, has doktor recommended that he try warm see bathing. So he started looking for some kind of position where he would station somewhere and what you thought would be a more hospitable climate for his health. Opportunity to wind up coming straight from the King George, the third, at a ball, the king pulled elegant, five and mentioned that he had decided to appoint an ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. That person would be stationed in Constantinople, Witches Istanbul, Turkey. Today the king recommended that elegant apply for this position. Britain already had some other Le staff in Constantinople, but this ambassador post was new. Written in the Ottoman empire? Had each been fighting against France in the french revolutionary wars? The british me: a Navy had been assisting Ottoman forces and Britain wanted a formal treaty of alliance between the two nations. Britain also,
let to negotiate various trading arrangements with the Ottoman Empire looting, gaining access to trade through the Black Sea, so having a full imbalance are stationed in the Ottoman capital made a lot of logical sense in one thousand seven hundred and ninety nine, when he was thirty, three Elgin was appointed to be the minister plenipotentiary and ambassador extraordinary of his Britannic majesty to the sublime Porte of Sultan Selim, the third he put off his departure several months so that he could marry twenty one year old, Mary Nesbitt, and so we get hire the staff that would accompany and work with him in Constantinople, as he was prepared, for this assignment Elgin, also proposed another project for his time in Constantinople. The idea, started with architect. Thomas Harrison, who was designing a home for Elgin, Harrison, suggested then position in Constantinople might give him an opportunity to expand knowledge of classical greek art and architecture. Soap, students
and already had access to things like written descriptions and engravings, showing these kinds of sculptures and historic buildings and monuments, but it was possible that Ellen could use his position to gather more detailed information. He could get permission from Ottoman authorities to send artists and mould makers to these monuments and other sites, and they could make more detailed, diagrams and illustrations and also make plaster casts of the artwork and architectural elements. At this point, though, this proposed project involve really removing any thing, at least not anything. Major Anne Elliot wasn't art lover and he was incredibly excited by this idea. He went back to the guy went to try to get funding for it, making a case for how much it would enrich Britain's own artistic and architectural traditions, the government, declined to fund this project. But it did pay for a search for previously unknown manuscripts in autumn and I berries,
and then actually had some overlap with what Elgin was trying to do, and a lot of the permissions for the search came through elegans work in influence That manuscripts urge is also its own whole story beyond sculpture story that we are talking about in these episodes D I felt like it would be. An oversight did not mention, It was also going on, but it's beyond the scope of what we're really getting into when the government decided not to pay for this project. Elegant decided that he would find it himself, and it was also customary at this point for ambassadors to pay for their staff salaries themselves rather than those staff members being positions that were paid also by the government. So this was adding up to be a really expensive position for Elgin even though his own salary also turned out to be less than he expected when he took the job. He thought that he could manage, especially since at some point he would be coming into his wife's family fortune, which was significant
the also genuinely thought that documenting all this classical greek art and architecture was really important and he thought it would be worth the expense whenever you finally departed on his sea voyage to Constantinople he and his, Retinue made several stops along the way, and some of them were because, His wife Mary was pregnant with their first child and she was very, very seasick, but they also stop, in Naples and Rome, with the hope of recruiting draftsman architects, painters, mould makers and other artists and artisans to help with their project of document in classical are in architecture in Greece. This recruitment effort, though, turned out to be thing of a challenge. France had invaded ITALY during the french Revolutionary wars, and France had seized a lot of ITALY's most famous our work to take back to lose
the Louvre. Museum had opened in one thousand, seven hundred and ninety three, after being a royal palace for more than two hundred years and France during the french Revolutionary wars had just aggressively our work from the nations that had invaded, and then it was using that artwork to expand the leaves collection. After invading ITALY, France had recruited italian artists to help prepare and transport all this artwork back to Paris. top of the general labour shortage. This created for Elgin. Many of you, please artistic community, had sided with France, and that meant that Elgin had kids. and about the loyalty of any one that they recruited. Although Elgin, why ultimately able to hire people with the skills that he needed. He wound up having to say a lot more than he had budgeted to do it, leading He was Giovanni Bautista Lucy Airy, a landscape painter from Naples,
