The second part of the Luis Alvarez episode covers his time as part of the Manhattan Project designing detonators for atomic bombs. Beyond his controversial work, Alvarez also contributed to particle physics, mystery solving and paleontology.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Before the vote of stuff, you mustn't Ezra glasses, brought to you by Katy, keen I love Riverdale. So I'm really excited that the creator of Riverdale has a sparkling adventure in the big apple coming out, full of fashion drama in dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six at eight seven central, it's the new Sea, W serious Katy, keen the big apple, better watch out, no matter who or what gets in the way. The four friends we were part of the shower about to take a big old by they take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the social seen there's so much high style has a new name, Katy keen the fashionable new series, premiers February six on the seat, or streams free the next day only on the sea them you up. I am Bobby Brown welcomed Ipod task beyond the baby, so from Iheart Radio,
be sitting down different people each week that I think we can all learn from. I hurt radio is number one for pod cast, but don't take our word for police into the on the beauty. I hurt radio APP Apple Todd cast or ever you get your package because we all have something to learn about the real me Well continue stuff. You missed in history class from how support second hello and welcome to the time cast. I'm Tracy Molly fry and today we're going to pick up where we left off in the story of Louis our efforts, as we talked about in the previous that pursued. This was a scientist who made you contributions and a very wide variety of fields from nuclear physics to paleontology. granted twenty two patents, which he loves me
especially when you consider how vastly different these were in terms of the covered. One was for a golf training machine that he developed for present. Eisenhower with worry colored tv system. He also develop a stabilization system for lenses and binoculars in cameras and Innovation went on to be used and zoom lenses and shoulder help video cameras when there came along the also presented a variable power lines to Polaroid which came to market in nineteen. Eighty six Although he had shown it to them about twenty years before, so he invented a lot of different stuff yeah. I, in addition to all of his scientific accomplishments, He was also a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the american Philosophical Society, the american Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and his
I wish we were so many and so far reaching that even with two episodes, there're highlights and elements and sighed trips that we could talk about around him and his work that we can have leave out. Otherwise it will become an entire Parker theory called how Luis Alvarez works will be like nine and the second longer where we left off. The previous episode he had been creating new radar systems that were used during world or to which help save the lives of allied pilots, another aircrew and allowed outside planes to detect and destroyed German. You boats. in this episode we're going to look at him. Other major portion of his work during World WAR two as well as some of his more there contributions to science, which somehow wound up falling into the realm of sort of scientific, missed. Resolving you we actually weft MIT in nineteen. Forty three and he became part of Manhattan Project first
a little island Chicago where scientists were working on creating the chain, reactions that are necessary clear bomb and from there he went to LOS Alamos New Mexico and became part of the steering committee for the laboratory there team at LOS Alamos was working on bombs, the used both uranium and plutonium as their fuel, while Luis participated and missions involving both of these types of weapons. Most of his scientific work in New Mexico was on the plutonium bombs. The main part of his work had to do with creating them detonators. So he was the one who develop the detonators that were used and plutonium bombs. He flew aboard the be twenty nine bomber that dropped the bomb in the world's first atomic bomb test. The only visual documentation we have of the exclusion from the air is a pair of sketches that he made, since nobody had thought to send a camera up aboard the plain that there are plenty of pictures it at ground level, but none the air
kind of relied on that mechanical sketching knowledge that he had gotten in his high school time to to do some sketch work based on what you saw aboard the plane. In preparation for the bombs to actually be used during world war. Two he, along with other scientists, moved the island of tiny, an where they lived in tents and prepared the bombs and the bombers for their eventual missions. Here aboard the unknown gay when it dropped the bomb known as little boy on Hiroshima, flight itself. He didn't wear a parachute. He decided that if the plane were to be shut down, he didn't want to be captured While he was returning home from having witnessed this bombing, he wrote this letter to his son walled. He was four years old at the time. What I have about being a party to killing and maiming thousands of japanese civilians. This morning are temper with the hope that this terrible weapon we have created maybe
the countries of the world together and prevent further wars. offered Nobel thought his invention of high explosives, would have that effect by making wars to terrible, but an Fortunately, it had just the opposite reaction. Our new destructive force is so many times worse that it may realise Nobel stream, quite a letter to right, yeah, specially tier tiny. your four year old. Having just witnessed the destruction of a city yeah one weapon, Louis flew on the Nagasaki mission as well. This time aboard and other be twenty nine aircraft, the great our teeth, rather than the one that was deploying the bomb just before second bomb was dropped and Nagasaki, the great our teeth canisters containing telemetry devices like the ones like the one Louisa created for the bomb, along with a letter written by him and to other physicists the letter the dress to japanese physicists real.
