England’s largest and deadliest set of witch trials were largely influenced by one man – Matthew Hopkins, who was known as the Witchfinder General, even though that doesn’t seem to have been an official title given to him in any sort of formal way.
Learn more about your ad-choices at https://news.iheart.com/podcast-advertisers
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
When you need face time with your boss, all you do is look in the mirror. A nest. Boston. You take yourself out to lunch and you never say things like synchronized synergies because well it sounds ridiculous. Neuro, small business owner, born to be your own boss and annex can help with payment. Flexibility, so you can keep doing what you were made to do that power. backing of American Express dont. Do business without it terms, apply, learn more american, Express Dotcom, slash business situated on the beautiful cable beach by Hamas. Is a spectacular new resort destination in the Bahamas choice of three ocean front hotels, the grand high it s less and rosewood. This is the place to your perfect London luxury taxation and a lot of fun, whatever your before you can find it at Baja MAR the Bahamas most excel canary destination. The resort is home to
for forty restaurants, bars and lounges, ranging from casual, waterside, uterus too high end chef, driven, dining experiences, eleven glue, this landscape, pools acres of prestige each front and a soothing esper spot offer endless relaxation, while guess and thrilled at bottom, a casino in a ray of high energy night spots and at the royal blew the most acquaint new offers in the kid just a short flight from the. U S and fifty minutes drive from the airport. Baja mark isn't easy get away any time of the year. The book your next vacation at one of the resort, three iconic hotels and tourists, or what you specials, including up to thirty five percent savings on your stay. Yes, thirty five percent visit, Baja Marduk, that's by Hamas Dhaka Ba each a it may are dot com
welcome to stuff you missed in history class of production of I hurried use. How stuff works hello and welcome to the body ass time Tracy. We will then I'm Holly fry today. We are going to talk about England largest and deadly, a set of which trials, which were largely influenced by one man. I was Matthew Hopkins, who was now the which find or general, although this really doesn't seem like a title that was given to him and any kind of formal or official capacity. This in the region of EAST Anglia, between one thousand six hundred and forty five and one thousand six hundred and forty seven. So it was after the peak of witch trial pity and early modern Europe, but it was also a couple of decades before the sale of which trials on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean
Most of the people who were put to death in these trials were poor. Elderly women and some of the methods that Hopkins and other investigators were using could be classified as torture, even though torture was not supposed to be used in cases of witchcraft. At that time. This behaviour on his part, was so over the learned to a lot of people that he earned a lot of criticism for it in his day yeah. I think we tend to think Oh looking back, that was horrible, but everyone on board, then, no, no, absolutely not! The which trials were not really about things like pagan practices or herbal medicine or fortune telling as a basic deafened in a which was someone who was believed to be using magic to do harm. People who are using magic for good lake curing diseases, were often called white witches or cunning folk aside from the fact that cunning, full or sometimes called in to help identify witches. They weren't typically part of these
miles at all, unless someone found a reason to suspect them of doing harm and going to the car ideas about which trials is that Somebody was practising herbal met, then, and authorities found that really threatening for some reason and that wasn't so much the case with it. going on here beyond the way the idea of causing harm with witchcraft, specific beliefs about which is really varied overtime and from one place to another, for example, idea that which is made a pact with the devil, was common in some parts of Europe before the seventeenth century, but it didn't really make it way to what's now the UK and Ireland until a little bit later, it might have been introduced by King James, the sixth of Scotland and first of England, King James wrote about that idea in his book of demonology, which he published in one thousand five hundred and ninety seven. That was shortly after ascending to the throne of Scotland and
idea of making pacts with the devil and having demonic familiars was a huge part of the witch trials that we're talking about today, but really not so much. In english wits trials that happened centuries before there were, no variations in exactly how different communities dealt with suspected witches Look in England and Scotland again both have laws against witchcraft by the sixteenth century, In England, the demand for accused, which is to be brought to justice, tended to start with men, of a community who believed that they had personally been harmed Scotland that demand tended to come from the ruling elite out of a broader desire to root out. witches and anything else. There was contrary to God early, modern England. Witchcraft accusations tended to follow a pretty regular pattern, given how