in his retinue, arrived in Constantinople and may of eighteen. Eighty, he despatched Lucy Airy and this team of artists and artisans to Athens they arrived there that August we will get so what happened after they arrived after a quick sponsor break the guy party I cleared out my whole data LISA Car the whole day, yeah. First, we need to study. I have some flashcards here to go. Releasing a vocabulary: charisma price cough money factors: disposition is you do not need to know all this to LISA a car, but I gotta negotiate a good deal here. Look Yes, it's the roadmap. You go through and take the car you want Then they give you a tailor prices crystal clear. They ve already pie dish ants, negotiated a low rate and included all taxes and pleased. Then they deliver party your house both, but what about the acquisition
Yes, ryan them to do you even know what an acquisition VIII is no, but I think it's on the next card there. welcome to the future of car leasing with a roto app. You can choose from hundreds of cars right in your area. We give you crystal clear pricing that include discount taxes and fees, and once you decide what car to lease will even drive it right to your house, it's easy. It's clear, eats Rotel. By the time more elegant and his staff arrived in Constantinople and may have eighteen. Eighty several of the concrete objectives that have led to the creation of this whole Bassett or posting had already been accomplished by some other people, for example, of four All treaty of Alliance between Britain and Ottoman Empire had already been negotiated, but it wasn't ratified yet, and british trade already being allowed through the black sea. In fact, some of the people
like personnel already in Constantinople were surprised and frustrated by elegans appointment. This included british me officer, Sir Sidney Smith and his brother, John Spencer Smith, who had been acting as ministers they thought the arrival of a new ambassador undermine their ability to finish the negotiations. They had already started and raised questions among Ottoman authorities, in terms of organs work as ambassador. It seems to have become somewhat more general, protecting british interests. in an overall sense protecting Christians and british citizens. Ottoman territory and ratify and formalizing those agreements that other people had drafted before him. Meanwhile, Giovanni Battista, he Lucy area team arrived in Athens. They started trying to get access to the Acropolis. Today, the Acropolis is recognised as a UNESCO World heritage site because of all the monuments there in the history of the site, in the words of UNESCO,
Its description of the Acropolis, is outstanding. Universal value quote on this hill were born democracy, philosophy, theatre, freedom of expression and speech which provide to this day the intellectual spiritual foundation for the contemporary world and its values, but in the day century the Acropolis and much different from the way it does today, most of the night Athens was in its immediate vicinity. The Acropolis itself was being use, does a village and garrison with houses and other structures built in and around the complex of monuments? In some cases, parts of those monuments had been used as building materials. For these new structure So for a little bit about these monuments that loose area in the team were there in a document, they included the Parthenon, the erect the on the Propyloea and the Temple of Athena Nike. These were built in the fifth century BC.
in the period known as the athenian golden age. This was, after the city state of Athens, established itself as a democracy following war with Persia athenian statesmen, Pericles embarked on an ambitious the plan to create just a massive monument complex on top of the Acropolis. This work involved multiple architects and sculptors, with sculptor Phidias being described as the art director, for this whole project phidias in his assistance also created most of the statuary that adorned the Parthenon, the Parthenon, is a doric Temple dedicated to the goddess Athena Parthenope, built between four forty seven and for thirty, two b c E. Its erect hang their structure with a colony aid and extensive sculpture, adorning its roof line, is both an artistic and an architectural marvel at the time of its consent. She was the largest and most elaborate temple in mainland Greece. The Parthenon
surviving sculptures are no longer on the structure itself. Originally, the walls of the Parthenon, inner chamber or the seller, or adorned with a freeze or a band of horizontally, oriented relief, sculptures that all the way around the upper perimeter, the freeze tells the story of a festival honouring the goddess Athena than the Exterior colonnades roof line, had a series of ninety two high relief carvings and the spaces called met appease and then the payment or the triangular space on the east and the West side, where the peak of the roof, in that area contained statues as well, and initially the Parthenon also contained a massive ivory and gold statue of the goddess Athena, which at the time was also the largest statue in Athens, the Parthenon survive fairly well for about eight hundred years after its construction, the Athena Martinez statue was removed.
