She was a black Canadian-American who became the first woman in North America to publish and edit a newspaper. She advocated against slavery, for better lives for free black people, and for women's rights.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
The future is closer than you think, and it all starts in the palm of your hand. You may have heard the news five g is coming in this new. I hot series this time tomorrow presented my team above a business. Join me ass, well, ass. She, and am I cursed car price as we walk you through the true revolution, immobility that will change the way we interact with the world around us join us, and here just how close we are getting to a more connected this time tomorrow is now available on the eye. Hot radio up or wherever you listen to parliament. Welcome to you, Mr History, from how support low and welcome to my raising Wilson and I'm hauling, fried in our reasons harder on area time, and we talked a little bit about the underground rail road and northern terminus in Britain.
with America, which would eventually become and we talk a little bit about how Harriet Tubman herself and the people that she guided there had kind of a rough time when I got there. Basically, because we're starting over from scratch, having just escaped from bondage, That is really only one aspect of the hardships that escaped persons faced in Canada and after these episodes came out, we got a wonderful email from listener, Derek which we are going to read at the end of this episode and in it he suggested today's subject for the show So today we are going to talk about Marianne SAD carry. He was a black canadian American who was the first black woman. In North Amerika, to publish and had a newspaper as well as the second one, and in the United States to become an attorney, and aside from that, she was also a teacher and a ceaseless advocate slavery and for better lives for free black people, as well as for women's rights
and I have never heard of her before getting their ex letter me either. So her way and Mary, and shall carry born Mary Ann Shad had a family three: the tied to multiple previous podcast subjects, her great grandfather Chad, which spell the little bit differently its s c h. Eighty, instead of s h, a dvd was a hash soldier, her great grandmother Elizabeth was one of two black women who care for him when he was injured near Philadelphia in seventeen. Fifty five Elizabeth and I'm married in January of seventeen fifty six, roughly twenty. later, they and their children moved across the street line into Delaware, which, although they were still all free, was a slave states over the next couple of years. Patients Shad spelled S. Hiv morphed into Shadd S, age, a duty and the family became a relatively prosperous, brave family of color and respected part of
ten delawares free black community at the time they would have been. Classified as you lot, oaths and most of the family worked skill, trades and skilled trades and made a pretty comfortable living Mary. M Kimbolton shed was the oldest of Harriet and Abraham sheds thirteen children. She was born October, ninth of eighteen, twenty three, her parents- we're abolitionists and were actively involved with the underground rail road and Abraham was also active in organizations trying to improve the lives and legal protections of free black people, including being a delegate to the annual convention for the improvement of free people of color when Marian was born. Slavery had really been on the Wane and Delaware for a while and then her early life, the vast majority of Delawares black population, was free, however, Delaware was still a slave state and concerned that its sizeable free black
population would inspire a revolt among those who were still enslaved. This is why two states started passing a series of so called black code beginning not long after Marianne was born. These codes, increasingly strict and punitive. The two detailing where delawares black residents could congregate and be educated, where and whether they could vote or hold public office. That answer was now. They went on and on churches schools and public accommodations were segregated in many predominantly white churches stopped allowing black members to attend educational operator, these four black children were severely lacking with the state not funding them and very few charities and social organisations being willing to do it either this Mary and sex put her doubly at a disadvantage. There was one quote: female african school. In all Delaware, which failed when she was about seven and didn't Rio
again until she was out of her school age years. This together meant that in the decade or so after Marion's birth, Delaware became an increasingly untenable place where the Shad family to be living. So in eighteen, thirty, three, they moved to Westchester Pennsylvania, which will later be home to recent podcast. Subject, fired rest in with the hope of having a more humane place to live, and according to the family law, one in which there would be more educational opportunities for the families, children particular The daughters pence They knew was a free state and was in some way is definitely better for the family than Delaware had been. However, black people still couldn't vote, represented in the government, and the state was still to racial tensions and racial violence, for example, on August, twelve through the fourteenth of eighteen, thirty, four, a white mob destroyed businesses and at least Forty homes in one of Philadelphia is black neighborhoods. Following it
given on the eleventh at a carousel that led to the rumours that black residents had insulted white residence to boil that down a white mobbed a large part of a black neighbourhood based on the rumour of insults in case that was not quite clear enough Variants Father Abraham worked as a shoemaker after they got to Westchester until the family saved enough money to buy a small farm. He continued his work is an activist and the family continue their work with the underground rail road And although the records are kind of spotty, it does seem that Mary and was able to get an education through private Westchester schools. Pennsylvania did have state supported public schools, they were unofficially not opens a black children in all of this, aimed to lead Marianne into the adult life that she would live. I wanted to talk about but first we're gonna pause really quickly for a work from one of our fantastic sponsors. Here's the thing