deeply ingrained. The belief in witchcraft was it's totally possible that there were some people who actually we're trying to harm their neighbours in some way, but most of the time, these accusations were found, and it was really about an inner personal dispute. Here is an example from the trials that we're talking about. Today, Robert Taylor testified that Elizabeth Gooding came into his shop and asked for half a pound of cheese which she would pay for later. He said No, because he's horrible and deny people chief. No that's a totally, not the think she muttered under her breath about it, came later with the money and bought the cheese that night tailors horse fell ill and four days later, that horse died, which he said, was Elizabeth Gooding doing as a pay back for him refusing to help her Alice is good denied all of these allegations entirely. So while these kinds of interpersonal disputes could spark isolated accusations of
craft they weren't usually enough on their own, to set off a huge panic when that day, happened. There was typically some other larger issue going on that was causing other social or political or economic unrest in the case of Matthew. Hopkins time is a witch finder that something was the english civil wars. Ok, as a quick recap, English, civil wars band from one thousand six hundred and forty two to one thousand six hundred and fifty one. So involved Ireland in Scotland in England, the dispute between the monarchy and its supporters on one side and parliament and its supporters. On the other, Charles First, have ruled England, without a parliament, from one thousand six hundred and twenty nine to one thousand six hundred and forty, a known as the personal rule that is coming up on the show before he only summoned to parliament when we had no other choice, but the king and parliament disagree. over a number of matters, especially whether the king, Parliament should have control over the military during the
civil wars, King Charles, the first was executed, his son Charles, the second was sent into exile and at least two hundred and eighty thousand people were killed in battle or as a result of the war and then on top of all of the violence and chaos and loss of life Both sides in the English civil war use the idea of witchcraft to target the other royalist propaganda quoted First Samuel, one thousand five hundred and twenty three from the Bible, which reads for rebellion, is, as the scent of witchcraft parliamentarians claimed that Charles the first nephew, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, was a witch and that his dog boy, with his familiar battlefield, losses were blamed on, but which meant and in sixteen forty three parliamentarian for of executed a woman just before the battle of Newbury according to written accounts. Firstly, examined her and they found physical evidence on her body that she was a which, although hundreds of executions for witchcraft were carried out during the english civil wars.
Just wanted Newberry, was something of an anomaly, because witchcraft was a crime that was typically handled through the english courts. This legal history went back to one thousand five hundred and seventeen with the bill against conjurations and Witchcrafts, an sorcery and enchantments, which made witchcraft a fellow you punishable by death. Thou was later repealed, but the act against conjurations, enchantments and Witchcrafts, followed in fifteen sixty two, the law that was effects during the events that were talking about today was the one thousand six hundred and four act against Conjuration Witchcraft and dealing with evil and wicked spirits. It revealed that one hundred and fifty six you law before going on to say quote if any person or persons after the said feast of Saint Michael, the archangel next coming, shall use practice or exercise. Any invocation are conscious nation of any evil and wicked spirit, or shall consult covenant with entertain.
Boy feed or reward any evil and wicked spirit to or for any intent or purpose or take up and that man, woman or child out of his her or their grave or any other place where the dead body residing or the skin, but nor any other part of any dead person to be employed or use in any manner of witchcraft. Sorcery charm or enchantment Sal, use practice or exercise any witchcraft, enchantment, charm or sorcery, whereby any person shall be killed, destroyed, wasted consumed, pined or lamed in his or her body or any part thereof. So, if any person, you did all about stuff that I just read they would be put to death. Is a felon ass. Would anybody who aided or abetted or council them the method of execution in these this was generally hanging under same law. Anyone who used witchcraft to find treasure provoke unlawful.