gee Cigani, who had worked with Luis at Berkeley before the war, But we should remember their connection, any hope that by writing to him he could get information about Americans nuclear capabilities to the Japanese in a way that could put and the war pierce that letter we are sending this as Personal message to urge that you use your influence as a reputable nuclear physicist to convince the japanese general staff of the terrible consequences which will be suffered by your people, continue in this war, You have known for several years, but an atomic bomb could be built if a nation were willing to pay the enormous cost of preparing the necessary material. Now that you have seen that we have constructed the can the production plants, there can be no doubt in your mind that all the output of these factories working time four hours a day will be exploded. your homeland, with space of three weeks. We have proof Irish one bomb in the american desert.
Loaded one on Hiroshima and fired the third. This morning we for you to confirm these facts here, leaders and do your utmost to stop the destruction and waste of life, which can only result in a totally annihilation of all your cities. If continued as fine, we deplore the use to which a beautiful discovery has been put But we can assure you that unless Japan surrenders at once, this rain atomic bombs will increase many fold. In theory, friend of Cigani, with best regards from Louie W eyebrows. Louise and Cigani actually met four years after the war was over, at which point Luis added his signature to a copy of the letter that Cigani had net This letter did actually gets to the japanese government. It didn't get to Cigani until after the war is over, but if they did
did get to its intended recipients digesting the whole thing yeah czar. Well, what Many of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan project Louis was really horrified at the level of destruction and death, but the atomic bombs had the power to cause since world war, two ended so quickly after the second one was dropped. He really had no doubt that the United States has done the right thing here You felt like the bombing of Nagasaki, which that's a question that comes up like we had already bombed Hiroshima, that we also need to bomb as other city. He really like that was necessary to be an end to the war. Everybody knew that it took a whole uranium to make bomb hole. Time to make that uranium than, if weaken this point of view we had only brought bombed, Hiroshima.
People have been might also be a while there, thought it was a one off yeah. They were a while before they can make another one. So he really felt like that. That second event was necessary to end the war. Any so felt sure that if something has gone wrong and they had not perfected the bombs or if the bombs had not been dropped, Hiroshima and Nagasaki would have been destroyed anyway, through more conventional warfare techniques and incendiary bombs departure from pretty much the overwhelming majority of other Manhattan project scientists. He also But the United States should continue its nuclear weapons programme and develop a hydrogen bombs note about his personal life. Louise and Geraldine Divorce, not long after world war. Two He remarried nineteen, fifty two JANET Landis who had worked with him in the lab at Berkeley and they have. children together named Donald and Helen. Louis returns to Berkeley after the war was over
point he turned his focus too high Energy Atomic research some of this stuff that we talked about in the previous episode, kind of esoteric work, but it bubbles fail a little later in tow. In no event are you bow yeah arrogance: how about a little bit more detail, because it's also what he won his Nobel Prize for, had already been trot accelerators for in use for some years before he went back to Berkeley, but he wanted to create a proton accelerator. It. So he completed a forty foot proton accelerator in nineteen, forty seven and nineteen these three Louis met University of Michigan, Physicists, Donald Glasser, who had just invented the bubble, tamer that we alluded to a minute ago. So online particle accelerators, which produced the particles that scientist want to study bubble chamber detected the particles that had been produced so in a bubble chamber particle
pass through a fluid and they leave this trail of bubbles behind in their wake. Louis realised that this invention could be used to detect particles from think o cyclotron, which is a circular particle accelerator that had just been built at Berkeley. Louis. Improvements to the bubble chamber, including using liquid hydrogen as the fluid and developing more sensitive, recording and transmission heathen I'm making the chamber even bigger, so it could record the trails of more particles. The verse chamber was a one inch glass tube and about five years later he was actually using one that measured seventy two inches so thinking so when a particle passed through the hydrogen, which was about twenty five hundred degrees below zero Celsius, it would have hydrogen to the boiling point. I leave this little trail of bubbles in its wake. Photograph