at some point and later lost? Although there are ancient copies of it that have survived the Parthenon itself was damaged by fire in the third century c e and later it was converted into a christian church and at that time some of its traditional greek religious elements we're intentionally damaged them after the Ottoman Empire, conquered Greece. It converted the Parthenon into a mosque that, version happened sometime in the fifteenth century and at some point after that, the empire started using it as a military fortification as well. In sixteen eighty seven in Venice and the Ottoman Empire were at war. The Parthenon was being used as a powder magazine among other purposes and the gunpowder being stored, their exploded when the building was attacked that killed at least three hundred people and caused significant damage to the structure. There were also stories about Ottoman forces and local Greeks, destroying the Acropolis monuments to make use of their component parts either pounding
marble into mortar or pulling sculptures down. get to the lead that was used to connect them to the building. If that was true, those practices were problem. We ended by the eighteenth century because at that point it had become extremely common for foreign visitors to Athens, to try to buy pieces of classical sculpture and other antiquities. Please we're typically viz yours from Western Europe who made offers to Ottoman authorities for everything from whole statues to broken off fragments and for the most part Ottoman Authority is we're fine. With this, they weren't really invested in trying to protect the areas, historical or cultural heritage, and they realise that there was money to be made here even on things like broken off corners of marble columns in testimony that he gave before parliament later on Elgin, described the situation. This way quote every traveller coming added to the general debasement of the statuary in his reach. There are now in London pieces broken
within our day, and the Turks have been continually defacing. The heads and in some stances. They have actually acknowledge to me that they have pounded down the statues to convert them into mortar. It was upon these suggestions and with these feelings that I proceeded to remove as much of the sculptures I conveniently could
It was no part of my original plan to bring away anything but my models. So in some cases, these western european efforts to acquire Greek antiquities went so far as to have official or semi official attempts to secure them. On behalf of various governments, for example, the Comte DE shows a Gulf yea was the french ambassador to the Ottoman port at the end of the eighteenth century and he's specifically instructed in antiquary who toward Greece with him to quote, pillage anything that is political in Athens or its territory. They also embarked on a similar cast making project to what Elgin had proposed and we talked about earlier, and he hoped to secure the phrases and other carvings from the Parthenon as well. Ottoman authorities referred That request, but did allow him to take some pieces that had been dug up after having previously fallen Orban knocked off the Parthenon, like Elgin twas. Only Guph Yea was motivated, at least in part by the idea
This was a rescue mission. They sincerely that unless they remove these sculptures and other artwork from Athens, that these antiquities would be lost forever and really. This was not an unreasonable fear, pieces and fragments stolen from Greece or bought from ottomans. already is wound up in people's private collections and a lot of cases. They were just never seen again. There were also ongoing threats of destruction by vandals warfare, volcanic in seismic Tivoli but list really went on and on by the start of the nineteenth century as much as forty percent of the sculptures at the occur Bless had already been removed are destroyed. otherwise, irreparably damaged. So people like Elgin Schweizer, go yea and others really sincerely thought that if they did not do something to protect these works that those works would be lost.
while she was a goofy I have been talking about plundering anything that was plunder, ABLE Elgin at least at first, was focused on Doc, integration and not removal and we're gonna get to that shifted after we first pause for little sponsor break I thought you weren't leasing apparent today sounds like you're at football me yeah. Why use road leads the car? You know it's not up. I was telling you about. We can choose from hundreds of local cars right from your phone. Ok and the price is Crystal clear. All taxes and duties are included, discounts negotiated then deliver the car to your house I'm just watching the game. While I pick a car, so let me get this straight Oh yeah police car, was so easy. You figured why gets football game
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Also, since the freezes met, apiece and other elements they wanted to document were up at the Parthenon roof line. Elegans artists couldn't just walk in instead of easels on the ground. They had to build scaffolding to get them up to where the artwork especially when it came to making moulds. These sculptures and they also wanted to be able to dig at the site to find the boundaries of parts of the structure that were no longer standing until it for statuary that had previously fallen or been knocked down. Lucy areas, team, also we got access to the site by paying local ottoman authorities. Typically the disaster, but after they got their scaffolding in place, they were barred from the site. Authorities had apparently become concerned about a french force that was gathering in striking distances things and they decided to bar all foreign visitors to the Acropolis for the sake of security, Lucy Area and his team, or two