of or cause harm to, cattle or goods would be imprisoned. a year, of course, the parliamentarians exit Some of the women known as the Newbury, which wasn't the only extra judicial killing of suspected, which there were definitely other instances of vigilante murder as well, but it was far more common for an accused which, to be tried, for a jury in the same court system that was being used for other crimes through much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was possible and even likely to be found not guilty of witchcraft, for example, between one thousand five hundred and sixty and one thousand six hundred two hundred and fifty eight people were indicted for witchcraft in the home circuit assizes. The assize criminal courts that tended to focus on more serious crimes. Less than a or of those two hundred fifty eight people were found guilty even after that Such is the Witchcraft ACT of sixteen o four, which was stricter than the law that it replaced conviction. Raid still tended to be about
twenty percent or lower, even though there were definitely periods where that percentage was much higher. The witch trials that happened in EAST Anglia, between one thousand six hundred and forty five and one thousand six hundred and forty seven happens during one of those periods. When a lot more people were convicted of witchcraft, the chaos of the english civil wars had led to an end in a number of witchcraft. Allegations. Authorities in general were also overstretched because of the war, and then on top of that, the courts themselves were understaffed. Most of the Assize circuits had lost at least one judge after the once you had sanction King Charles is personal rule of England were impeached so an oath burdened. Understaffed court system was having to deal with a sudden influx of all of these allegations another important point, Matthew Hopkins was out there you're coming up and we're going. The bad after we first pause for little sponsor break this episode of stuff. You missed in history classes brought to you
I so fine. I know when I was the very beginning of my career. I knew I was supposed to be putting something aside for my future and then I needed to be investing, but not only did I not even know where to start, I felt like I had nothing to start with the dot come bubble had just collapsed. It had taken me months to find any job Oh and I know a lot of people today or in the same boat, but so fine invest, makes it super, easy for anybody to start investing with just as little as a dollar, so Fi Invest, makes investing really simple. It's easy to get started here is how it works. First, go to so fine dot com, slash history, class, and create an account, and then you can either do I do it yourself model or let suffice. Automated investing build up your portfolio for you. You can use stock bits to buy fractional shares of your favorite star.
So even if something you really want to buy costs a lot more than a dollar, you can start with as little as a dollar see for yourself. How easy it is to start investing at so fine dot com, flash history, class fund, you're, so Fi Invest account and receive twenty five dollars and mystery Saka. That's free stock. Just for signing up, so go to so fine dot com, slash history class to claim your free stock. Today, that's s o! f I dot com, slash history class, so fine linen corpse C est. L number six, zero, five, four six one too, ran trucks, motor train back to back truck of the year. bragging about it. Just be an honest lands. Apes changed you, ve changed with a stronger more powerful, innovative
and more luxurious you think an award like this will give us permission to take a victory that well you'd be dead. Wrong. We think on our minds is getting better delivering harder for our customers and pushing the limits What's possible because, when you lead from within Europe, fine. I can do ram heel to serve Graham, is registered trademark above sea. A? U S LLC Matthew Hopkins went from relative obscurity being the most notorious an influential figure in England, largest series of which trials seeming
we overnight his father was a Puritan named James Hopkins. He was vicar of great when I'm in Suffolk, England James took that position in sixteen twelve, which was a couple of years after him Married James's father had been a landowner and he inherited money from both of his parents, so the family was able to live pretty comfortably, regardless of how profitable their vicarage was and they were able to set their children up with trusts. James Hopkins died around one thousand six hundred and thirty four that's the year that his will was proved or legally accepted. As the last will of the deceased that will referenced sixty, Dron, including Matthew and his brother, Thomas. It left them the care of his widow with instructions that they be brought up quote in the fear of God. This again, that at least some of James as children were not legal adults. Yet when he wrote this will be based the timing of his marriage and death and the fact that Matthew was the fourth of six children. Most sources,
estimate that he was born in sixteen nineteen or later? And then it is a mystery? Given the families affluence, You probably had a good education, but we don't really know in what he is often described being a lawyer, but there's no evidence that he formally studied law. Although his fixation with witchcraft clearly had some religious routes, it does not seem as though he wanted to follow in his fathers steps into the clergy. We don't even know whether he'd really studied the literature of the day on which craft and the identification of witches, which there was a whole a lot of them was the Melias Militia Karam or the hammer of witches, which was written by two Dominicans from Germany and Austria and published around fourteen eighty six, the hammer of we is became a standard manual for which hunting and there were almost thirty editions published between one thousand four hundred and eighty six and one thousand six hundred