would record what this trail looked like and then Luis in his students, develop lots of tools were scanning and measuring all of these photos. bubble. Trademark could produce more than a million photographs in one year and they needed to lie. At an analyze and record all of these photographs to see trails that it was not a little tiny bubble. Train using the bubble chamber. He discovered a tremendous number of elementary particles. He also covered extremely shortly particles known as residents states, Louis when the Nobel Prize for this work and nineteen sixty eight and in the ceremony, his methods were create, were credited with making practically all of the other discoveries about particle physics possible. I move whole lot of Nobel prizes that come out of the University of California at Berkeley. yeah that lab is clearly
enabling a lot of scientific exploration. Yeah there are, there are other labs, but have more therefore, the result Hawaiian coming from Berkeley after this Louise MRS Career started to put his physics knowledge into practical use too, solve mystery marrow mystery are there any hidden chambers in the pyramid of King Catherine and Visa great mystery, fragile in Egypt in nineteen sixty five as part of an egyptian American Expedition They use cosmic rays to try to look for areas of lower density within the pyramid which they theorized could be hidden chambers. Unfortunately,
the solution to this mystery was not very satisfying because the answer was no mere. He always hope her elders, vault rape is the extra history was whether the official account of the Kennedy assassination was right. It start after life magazine, published enlargements of France frames from the famous uproot film does the infamous footage that actually caught the assassination, as it happened. Louis was activated by these images. Any spent thanksgiving weaken going over them in detail using the same skills. He had used to look at bubble trails from the bubble chamber, so he was so a custom. To really like looking it fine level, tiny details that he just transferred that scientific approach to looking at grainy photographs yeah and what he caught the anomaly that he caught in these pictures words streaks in sunlight or streaks of sunlight that were the body of the limousine, and these, for longer in some places than in others,
he eventually concluded that this was because they were hams. Uproot her head in voluntarily moved his hand like he had a very steady hand that tracked the limousine really well. His theory was that he He moved involuntarily when he heard gunshots Bray Asthma people with you. You jump a little bit when the startling noise episode of stuff you missed in history, glasses brought. You buy Norton three sixty with lifelong Let's just say your shopping online with your smartphone. I do it all the time they sure feels like your personal info is right there in your hand, but that's not all the case because, as soon as you hit submit your purse, information could start going other places. In fact, when you shop, bank or browse online, your personal info can get out of your control, which can leave you vulnerable to cybercriminals more through demand more protection. That's why not and lifelong are now part of one company Norton, three six
he would lifelong is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and of e for online privacy. No, I can prevent all cyber crime and identity theft, but Norton three sixty with life lock is your ally in today's connected world because you're in is out there sign up for they and the New York City Social scene, where they find it more than just careers and the big city they find forever friendships. friendships, high history, that's Norton new name, history keen me five percent off. This episode of stuff you have been history class, has brought to you by W W, formerly watchers they have launched a new might appear to be programmed as their most groundbreaking and customize programme. Ever I joined Debbie W because I was really looking for something that was going to help encourage me to make healthier eating choices. They have really done that when you joined them W W program, you will take a personal assessment it.
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obvious movements that people had been associating with the shots said there was like a moment when the president grabbed at his throat- and there were like that- was one shot and then there's the When his head snaps back, there seemed that's the second shot rain, but The conclusion based on is looking at. The images was that no, there are actually two shots and one of the missed that are true. when the streets in the sunlight are differently. Ass day. I now does. Actually has led to a lot of debunking of consumers. Theories: Yeah was the motivation of some of this work yeah there were some myth, buster ask sorts of experiments to try to figure out exactly why the president's head recoiled the way it did if he was really only hit from one direction and Louis imagine the scenario as involving a melon being shot, since it was painful for him to try to imagine this happen.