but they would only be admitted again if they got formal instructions from the government. He's instructions would be in a form. It was known as a firm in the team continued working in other parts of Athens while this Furman was being negotiated and they did get sporadic access to the Parthenon from time to time. Stand, was in the works, the team were trying to do and he had witnessed the resistance one, but it was from Stan Chernobyl to Athens through Ottoman government channels apparently delayed along the way. In July, the team made another request for a firm and this time, by way of a memo that was written by the Reverend Philip hunts Hunt was an anglican priest and the chaplain to the british embassy in Constantinople,
He had been to Athens and had seen first hand what Lucy Airy and the team were trying to do and he had witnessed the resistance they were encountering from authorities Hunt drafted a memo that detailed exactly what permissions he thought needed to be granted for the team to successfully complete their project of documents All of this artwork and architecture hunts memo outlined that they wanted permission to enter the citadel where they would draw make plaster models, erect scaffolding and dig to find the positions of old foundations. He also said that they should have the quote Lib to take away any sculptures or inscriptions which do not interfere with the works or walls of the citadel. That last sentence seems to have had two objectives: wine. It would give Lou Series team the authority to remove statues, fragments or other objects that word connected to the walls of the Parthenon anymore, so things that had already
broken off or fallen or been knocked down to. It would assuage the Ottoman authorities fears that the british teams work was going to weaken the integrity of the parts of the Parthenon that we're still standing, idea being if they were getting in there and they were taking things that were central to the integrity of the structure, it would weaken it that would have the potential to put the structure itself at the military personnel working in their risk, especially if this french attack actually happen. So this idea of things that call do not interfere with the works or walls of the citadel would prevent that from happening right. They were. They were asking for permission to take away things that were still attached. the only surviving copy of the firm in that followed hunts. Memo is an italian translation, so the way this we played out was that hunts memo was translated into Turkish and then the firm in written in Turkish was translated into Italian, which was the official language in much of the Mediterranean at the time normal
ii. The firm and would have come from the grand vizier, but he was in Egypt with the Ottoman Army trying to repel of french invasion, so the firm in was issued by acting deputy. Instead, this firm and mostly restated hunts memo point by point. It turned it from a list of permissions that should be requested into a document that granted those emissions, but it omitted that last statement about quote interfering with the works or walls of the citadel. Rather than sending the firm and through formal channels, Elgin named, Hunt, a temporary personal Secretary, so it would be within his role to carry instructions to Athens himself and act as Elegans representative once he got there organs. Other secretaries were tied up with other assignments at the time, which is why this job fell to hunt. L can also
approval from the Ottoman deputy to bypass formal channels to make hunt the firm and career in Athens Hunt delivered the firm it to the vote. Who was the governor of Athens and the desires superior according to british accounts? The vote was appalled at the treatment that Lou Series team had said they were experiencing at the Acropolis both their lack of access to the Parthenon and their reportedly being harassed by the Ottoman military when they were there and there being made to pay a fee everyday that they entered the structure. Various questions still surround this Furman one is whether the surviving italian translation has even genuine Elliot was able to produce it. Fifteen years later, when parliament was investigating how he had obtained the Parthenon Marbles and whether Britain should purchase them from him, and that has led sceptics to question whether this is the original or not. Academics in Turkey have also question whether the document in question was actually a firm in which was a binding,
you're saying that it might have been intended as a general correspondence from authorities in Constantinople, two authorities in Athens, rather than being something more formal. People have also raised question, about the votes apparent eagerness to work with the british team after getting this document, as this was going on, Britain was warning the Ottoman Empire and its campaign against the french invasion of Egypt. Britain had also just promised it support and helping to defend the Greece itself against the threat of a french invasion, in other words its past that the vote was worried about offending the ambassador of an important military ally, and that led him to be particularly cooperative once he got this communication. Also clear that there was some degree of persuasion involved on the british teams part when a parliamentary Select committee quest, Hunt about all of this year's later he made it clear that he induced that's his word. The vote to interpret the firm and as