King James Demonology earlier that was a compendium on necromancy, sorcery and spirits, and it might have been one of the sources for Shakespeare's Macbeth. George Gifford produced two books on witchcraft. They were a discourse of the subtle practices of devils by witches and sorcerers, and one thousand five hundred and eighty seven and a dialogue concerning witches and witchcraft in one thousand five hundred and ninety three John Cotta. The trial of witchcraft and sixteen sixteen and then re published at nine years later, as the infallible true and assured which Richard Bernard's a guide grand jury. Man came out in one thousand six hundred and twenty seven and discussed methods of identifying, which is as well as natural conditions in quotation marks that might be mistaken for witchcraft, there were to be clear, also writers, arguing that at least some of this was superstitious nonsense,
including the more sceptical the discovery of witchcraft by Reginald Scott in fifteen. Eighty four, as an aside here, long been on my list of subjects, goodness shepherd I went down kind of a rabbit hole of all of these various writings on witchcraft and was like. I wish we could just do episodes on all of them, because some of them are just so bizarre in their claims that they put forth. Various historians have closely Red Hopkins writing to try to find traces of the and other previous works on witchcraft. They have drawn varying conclusions on what he might or might not have been familiar with, given his upbringing and whose fathers position and are really widespread belief in this type of witchcraft. It's probably something that he would have talked about at home among his family, but aside from King
aims as demon Ology Hopkins doesn't directly reference any of these previous work than his own writing. He instead says the knowledge of witchcraft and how do I done if I witches came from his own experience? I like how the idea tat he read it at home leads me, of course, you think of you to talk to your kids about witchcraft, I learned by watching you write exactly that's exactly the whole entire self entertainment loop, this running in my head right now that experience, though, that Tracy just referenced started in sixteen for for when Hopkins was living in Manning Tree in Essex. his account in which he refers to himself in the third person quote in March. Sixteen forty four he had some seven or eight of that horrible sect, of wit, is living in the town where he lived a town in Essex called Manning tree with diverse other adjacent, which is of other towns who, every six weeks in the night
being always on the Friday night, had their meat close by his house and had their several solemn sacrifices. They are offered to the Devil, Hopkins went on to say that one night he heard one of the witches talking to her imps and telling them to go another which shoe with been caught and searched for a devils mark which these, which is purportedly used to feed their imp, familiars in this case, the woman who was examined had quote three teats about her, which honest women have not. This woman was Elizabeth Clark, who was an elderly disabled woman who was living in poverty. Having ident the mark, the next step to identifying a which was to keep her awake for at least two or three days to lure her familiars into coming to her assistance This was known as watching the witch, and sometimes it was combined with walking or making the accused woman stay on her feet, pacing around, sometimes until she injured herself in
Hopkins account. The familiars in this case appeared on the fourth night and there were ten people, in the room, when it happens, Hopkins said Clark called several familiars quote: one halt who came in like a white ling to your mara. You came in like a fat spaniel without any legs at all. She said she kept him fat for she clapped her hands on her belly and said he sucked the good blood from her body. three vinegar Tom who was like a long legs greyhound with an head like an ox and along hail and broad eyes, to win. This discovery spoke to and bade him go to the place provided for him and his angels immediately transformed himself into the shape of a child for years old. Without ahead and gave half a dozen turns about the house and vanished at the door for second sugar, like a black rabbit, five news, like a polecat after this Hopkins, said the imprisoned Clark named several other, which,
from the community, including where there, which marks were how many hymns they had and what those imps names were. Those were name that included. Elements are pie, whack, it Peck, and the crown gristle and greedy get civilian for pet names may make a list because there are a lot of good ones such as I was working on this. I kept getting really frustrated because I mean this story bout, a lot of women, most of them elderly and living in poverty who were put to death for no reason, and sometimes tortured beforehand, which is awful. But these descriptions of their familiars and stuff horrible using and unlike having. I wish this story wasn't so horrible and tragic, because these are great I mean that's the always like the long term appeal of of all of these stories rate. There is something phantom, to go and fantasy and wonderful about them linked it's. This panic made people real creative,