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advocated that did not have very many schools available to them, especially when it came to their daughters. So once she got the education that her parents had worked so hard to secure for her, she used it to educate people where she thought it was needed. Most. began back in Delaware from their. She also went on to teach Norris town Pennsylvania and threatened New Jersey. Through the eighteen forties B. The teacher at a school for black children was extraordinarily difficult during this time whether the school was in a free state or a slave state. general, either by custom or by specific law. State funded schools were for what Children only in the states offer Little to no funding for schools for black children, The charities running schools for black children were generally doing so on almost no money in places like church basements. Keeping schools
Black children afloat required an extended network of mutual aid societies, small businesses and charities all pulling together to keep them funded, staffed and equipped the teachers most of it were black women worked for exceptionally low pay and virtually no job security schools. out of money and close down frequently, which was one of them, that sad taught in so many different places. All of this is in addition, increasing levels of discrimination, segregation and racist violence that grew in the wake of increasing numbers of free black people moving to the north was she required about a decade of teaching experienced by the time she wrote a letter to Frederick Douglass in January of eighteen, forty nine. He had for suggestions on how to make real positive changes in the lives of free black people living in the north, a letter which was published in Douglas Antislavery Newspaper, the North STAR criticized free black
activists, including herself for spending time talking in debating conventions and not enough time on effective action. We should do more. She wrote and talk less one of the things tat we do for the next few years was teach eighteen, fifty one she moved to New York City to teach at a school form by the society for the promotion of education among colored children, not after she heard about a great north american Anti slavery convention to be held in Toronto, which she decided to attend by this escaped slaves had established several communities in Canada, particularly along the border with the United States and Canada West, which is now Ontario these community. Had become sort of test cases for self sufficiency and uplift strategies. in the abolitionist movement after
guessing the challenges and issues that were faced both in the United States and Canada. Several of the delegates to this meeting came to the conclusion that emigration to Canada was the best way to ensure self sufficiency and equality with the United States black population. There was still raises, Canada about the theory, was that it would be easier for black newcomers to Canada to achieve true equality in that nation, which didn't have slavery, and establish discriminatory lives, is sort of this idea that lucky we can move to Canada and kind of start fresh and have a better shot at true equality than we do in the United States was not a new idea at all. Various people and organisations, both black and white and operating with a whole range of philosophies and goals, had been advocated. the idea of resettling freed slaves for decades Miriam
other Abraham had actually been an advocate against this idea. At the time largely focused on resettlement to Africa during his years of activism before Marion's birth and into her early life there definitely a lot of different motivations and points of view. People had for this idea of Resettlement Africa there were. There were asked An american leaders who were like ok, we should move and will have a better perhaps there, and then there were also people that work working from a moral like white nationalist point of view who were like, we should move the black people out of our country. Back to Africa, like a cat boil down now all that home, men into just one perspective, because there were a why of different people working towards the same goal from vastly different points of view, Abraham, for example, felt that black people had a constitutional right to live full free lives in the United States, though he was against the idea of Resettlement Africa at all.
Mary and, on the other hand, found the arguments that she heard at this eighteen. Fifty one meeting really appealing and within days she had decided to move to Canada to address one of the issues that have been brought up at this meeting that was facing Canada, West's black communities, and that was a lack of opportunity for education. She moved to Windsor just over the border from Michigan on the Detroit River to open a school school was housed in barracks left over from the war of eighteen. Twelve shad was a huge believer in integration. She wanted courage, integrated communities of equals, rather than separate a cities and facilities for black residents. So she wanted her school to admit anybody. They wanted to learn to then with a shilling a week, but she promised not to turn away someone because they can pay. This, however, proved to be an enormously difficult promise to keep. She very quickly found twenty five students, but twenty of them
we're too poor to afford the tuition and she was sure that there were lots of other potential students in Windsor. You just couldn't afford to attend, all because they needed basically to work, even though they were children to bring in the money for their family with a small number of students that she had that could pay their tuition. They're just wasn't enough to make ends meet within She was living on charitable donations and money. Her family sent her from home She doubted her ability to keep the school heated in the oncoming canadian winter she finally, to the American Missionary Association, which was hiring teachers for mission schools in Canada. To ask for funds. Some reluctance on the major part she was finally granted a hundred and twenty five dollars a year that was half of what he said the school would need to stay running and soon her students number twenty feet: twenty three children in the day and ten adults at night.