hunting permission to remove artwork from the Parthenon walls. He also talked over Lee of giving the vote and other officials, gems, money, armaments and other gifts throughout his work. According to travellers diary. Lucy areas team also had to pay a few hundred piastres in the vicinity of like fifty to seventy five euros today for each statue that they removed and its also unclear how broad that whole permission to quote, take away any sculptures or in script, was really supposed to be, it doesn't seem like elegant or his delegates were envisioning a huge removal of artwork from the Parthenon when they made that original request. in a letter that Elgin Road at the time he talked about taking away quote little ornaments or detached pieces. If any are found which would be interesting for the arts, he wasn't really talking taking away entire sculptures or sections of the Parthenon freeze hunts original memo requesting the famine is similar, specifically
limiting the request to being allowed to remove things that did not interfere with the Parthenon works or walls. The firm and didn't include that detail, but in the context of its writing, it also doesn't seem to have been intended as a blanket permission for the british team to remove large amounts of sculpture from the Parthenon Physical struck sure, regardless a few days after arriving in Athens and delivering the firm into the vote, Hunt asked for permission to remove One of the men appease that was already kind of a loose. The boy would either interpreted the firm and is allowing for this removal, or he interpreted it as giving him the authority to make that decision. As we said earlier, also, some inducements of that interpretation happening. Elegans team took down the Mediterranean question later that day and they take down a second when the following day
hunt reported this to engage in a letter that reveals another motivation for this removal. Besides, the edification of british artists and architects and protecting greek antiquities from damage and destruction That motivation was keeping this our work out of the hands of the French in reporting his success to Elgin Hunt wrote quote these admirable specimens of greek sculpture, which have been repeatedly refused to the gold and influence of France in the zenith of her power. I have now embarked with other precious fragments of antiquity. This was just the start of the british removal of art from the Parthenon and from elsewhere, at the Acropolis in Athens and general. Ultimately, people working under elegans direction removed some of all of the different sculptural elements that we described earlier
parts of the freeze, the met appease and the payment sculptures, along with the northeast column, blocks of moulding and other statuary and architectural elements. They also removed other antiquities from elsewhere, at the Acropolis and elsewhere in Athens, Although elegans original project had been focused on making accurate diagrams illustrations and molds and taking fragments or pieces that had already been broken, fallen or otherwise been removed from the Parthenon Ass time went on. He became more and more focused on getting as many original objects as possible, particularly from the high classical period around the fifth century BC. IE and one letter Elgin wrote quote. I should wish to have examples in the actual objects of each thing: an architectural ornament of each corners, each freeze, each capital of the decorated ceilings of the fluted columns specimens of the different architectural orders and of the various forms of the orders of the,
met a peace and the like as much as possible. Finally, everything in the way of sculpture, metals and curious marbles that can be discovered by means of assiduous and indefatigable excavation. This excavation not to be pushed on as much as possible, be its success, what it may as part of this elegans team, but a house on the Acropolis that had belonged to an Ottoman soldier and they tore the house down and excavated its foundations, and they found a piece of the West payment that had probably been thrown down in. That powder magazine explosion in one thousand six hundred and eighty seven. They also found a central piece of the Parthenon frieze, which seemed to have been removed from the structure. Long before so escalated their work and removing sculptures and carvings directly from the Parthenon itself, the freeze that runs
The perimeter had been carved directly into the stone blocks that were part of the structure, so elegans team had to solve the faces off of the blocks. To remove them just makes my stomach saint click, the increasingly ambitious scope of elegance collection of our work presented, a problem. Marble is heavy and all these freezes, relief, statues and architectural pieces of a really adding up Elgin needed away to get them home. At one point, he rode back to England to ask if a warship could be dispatched that was capable of bringing in entire building disassembled to be reconstructed in so outside of the scope of this project later on elegant and his team would say that they had encountered no resistance from the greek population over what they were doing and no sign that the local people were upset or angry about it and that they