but unfortunately it also made them jerks and treat women with just deplorable methods that so like we don't want to minimize that at all, but at the same time, packet and peck and the crown like fascinating while she was being questioned. Elizabeth Clarke said that an west was another which, and soon accusations of witchcraft were spreading all through the community. Rebecca West, who was an teenage daughter, accused several when as well, including also accusing her mother after these and other accusations trials began in sixteen. Forty five Clark gave her own testimony This before the right. Honourable Robert Earl of Warwick and several justices of the peace in her confessions, said that the devil had been coming to lie with her in bed for six or seven years. She traced it back to another, woman that woman being an West clerk, had been gathering. Stick
in a field one day and an west had seen her and felt sorry for, because she had only had one leg. According to Clark, West said she would send quote, a thing like a little killin that would help her and bring her provisions and her confession, Rebecca West said see an leads Elizabeth Gooding, Helen Clark and her mother had all Set Elizabeth Clarks House. They prayed to their familiars and they planned a number of misfortunes and tragedies that had happened in the community, and she said that the devil came to them while they were there. Her confession ended with the devil, having a here to her at night and married her that we should note here. All of this testimony about the parents of familiars in various animal forms suckling on the bodies of the accused sounds really bizarre. Some of this is
in attributed to the nature of the questioning. If watchers kept a suspected which awake for days at a time, she was likely to be delirious by the end of it, and it would make total sense for her sleep too. I've statements to sound absolutely unreal and many of the techniques used to test, which is our find as abuse or torture today. So it also a lot of sense that the accused people would tell the investigators what they wanted to hear too just stop the torture or otherwise simply to protect their own life. at the same time, though, people sincerely believed that this type of witchcraft and these imps and firmly They believed all that was real and in court documents. The to, and the investigators you hadn't been through any of these ordeals themselves also described personally seeing demonic, familiars in various shapes and forms in the case of Elizabeth Clark, that included Matthew Hopkins his associate Johns
learn for women who bid participated and watching her and other people, all of whom testified to personally seeing these familiars when they were in court. The testimony he's from this first set of sixteen forty five, which trials are documented in a true and it act relation of the several information examinations and confessions of the late witches arraigned and executed in the County of Essex who were arranged and condemned at the late sessions Holden had Chelmsford before the right. Honourable Robert Earl of Warwick and several of his majesty's justices of peace 29th of July, one thousand six, forty five, wherein the several murderers and devilish Witchcrafts committed on the bodies of men, women and children and diverse cattle are fully discovered published by authority,
So there are scams of this online and it goes on and on with pages of testimony detailing, which marks an empty and marriages to the devil, as well as accidents, illnesses, miscarriages and death that the witches purportedly caused an insult this confessed, confirmed by the tail in July of sixteen forty five Elizabeth Clark and an west, were tried, along with thirty four other suspected witches nine none of them were executed by hanging and nine more died of disease in prison. Rebecca West was released in exchange for testifying against others only one of those women was actually acquitted. Please accuracy
friends and trials then spread well beyond ethics, and we will get to that after another sponsor break. This message is brought to you by eighty home security made easy. What does real protection mean for your home and business? It means the latest innovation and smart home security combined or twenty four seven monitoring from eighteen, the most trusted name in homes, security, you get a team of professionals designing and installing a secure, smart home. Just for you, you get eighteen thousand employees, safeguarding you with connection to first responders. You get the nations number one: smart home security provider. You get a secure, smart home with everything from video, doorbells, indoor and outdoor cameras, smart locks on lights, controlled from the eighty app or from the sound of your voice. You get professionally monitored carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. You get a system custom designed to fit your home. You get safety on the go