To a man and in fact the president who is quite popular One someone that he personally admire yeah, and a friend's name Shirin nickname Buckingham, then located the experiment with actual melons reinforce of glass fibre tape that they should a firing range and what they found in that task. Basically that melon when shot me, The way John F Kennedy his head did. When shot once in one from one direction for even though his head recoils Ray but some people to think that there were. But there was no from behind yeah there. They are pollution was now that that was that was just physics is actually a normal movements. Yes and he went on to do all kinds of physical analysis on the film to try to pinpoint exactly how fast the car was travelling and where it was exactly at any given point in time, which is what
things were today sounds dislikes at an easy task. His today, we have much more sophisticated recording and measuring techniques year than we did at. That point but that that was also a lot of like looking at how people were clapping and how fast the car was going in and where they seemed to be in relation to other things too, really give a moment by moment account of exactly where the car was where other people were and where the shooter wise, all of that if you are someone with a physics, mind who- to analyze things and kind of part it out into mathematical equations really get into doing that yeah. It's kind of, even though it's a very different fields sort of the same methodology right to breaking it down
and later on Louis served on the Committee of the committee on the listing acoustics, which did in eighteen months, study into the sound of gunshots during the assassination and whether there was more than one gun, gunman or a shot fired from the grassy, nor conclusion from a report released in nineteen. Eighty two was no. There was no shot from the grass in all and the acoustic data that have been used to support the idea of a second gunman came. an entire minute after the president had been shot The final mystery that Louis, but his scientific mines to work trying to solve was what, happens to the dinosaurs, and this is work that he did with his son Walter, also known as Walt, who was a geologist at the University of California Berkeley So here's your theory, sixty five million years ago, a giant asteroid slammed into the earth causing enormous earthquakes in soon armies and clogging the atmosphere with dust cattle, quickly affecting life on the planet and why
of the dinosaurs in the aftermath, along with seventy five percent of all species that we're alive at the time. Yet, so here's how they arrived at this at the time cook hypothesis, It was not well received when they started making it now, and that is what they thought happen, in nineteen. Seventy seven Walter had been studying soil layers in ITALY because he was a geologist. He found this layer of clay between two layers of limestone and that layer of clay marked the end of the cretaceous period and a worldwide mass extinction. What was there in the geological accord under the layer of clay, were lots of fossils of lots of different species of microscopic marine animals, and on top of that later, there was only species of fossils, and there were no microscopic marine animal fossils in this layer of clay itself.
Walter brought these samples back to his father, who sent them to a couple of nuclear Camus at Berkeley to have a look, and they The clay was about six hundred times richer in iridium, then the limestone around it and this recent eyebrows iridium is very rare on earth. But it's really common and extra terrestrial objects further research found this iridium layer existed on other sites all around the world, all in the same way of the geologic record all of the clay. Samples also contained lots, and lots of so it became quickly apparent that the soil layer, Oliver Iridium seems to exist all over the world. Louis started pouring over astronomy research to figure out exactly what had brought this iridium to earth he came up with all kinds of cookie ideas involving supernova is a piece of Jupiter either basically brainstorming what could have done it, but
He concluded that an asteroid or a comment was the most logical, so something huge that would have also vaporized on impact. Then he started comparing how much volcanic rock was released from the Krakatoa volcanic explosion in eighteen. Eighty eight, it compared As to the iridium layers, try to figure out how big the asteroid would have had to be to make that much stuff and events. He concluded that it would have had to have been ten kilometers across Father, Son Alvarez Team, along with nuclear chemists, Frank, a sorrow and Helen Michel published paper and science in nineteen. Eighty theorizing that a massive asteroid impact have created this already familiar and led to the extinction of the cretaceous period. time. This idea was extremely controversial prevailing belief. At that point, was the volcanoes had wiped out the dinosaurs, and nobody really liked this idea that that it had really been an asteroid
Then in ninety ninety one, the chicks web crater was discovered off the Yucatan Peninsula, which the giant impact site. That was both Right AIDS and the right size to have caused the uranium layer on impact that point it became work respected as a theory by men in twenty ten, a panel of forty one experts published a paper concluding that yes following an exhaustive review of all that data, story, that struck the earth off. The Yucatan Peninsula was indeed what we doubt the dinosaurs? just a bunch of volcanic explosions, although there probably would have been some volcanic explosions following this impact we would be remiss if we left out the point the prevailing theory today is the birds are in fact descended from dinosaur. So why
the dinosaurs and air quotes kind urban oversimplification year. The tiny sources, as we think of them, That was really Louise Alvarez. Last big scientific Cement slash achievement. Theory of what happened at the end of the cretaceous period. I'd of cancer on September, first, nineteen, eighty eight, when he was seventy seven years old, twitter life as a huge yeah. So he rode a memoir called our. Surprisingly, slash achievement was the theory of what happened at the end of the cretaceous period like MRS chatting, with a fine chatting he's talking about all these things really did and just all these fine problems, but he decided to put his mind to fight all