Half of what she said. The school would need to stay running and soon her students numbered twenty twenty three children in the fifty two years, you published a pamphlet entitled a plea for emigration or notes of Canada West in its moral, social and political aspect, with suggestions respecting Mexico West Indies. in Vancouver Island for them formation of colored emigrants. This was a forty four page document, primarily that Billing information about Canada, West's economy, politics, agriculture and society notes of Canada. West was based. glee, promotional material, maybe even propaganda for the idea of emigration to Canada. It definitely heights it is advantages and glossed over its downsides. This pamphlet exacerbated in already festering disagreement with Henry and Mary bib. Harry bid was one of Canada's most power
a black leaders. It was actually the bibbs who had encouraged shanty come to Windsor in the first place. No Canada West set Shad up as the foremost authority on what life was like for black immigrants to Canada, which meant that Henry Bib had been upstage and he had been upstage by. I'm in Chad and the Bibbs. Also, fundamentally disagree about how life for black immigrants should be supported in Canada. Henry Bab ran a saddle organisation called the refugee homes eighty or already tests which solicited their nations of both money and goods and redistributed land. Sad thought of this as begging We strongly believe that the black community needed to be self sufficient and not rely on cast off clothing and second hand donations, and she also suspect mismanagement and our aitchisons finances aside from their due those of opinion shop was direct and even aggressive when she criticized people and organisations some.
I'm her. Writing was flag sarcasm as well. So these disagree blossomed into a full blown feud in this field. Went on until the summer of eighteen. Fifty two Cholera epidemic in Windsor drew people's attention to more urgent matters, However, even though it sort of was diverted for existing, those few did have consequences for sad in its wake. The American Missionary Association voted not to fund her any more once her contract was up at the school, citing that she had a lack of evangelical views. This was in spite of the fact that they that they had just reviewing our work and called it quote full and satisfactory a month before she wound up close her school on March, twenty third of eighteen, fifty three the day for the school closed. The first issue of the provincial free men, a newspaper, had largely wrote, edited and produced was published organs
about her new career as a newspaper editor, but first we're gonna pause, one more time for a word from one of the great sponsors that keeps us going twenty seven gloves and new podcast about famous musicians who died prematurely and sometimes mysteriously, the age of twenty seven. This new cereals, podcast is hosted by me. Jake Brennan creator in hosted the hit music, untrue crime, podcast disgrace. By now,. Oh covers the lives and sometimes mysterious deaths. A famous musicians who guided the too soon aged twenty seven seas in one will feature Jimi, Hendrix and artists to shore career burned fast and refuses to feed away. Jimmy was born on the twins. Seventh day of November and died twenty seven years later in between fascinating and highly dramatic, like filled with wild, exploits just like Jim
listen just like her Cobain, just like Janice Joplin Grateful Debts, PIG and Robert Johnson Amy Wine ass. The rolling stones grind Jones and others who all be featured in future seasons of the twenty seven season ones, many seven club podcast, on Jimi Hendrix. Like all seasons of this one, seven club contains adult content and explicit language. You can listen to the twenty seven club on the IRA, radio apple pie, gas, but wherever you get your pockets wash out for years story one Marianne learned her contract with the American Missionaries Association was not going to be renewed. She began working on a newspaper. She wanted a publication that could counter the viewpoints expressed in the voice of the fugitive, which the Bibbs were involved with, apart from the fact that her disagreement with the bid
played out in part when letters and columns published in the voice of the fugitive, this newspaper also Edit Orioles on women's role in the world. These are editorials that promoted the very Victoria view of women's domesticity you. This was not a view that she agreed at all. She listed the hill of experience. Newspaper editors, Samuel, Ringgold Ward, however, wards was mostly for the sake of name raking mission and to shield the publication from sexism. His direct involvement was pretty minimal, though, since he lived in Toronto, which was more than three hundred and fifty miles away at first some of the provincial freeman with something of a prototype, and it would be a while before there were regular issues that came out how one of her goals had been published a pen, counter to those that were in the voice of the fugitive. This actually turned out to be unnecessary, that publication, they had not long after all of its presses were destroyed