in the car or when your kids are at school, with the eighty go up complete with an s o s button, so go on secure your home or business today with eighty, this episode of stuff you missed in history class, is brought to you by eighty tea. Would you like at the latest innovation and smart home security, combined with twenty four seven monitoring for the most trusted name in homes, security, if so, eighty, he is, for you ain the team of professionals that will design and install a secure, smart home just for you and there Ten thousand employees safeguarding you was connection to first responders you'll the number one smart home security provider and we'll get a secure, smart home with everything from video, doorbells indoor, an outdoor cameras, smart locks and lights, all controlled from the eighty app or just using sound of your voice, and you can get professionally monitored carbon monoxide and smoke. Detection, which I know is a huge factor in DE for a lot of families. You will
get a system that is custom design. Just for your home, and the great thing is that all of this safety can be taken on the go, whether you car whether your grocery shopping, your work, your kids are at school. You just need eighty t go up which has a handy sms button. This episode was, do you by eighty tee. The accusations of witchcraft that were made and Manning tree where the start of a set of which trials so why spread, and so closely associated with Matthew Hopkins that it is sometimes called the Hopkins which Panic Hopkins had associate. John Stern travelled from place to place investigating reports of witchcraft, inspecting women's bodies for marks watching suspected witches and in cases swimming them, which was throwing them into the water, sometimes tied up to see if they would sink or float more than ten people were
put on trial in Sudbury forty in Norfolk and ate it Huntington than Shire, the we're overwhelmingly, but not exclusively women records are not always clear. But in total at least two hundred and fifty people were put on trial in EAST Anglia, between one thousand six hundred and forty five and one thousand six hundred and forty seven and more than one hundred of them were executed. Some estimates double all of those numbers, the nuts of accusations was so big that parliament appointed a special commission of oil or and terminating here the cases, and that far the letter of the sixteen o for witchcraft law. The commission criticized Hopkins and his methods. Torture had been outlawed in the questioning of which So they thought some of what he was doing was unacceptable, although the most questionable cases were thrown out most of accused were again found guilty. Although Hopkins, and stern maintains that they only went to places where they had been invited by concerned people in the community, the people in them
sounds were not universally welcoming, even apart from the people being accused of witchcraft, the which find it were paid for their work and paid well, so people accuse them of making the allegations for money. Hopkins total pay has been Esther did at one thousand pounds when the average person at the time was making pennies per day. Hopkins and Stern were criticised or what they were doing almost from the very beginning when they started doing it, possibly even criticized from parliament, one of Hopkins biggest individual critics Puritan rector John Gaul, who was something of a skeptic when it came to witchcraft, gall directly challenged Wood Hopkins was doing, and in one thousand six hundred and forty six, he published quote select cases of conscience, touching witches and witchcraft. Which begins with a letter from Hopkins, saying that he was going to go into great starting to look for, which is good. I believe that which has existed enemy
opinion total disbelief in witches was a first step on a path of dust leaving in God, but at the same time He thought what was really at work in England in sixteen forty six with superstition, he thought that or were using witchcraft and demons to find something to blame for the ordinary problems of life ass. Noting his belief that which is did exist. He wrote quote, but there are also a sect or sort on the other hand, are superstitious and this point as these can be Infidelium. They conclude premium torridly now, from where you then but indiscretion, that which is not We are but are in every place in Paris with them. Every old woman with a wrinkled face of fur brow, a hairy lip, a Garber tooth, a squint, I squeaking voice or a scolding tongue having a rugged coat on her back. A skull cap on her head, a spindle in her hand and a dog or cat by her side is not only suspect, but
pronounced for a which every new disease notable accident miracle of nature, rarity of art, nay and strange work or just judgment of God, is by them did for no other, but an act or effect of witchcraft Go also noted that this whole profession, of which finder seem to be a new invention before this work had fallen to be. but like magistrates and justices of the peace, but now was being handled by people like Matthew Hopkins, who was calling himself the way find or general and gaol placed the blame for the witch panic where it belonged on Hopkins and turn who were going from town to town stirring people. Up in Gauls, words quote, it is strange to tell what superstitious appeal and affections relations are generally risen amongst us, since the witch finders came into the country and may have sixteen
seven Matthew Hopkins published his own pamphlet in response to these and other criticisms, it was called quote the discovery which is an answer to several queries lately, delivered to the judges of the assize for the County of Norfolk and now published by Matthew Hopkins, which find her for the benefit of the whole kingdom Hopkins framed his defence as a series of answers to fourteen queries here, purportedly been asked, although some of the queries are really statements rather than questions. The first is that he must be which sorcerer and wizard himself, otherwise he could not have done what he was doing. The second is that if you sent a witch himself that he had met with the devil and stolen a book containing the names of all the witches in England so