I think he had not talked a whole lot publicly about his work during World WAR, two with the Manhattan project. Until the book came out, he thought without really candidly also. which I think considering how how much classroom study is to the end. act of the bombs being dropped in the end of the war whether that was the right decision to make, interesting to get up point four one of the scientists who worked on the project. He was ultimately in favour of this. that were made because a lot of the opinion If you're about are the opposite, when it comes to the Manhattan project, scientists yeah that they really had misgives yeah, he's really and outlier in the sort of aftermath of that in terms of of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan project, such a life here
of that, his work is all over the mouth every while having to you, though it it meant that some of it is difficult to think about that yeah, I'm sick of the dinosaur part. That's my favorite I like the dinosaur part. I like I liked the bubble we're part you know, even though the discoveries that came from the bubble chamber are in view of the sort that are interesting and in the realm of physics, yeah and hard to apply to everyday life in a way that relate of old people. I love the idea that there is little particles and their make little bubbles and then we're taking pictures of them like out in your head physics. Thicket really cute did, but I have to tell if you're talking, but if my little bubble here physics is magic. Three go this episode of stuff, you missed in history classes, Morocco you buy Katy, keen, I love Riverdale, so I M excited,
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This episode of stuff, you missed in history classes, brought to you by Norton three sixty with lifelong. What you're sure being online with the smartphone. Its super feels like airports. Information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit your person information could start going other places and whenever you shop, bank or browse online, your personal, invoking it out of your control, and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals, more threats demand protection. That's why Morton and lifelong are now part of one company Norton three sixty with flock is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and a Vps for online privacy. No one can prevent all sides crime and identity theft, but nor in three sixty with lifelike as your ally in today's connected world, because your information is out there sign up,
Norton, three sixty with lifelike today and save twenty five percent or more off your first year, go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, DOT, com, slash history for twenty five percent off. he doesn't want me all the dock. In my view, this is from Kevin Kevin says. I was really intrigued by the segment where you introduce Benjamin Van occur, as it reminded me of my own family history, our family, I've been counted and not small group of free, blacks and Maryland that you mentioned, and the podcast I'm sorry, but I'm sending us so late. But I get a little behind on listening to the Pike Ass, sometimes Kevin. Spine, everyone who is behind a listening to the broadcast. That is fine. I am also behind on listening to all of my time Castle Kevin goes on to say my ancestor, Robert Pearl was born either in sixteen eighty five or sixteen eighty six and Maryland. He was before
female slave and as a slave he was called the latter. Robin father is unknown, but its theorize that his father was his owner. Richard Martian, interestingly Robert had been married to Catherine Brent, daughter of Princess Mary cut him off one of the few Scott Ways that Catherine died prior to the alleged slaughtering he later married, an covered daughter of Marilyn's, first governor and granddaughter and needs of the first and second lords Baltimore, respectively, Her mother, in law, to Martians daughter from his first marriage, on Richard Martians death and seventeen thirteen you stipulated in his will that Robin Slash Robert be emancipated along with Roberts, wife and son, but not until he reached apes. Thirty five, seven years later, Robert you, Unique is a slave and several regards he was a skilled carpenter. Not an unskilled labour be proud.
We could read and write, as evidenced by inventories which show among his belongings writing paper and eight after his emancipation, Robert was quite successful and he went on to acquire numerous farms, livestock and slaves I could show that he frequently was able to successfully signature recovered debt, including from whites despite his race and said in forty four removed out west to what soon would become Frederick County Maryland they're here The two hundred acres dwelling plantation and carols in very much. his tenure there. It was managed by trials Carol of Annapolis, but during the last few years had passed down to his son curls curl of Carlton of whom I assume you are familiar. There is an interesting letter, written by Charles Carol of Carlton complaining about Robert Son, Robert Sons, assuming Robert Sleaze, Africa's passing pay cool familial mentioned by a higher by the tunnel.
Death he had sold off all his land. They could previously purchase only keeping the least land where he lived, but he had acquired significant well. One account estimates that the value of his state his estate would have placed at the top five to ten percent or the colony in that period the owned at the time of his death working plays with their past aligned his children, none were menu method. To my modern mind, it has always been difficult to understand how a former slave could own slaves, but I do not presume to understand the environment of the time and then goes on to say that he loved their mention of Darth and hold hands on your brain and in the polluter pride Cassie, because that was the song making. His wife chose to use for their way. That's sweet. Thank you! So much Kevin, yes cool letter such a cool letter. I love number one. I love when people's personal stories intersect with stuff that we talk about the Pike Housman when we another
when people have this in depth knowledge of their family history. So you know not. Everyone has the opportunity to have such an in depth knowledge of their family history, but when people are able to share set about their personal ties to what goes way way way back, really cool and In addition, I appreciate that Kevin shared the story with us, in spite of his conflicting feelings about that private family serving Thea, Thank you. So much cabin is its. You know it is great to contractual eyes what we talked about with you know, a very real world connection to its modern and that we understand and can identify when fabulous Kevin. You rock! Thank you very much. If you would like to write to us about this or some other subject, whereat history, pike, ass, tat, discovery, dot, com, browser on Facebook,
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