fire in late eighteen, fifty, three, the provincial free Men began regular, publish thing on March, twenty fifth of eighteen, fifty four, which was one year after the publication of that initial issue. It still In some of the same names on the mast head and that new year later issue, but sad was still doing pretty much all the editorial work soon. The paper published every Saturday and featured editorials written by Shad articles picked up from other anti slavery and religious publications and local news and politics, particular, as was relevant to black residents of Canada. Among the topics covered debate about mass immigration of black residents of the U S and whether it was better to stay in the? U S and fight for equal rights. There, the progress of the abolitionist, in the United States and its failure to have achieved nationwide abolition and the hypocrisy
of legislators who adopted an anti slavery platform because it was politically advantageous where they lived, not because I actually believe that slavery was evil it. Published a lot of work on women's rights for this newspapers. Entire existence, Shad with resolutely try to rates raise funds to keep it afloat actually went on a fund raising tour. This is the first of many, and it was at this point that she could no longer effectively hide the fact that she was the one who had been editing it behind the scenes. This whole time, apart from her being its public spokesperson on were the number of unsigned editorials of the paper was publishing draft really dramatically while she was away and they were replaced by notes on her travel around Canada, which render the violent Emma Shad. It was not hard to put to you do together the very simple math in August of eighteen. Fifty four someone wrote a letter to Mr M, a shad which praise the
paper and the ingenuity of the colored man who published it at this point Mary Having grown increasingly frustrated that people didn't know that it was a woman running the paper published a biting but under her own full name, she dropped the prey. hence of Samuel words, editorship and removed his name for the mast head on the October. Twenty eighth eighteen. Fifty four issue from this point: Sad increased, her touring speaking scheduled to try to raise funds, and she grabbed the more put more trust and other people to keep the paper running. While she was away one of these people with her sister Amelia, although shots fired had been generally opposed to immigration of the black community out of the United States. After the passage of the fugitive slave law. It's him. Fifty most of her family had gradually moves to Canada, primarily for their own safety. Several of her siblings eventually worked on the paper as well
and resigned from editing the provincial free men in June of eighteen, fifty five, believing that sexism was at the root of its failure to thrive. It had barely broken eat and in spite of her, relentless fundraising, she also did to China, which is between Lake Erie, unlike Saint Clair, taking a three month, hey this for the real patient and re establishment of their offices They were an entirely welcome and Chatham, though an existing paper in that part of Canada West. They can't adviser, published in The tutorial, claiming that Chatham black population had a happy criminal element and that a black newspaper would probably promote lawlessness. The town itself without Racially very divided: its population was about twenty five percent- black searches in school, we're segregated and the local papers, as evidenced by the thing I just said, have no qualms about publishing, blatantly racist work. not long after Chad and her newspaper, move to Chatham shot was drawn into it.
Few, they shared a lot of similarities with her earlier dispute with the refugee homes society, a one thousand five hundred you're settlement, known as dawn, was home to a black community, but its leaders and the people administrating it. Looting. British abolitionist John Scalpel had been suspected of mismanagement and extortion scheme when shall had, but it heads before, and they once again had a public dispute in which wrote a series of letters in the paper. This dispute over You should have financial control. Overdone, went on until the eighteen sixty years and ultimately ended in a lawsuit that allowed its black residents to take over controlling it themselves. In China, I have spent a lot of time investigating and reporting on suspected wrongdoing among Canada's abolitionist community. She uncovered
corruption among aid organisations and ferreted out white abolitionists, who had been pudding funds raised for the cause to their own personal use in October of eighteen. Fifty five she attended the color national Convention in Philadelphia as one of only two women present and only one from Canada she was admitted to the. Can and as a delegate after a vote of thirty eight to twenty three, although Frederick, Douglass, Many of the other convention organizers were against Mass nation of the United States, black community to other nations. Should people really forceful in favour of relocation to Canada, even So many of the other delegates we're really opposed to the message of her speech. A lot of people praised with speech itself and her speaking ability- and this led to several speaking engagements while she was in Philadelphia. One of these was the debate the subject of immigration in which Shad was declared the winner.