He was doing this work with the help of the devil. P responds to the first of these statements. With quote: if savings king them be divided against itself, how shall it stand that is holy answer? He responds to the second by basically saying that if he D, steel. The devil's book wasn't that something that you should be commended for rather than judged. It's also In the earlier queries that Hopkins says, his knowledge of witchcraft came from his own experience, which he describes, as quote yet the surest and safest way to judge by clarifying in this painful. It points out that a lot of people, especially people who are poor or elderly, have marks their bodies, naturally along with quote other natural excrescences as him, roads, piles, child, bearing etc So how is one man to judge that one of these perfectly normal things is unnatural? Hopkins reply is quote the parties, so judging can justify their skill to any and show good
then why such marks are not merely natural, neither that they can happen by any such natural cause as before expressed and for further answer for their private judgments alone. It is most I'll. Send untrue for never was any man tried by search of his body, but commonly a dozen of the ablest men in the parish or elsewhere were present and most commonly many ancient, skilful, matrons and midwives present when the women are tried, which marks not only he and his company a test to be very suspicious, but all beholders, the skilfullest of them do not approve of them, but likewise assent that such tokens cannot in their judgments, proceed from any of the above mentioned causes in the next query. Hopkins goes on to explain that you can tell these marks aren't natural, because there an unusual places there also insensible aim and they change shape, for example,
they're sending their imps to feed from someone else to avoid detection or because their imps have been able to. From anyone for a period of time. This pamphlet goes on to explain in Hopkins opinion, various aspects of witchcraft and to defend his own actions simultaneously, explaining the necessity of practices like wake. and swimming witches and saying that he utterly denies any confession that results from torture, and the last query quote all that the witch finder doth is too. Is the country of their money and therefore rides and goes to towns to have employment and promiseth them fair promises, and it may be doth nothing for it and possesses many men that they have so many wizards and so many witches in their town and so heartened them on to entertain him. His answer, quote. You do have a great deal of wrong and every of these particulars for first one he never went into
any town or a place, but they rode writ or sent often for him were for aught. He glad of him too, he is a man that doctors claim that ever he detected a witch or said thou art a which only after her trial by search and their own confessions, as he as others may judge. Three. Lastly, judge how he fleecing the country and enriches himself by considering the vast sum he takes. It town, he demands but twenty shillings, the town and sometimes ride twenty miles. For that no more for all his charges have thither and back again, and it maybe he's days a week there and find there we are for which is or if it be, but one cheap enough- and this is the great some he takes to maintain his company with three horses skins, partner, John Stern, published his own defence of their work called
confirmation and discovery of witchcraft and, like Hopkins, Stern, pushed back on criticisms that There are no witches, but that there are many poor, silly ignorant people hanged wrongfully and that those who have gone or and instruments in finding out or discovering those of late made known, have done it for their own private ends for gain and such like favouring somewhere. They thought good and unjustly prosecuting other where's, unlike Hopkins, who made only one direct reference to King James, the demon ideology, Stearns, work, fight, a lot more rapid this, especially Bible verses. There are so many books. Chapter and verse citations, especially in the first portion of this. That is difficult to read. It's like every third word is a book of the Bible in some chapters and verses by the time Stern published his book and one thousand six hundred and forty eight EAST Anglia, which trials were essentially over as ink. Civil war drew to a close. The court's got back to a more normal operation and the
number of witchcraft accusations, dropped people also less inclined to trust, Hopkins and Stern in the face of such vocal criticism their methods. Hopkins was so dead. He published his defence of his work roughly three months before he died. He was probably in his mental eight twenties and his pursuit of witches in EAST Anglia had lasted for less than three years. Although there is a popular story, that Hopkins was eventually convicted of witchcraft himself, He actually died of tuberculosis, which was probably affecting his health for most or all of the witch trials that he was part of. He was buried at mislead manning tree on August, twelve, sixteen forty seven and today he is said to haunt Mr Pond and other sites around the area. These also the focus of the nineteen sixty eight film, which finder, which is directed by Michael Reefs and stars previous podcast subject: Vincent Pray and best actor of all.