though reveal an ongoing sense of rivalry with France and of getting material for Britain that surpassed what had been placed in the leave. At the same time, other people on Elegans diplomatic team were buying or taking items from Oliver, Greece, many of which were destined for their own personal collections for themselves, so outside of the scope, project later on Elgin in his tea would say that they have encountered no resistance from the greek population over what they were doing and no sign that the law go people were upset her angry about it and that they had handle all of it as carefully as possible. But other accounts contradict that English, clergyman and naturalist, Edward Daniel Clark, sauce ongoing work at the Parthenon, while touring Greece, he wrote in a letter quote. We saw this fine piece of sculpture raised from its station between the trackless, but the word. men endeavouring to give it a position adapted to the projected line of dissent. A part of the adjoining masonry was loose
and by the machinery and down, came the fine masses of pentelicus marble, scattering their white fragments with thundering noise among the Ruins Clarks Account went on to describe the disaster, as in tears What was being done? Clark was not alone in this reaction shortly before guns, embassy left Constantinople, which we're gonna talk about more in part to a teacher named your highness Benito wrote a letter to hunt that red in part quote one only would make you sad as it does all those who have some understanding of these things. The last deplorable stripping of the temple of Athena, on the Acropolis and of the other relics of it. Equity. The Temple is like a noble and wealthy lady who has lost all her diamonds and jury. Oh, how we Athenians must take this event to heart and how we praise and admire the ancient heroes of Rome, Pompey and Hadrian's. When we look on these things in the
The material elegans team remove from the Parthenon included, almost half of the original freezes. Fifteen of the ninety two met appease and seventeen pedant statues also removed other statues and architectural elements. Overall, it was about half of the surviving sculptures freezes and similar objects. It took more than one hundred seventy creates to pack them, and at least fifteen different ships to transport them all to England. We are going to talk about when they got to England Neck time. For now you got some listener mail. I believe I have listened airmail about a different ancient monument and it follows our episode on the rock hewn churches of labelling and MRS Frahm, Jerusalem to Jerusalem, rights, high tracing and holly. Thank you so much.
For taking the time to do. An episode on Lala Bela, I'm aethiopia in American. Both of my parents are either european and I was born in the states and it was a great Christmas gift. Seeing my favorite podcast cover one of my favorite places. I just wanted to give you a bit more context and hopefully answer some of the questions you posed in your behind the scenes. Many sued one. If you want more information about the story of middle like taking the arc of the covenant and moving it to Ethiopia, I would encourage you to check out a book called the cab written suggest. It means the glory of kings and English. It essentially described the history of Ethiopia, including the story of the queen of Sheba King Solomon and their son. Mental like here is the link. english translation to all easy opium orthodox churches actually have replicas of the arc of the covenant called a taboo in get is which is the little language, not just the churches and knowledge
although viewing this replica is restricted to specific church officials and a specific part of the churches called the Holy of holies during certain religious holidays. This replica has taken out and paraded around the church for all to see the most known religious holiday, where this occurs as TIM Cat, which celebrates the baptism of Jesus. Three, I'm sure you came across this in your research, but a lot of ethiopian names are directly tied to Christianity, Wily Bela's, first name. Gebremeskel literally means servant of the cross when translated into English, his wife's name, Mescal key Brett, means respect of the cross and his son's name. Yet Barak means let it be blessed. Ethiopian tradition of having deeply religious names continues to this day evident and the fact that my name is Jerusalem
Thank you for all that you do wishing you both a happy new year. Jerusalem. Thank you! So much Jerusalem for this a mail I really enjoyed reading it from somebody that had so many personal connections to it, and I actually don't recall if I came across it in my research that a lot of it, the european names, are directly tied to Christianity, I'd I dont know if that would have jumped out at me. If I had because, like my own immediate and extended family includes, like a Mattie mark, Lucan Jain like we have a lot of Bible names, but it s not. Not naming, but that would really necessarily seamen.
Usual to me, but it is really cool to see how how that is used in easy Opium Orthodox Christianity. Thank you again, Jerusalem. For that note, and that other information, if you would like to write to us about this or any other pod castrate history, pod, cast an eye heart radio dot com and were also all over social media. As Mr History, that's real, find our Facebook Pinterest Instagram what're, you can also subscribed to our show on Apple pie. Gasped, I hurt radio anywhere and anywhere else you hear here. Stuffy missed an historical, the production of Iheart radios, how stuff works. For my part, for my whole radio, bigger by her radio apple guests or wherever you listen to your favorite, shows I am Bobby Road. Welcome to my podcast beyond the baby, so
my heart, radio. I'm gonna be sitting down with different people each week that I think we can all learn from. I hurt rate is number one for podcast. But don't take our word for listen to beyond the beauty, honey. I hurt radio, an apple podcast or ever you get your podcast, because we all have something to learn about the real me.