On January third of eighteen, fifty six Mary shad, married Thomas S, carry in Saint Catherine at the home of her sister Amelia. He had three children from a previous marriage carry had been an early investor and Marion's newspaper it did not have a particularly mentioning marriage. She continued to speak and to work as an activist and to raise money for the Freeman and the two of them Never had a home together, it would finally be six months before Marian Shad became Mary Ann Shad carry in print and light eighteen. Fifty seven after the birth of sad carries first filed. The newspaper briefly stopped publishing new She is it's not entirely clear, win publication resumes because the issues weren't numbered and physical copies of them, having survived until today, but the newspaper was not the only thing she was working on at this point in April of me,
in fifty eight John Brown visited Canada West to try to re support for an armed slave insurrection. He hoped to rally in North America shall carry. At the meeting of supporters. He attended their women were allowed, but later Www Wells Brown wrote that if she had been a man, she probably would have been with him at Harper S ferry. I think John Brown Raid on Harper S ferry has come up and enough episode, probably the one on it. Mary and sad areas last existing editorial in the provincial freeman ran on June eighteen, eighteen, fifty nine in it broke out against the rise, in quote Negro Haters in Canada, West. The last issue of the paper came out within a few months after that, shall carries husband died on November. Twenty ninth eighteen sixty at which point she was pregnant with second child. Although
carry had never stopped working during their marriage. Her income wasn't enough to look after herself and her children. She wound up having to get support from her family to make ends meet and she went back to teaching at a school so under funded that she actually had to ask the refugee homes society for funding ring the bell, it's because that will be one of the organizations she have such a public. Viewed with, I can only she seemed like such a unexacting and proud person. I can only imagine how desperate her circumstances must have Van to go to an organization views, she disagreed with so vehemently to Athens. I hope the civil war started, not long after that sparked fears that the United States would try to annex Canada or that the southward, The war and escaped slaves in Canada would be extradited back there within can
the racial climate was becoming increasingly hostile, as well as the black population increased the Canadian It had a really encouraged escaping slaves to come to Canada. They had offered assistance through things like land grants as well. but as more and more enslaved people and free black people left the United States for Canada that really started to change. There was this increasing amount of, not in my back yard style opposition to attempts to settle in various parts of Canada in the foot, of all of this shall carry eased back on her opposition to immigration, to Africa and asked the America and Missionary Association if she might get a missionary appointment in Africa that was denied in December sixty three. She became a recruiter for the union army. She began in travel before going to Indiana to continue the efforts there as well as to help escaping slaves get to Canada. Once
where was over and slavery was abolished in the United States, a lot of previous black emigrants, Canada decided to return back home. This was eventually freely people from the shared family as well. Sad carry eventually cause, her school and several of her family moved back to United States. She was really really, to follow them, though, and was actually issued a canadian passport in eighteen, sixty five. She finally turned to the United States after the passage of the Fourteenth amendment, which she saw as a commitment to the reconstruction air policies that were intended to secure real. quality for the black population, the United States, as you know, if you have listened to our Pike S unravelled smiles at does not know that played out. Carry move to Detroit where she became a teacher and for the first time got a job at a public city school that she did not have to fund through her own efforts. She became active local politics and she began
to advocate more strongly for labour rights and the rights of women women's rights, primary focus for the rest of her life chief. she moved to Washington DC throughout reconstruction. She continued to speak and write out various is she was advocating, and then she joined the first law class at Howard LAW School in eighteen, sixty nine, because the two Program and if she had finished it into year, she would have been the first woman to become an attorney in the United States, shouldn't wind up graduating with her class for real but are entirely clear. Although there is some suggestion that it might have been, because it was questionably legal for a woman to be practising law. She finally finished LA degree in eighteen. Eighty, three at the age of sixty making her only the second black woman in the United States to become an attorney in between She joined the suffrage movement, including trying to registered a vote in the spring of eighteen, seventy one, even though it was not go for her to do so,
for the rest of her life. She continually spoke, wrote and advocated for equal rights, for black people and for women slowing down only in the last ten years of her life, she died of cancer on June fifth. Eighteen. Ninety three at the age of sixty nine, Frederick Doug, praise for his having quote unconquerable zeal and commendable ability. He also said quote: the tone of her paper has been at times harsh and complaining. I can again and again, like all of these Biograph, resources commentary on her her manner of writing and, in speaking that boils down to like. Why does she have to be so shrill and number one? That's really gendered complain that a lot of the same people writing about it or likes this. Probably. She would not have earned this criticism if she had been a man, but then when, wit and read a lot