I never speak its privileges, but I sure do love and embracing any has arrived little Bob in that How do you know how to rotation before before this whole outlined even done really about how I'm so used to seeing Vincent Price, clean, shaven or with a beard that seems to denote. I am evil, like a little very pointy, that of when I watched the trailer to this film, which find her at first. I did not recognise home like us. faces therein the thumbnail and unlike wonder what character he played. Oh, it's that one is seen as you started talking. I of course, immediately knew who it was this whole story. We talked earlier about This income grew between how tragic and terrible it is, and how bizarre and fantastic all the testimony from the trial is, but the thing that I just find the most terrifying
that it is that, basically, this guy kind of showed up out of nowhere at age, twenty, something and that's, no hand it lay. There was other stuff going on, but he definitely was the instigator in in these trials all across EAST Anglia, that went on for roughly three years and then he died with not really any experience. Does anybody know of besides his own opinion about who was a which the yards interesting? Because it's it's? one of those things where I mean I certainly joking absurd about all the great names for pets but like when you think about one person on this weird quest to do this and how many lives he completely obliterated in oh yeah horse of it. It becomes very sobering in and dismaying well We ve also, we for sure talked about figures on the podcast before you see Oh handed Lee had terrible consequences and a lot of a lot of
that was a person who was already in a position of power. Not not you know the the of any other notable background to to put him in that level of authority besides his own authority that he decided to keep up for himself anyway, give a little bit of listener. Male, that's may be less. less damaging to people's lives sure is a bee greet. This is Brown Brian Brian's as high Holly and Tracy. I loved listening to your plug, cast at work. You two were, but so funny and informative and you're. The reason I start were, but so funny and informative and you're the reason I have started to use the word delightful more in my life, I learned symbol. the two of you and Thyme super decided to share some of my own knowledge. I was doing some research on the development of liturgical colours in the catholic church during different the year the priests vestments, are different. Colors,
very early on penitential and advent used black because it was a penitential time. They made the black by dying the clothes either with Blue, purple die over and over, the black would fade back to blue or purple and most churches couldn't except in that their right color. At these times the year was purple or blue blue instead of purple was used in Salisbury, in particular the latin word for ourselves very as thorough. So when you see blue use that advance, Sir I'm. So when you see blue use that advent instead of purple stay and is called siren usage rang goes on to say if your curious, about more religious history staff, Branco hosts the pack has called Sunday School for, Which is currently on on hiatus for some personal reasons, but I'm not gonna get into because privacy but that sounds pretty cool. It involves Brian explaining some of the weirder parts of Christianity to a non religious co host, and I would like say I love the name Sunday School for heathens. So thank you so much
Brian for writing this to us. Why? I was working on the podcast, the mysteries of the color, which it had very life show, and that's the episode that this is a reference to for a walk. While I was down a rabbit hole of all the different colors used in religious services in you, up and in clothing for religious people and what the thing that was temporary early in the outline and then came out, was definitely about how off in religious figures were supposed to be. wearing black, but it was really hard to get a really true. Color fast black die. So a lot of times the black really looked more like a faded, bluish purple color that whole evolution was a thing that had point been in that line that I was like this is too long and it's kind of a digression, some very glad that we had a chance to talk about it here. Thank you so much Brian for writing. If you would like
the right to us, we're in history, podcast that has networks, dot com or also Oliver For media Agnes in history, that's where you ll find our Facebook twitter Pinterest than Instagram you care. I'm kind. Our website, which is most in history, dot com and find an archive of Oliver Episodes insurance for the upsets, Holly, and I have done together and you can subscribe to our show, unable podcast thy heart. Radio app anywhere else, see that you're gases. Stuffy, miss them Trickle ass is the production of a heart radios. How stuff works for more pod happens for my her radio visit thy heart, radio am apple pie, guests or wherever you listen to your favorite, shows below of Joe and ass. It were the hosts of serious rash. A new wii hip Hop Parkhurst, bringing all our radio John I've France for over twenty years and debate about hip hop life for current events has always been a part of it.
and now we recorded every week for yonder, listen to it so chicken there is rational and I ha radio at Apple Black. A wherever you go back is peace, peace.