of pieces firm, the provincial freemen that still exist that you can read on mine. I tried to pick ones that seemed like would be the maddest like which ones She really be head up about an end like say everything's were making people stay while she sure is just cranky in her writing and I'd like I don't see it. So I think definitely when you, when you re descriptions of hers being like a shrill complaining person, a lot of bad does seem. Boil down to the fact that she was a woman while saying these things because had the same things been said by a man, I don't think they would have raised merely as much comment about their tone. and now I have the list or mail it inspired. This episode of every from Derek index is dear to me, the holly. I just finished listening to your fantastic double episode about Harriet Tubman, and I was thinking about
narrative of Canada as of sanctuary for escaped or even emancipated slaves. I am canadian and am a victim of a lot of aggrandize narratives about my country, which are painting us, kind. Light are problematic in terms of we think of our identity, for example, because of the fact we talk about ourselves as the terminus of the underground rail road. We didn't absolve ourselves of the same racist history of the United States. In short, troll narrative, places racism as the United States problem. This dangerous. In addition to me, historically inaccurate assets. I was wondering if you would be willing to explore Canada's Roland Underground Rail Road and black immigration, Marianne Shadow sample, if he was mentioned at all in history classes, present narrative, Canada, starting the provincial freemen, opening integrated school and fighting for assimilation of the great narrative and actually ignores the fact that sad, like many other african american emigrants, experienced
this amount of racism in Canada shocking this very well- and is this an interesting figure? I should say that member reading. This is a canadian anthology of literature in university cannot actually find examples of the racism the she experienced, but I think it's worth investigation. I really love being Canadian. So I dont fails to be defamatory. I'm a team We specializes in english language, arts and social studies and thus believe that complicate a national narrative is the way that society can progress by all. Understand that you are an american podcast and canadian content. Cancan as without here is something that is not necessary. really a concern for you as it is here. However, I think that at times in complicates story of abolition and is often missed in canadian history, thank you for reading ancillary using the word narrative so much and thank you for your podcast I've learned from it. I learned a lot from it. There Thank you so much Derek LAB letter is great for so many reasons. Like number one,
literally never considered that ever like me, there in my ever cry my eyes not at all. And sir Number one having somebody point out. A thing that had never cross either of our minds is always really interesting because, like like- You you- and I are both american and we have both grown up with this narrative of the underground. Rail road is a place where people wound up in Canada and everything was better and that, like better sure, relatively speaking, probably better than being enslaved, but definitely still a lot of racism. Present men. Marianne shall carry herself is just that incredibly complicated person. I feel, like of I often say we ve only kind of scratch. The surface here. There was a lot of disagreement within the time about like what was the best way for free black people and a people who had
Ben emancipated or emancipated themselves like what was the best way to secure equality and secure the the best life for people and there was a lot of disagreement within like the black muted and within the white abolitionist community, but also within like the racist community, that was more of a lake. Let make everybody move to Africa to get them out of our faces, like that really was a driving thought among people. In a letter, the thing she was advocating ruffled a lot of feathers for sure, so, if like to learn more about her. I strongly recommend that a merry and shall carry the black press and protest in the nineteenth century by Jane roads. It gets into more detail about things that we didn't really touch on various leave that she held that some of which people would hold behind today and others. People be like. I'm not sure I can support that idea, but
really interesting and complicated person who was living in a really interesting and complicated time that a lot of ways we tend to oversimplify we're talking about in history. So thank you again very badly. The great email, that's a great example of a great you. May I literally stop what I was doing and forwarded at the holly. He would already read it to say. I guess I know what I'm talking about next year. to write about us about this or any other podcast. What history podcast that house networks, dot com reform, Facebook, Facebook, dotcom, Flash missed in history, Twitter. It must, in history, are tumblr isthmus industry that Tumblr com, Pinterest, picturesque, dot, com, slash mist and history, and our Instagram has missed in history. We try to keep all the names as consistent as possible for the ease of binding us in all the places. If you would like learn more about what we have talked about today, you can do our parents site, which stuff works calm and you can put the word underground rail road in the search bar and by an how the underground rail road works or worked.
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