Canning dramatically changed how people around the world have dealt with food. Early canning efforts were kind of stabs in the dark, though – we hadn’t figured out the microbiology component yet.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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hello and look into the black cats time. Tracy won't then, and I'm Holly fry today we're going to talk about an innovation that dramatically changed how people around the world have dealt with food and that's canning. It is a topic that has been on both of our short lists for a while I say we talked about it like four years ago, yeah four years ago and then more recently like there's this. It's better thing that has come up a bunch of times and I started thing. About it again earlier on in the pandemic. Here, in the U S and in other parts of the world, we if we were having some disruptions in the supply chain, folks were stocking up on non perishable stuff to get through shutdowns, and then there's also just been a huge increase in the need for food for
food banks and similar resources, and now we are recording this five months to the day after the World Health Organization declared covered nineteen to be a pandemic. All of this stuff is still really relevant and left her. Having put it aside for other things, having had linger on both of our lists for so long. I finally moved it back up to the top So food preservation stretches back to the very beginnings of human history. It is generally agreed that people started smoking meets not long after learning to start a fire and all over the world, people have been smoking, drying, salting, curing, pickling and fermenting food. Fourth, thousands and thousands of years people in cold climates figured out early on the frozen food lasted longer, and people have built structures like route, sellers and spring houses to keep food cooler, so it will not spoil is quickly in addition to just making their food last longer
peoples around the world have developed food preservation techniques that are also culturally important or significant and, in some cases, so delicious as well. Just as one example. We have a whole episode in the archive about how the world's cheeses tell the story of when and where they were developed, and one of the reasons for making cheese is. Can have a longer shelf life than fresh milk does and trade. being in these preserved foods has also been a huge part of economies all over the world for millennia, for example, people in coastal areas drying insulting fish to sell to people further inland most of these methods of food preservation. They come with some drawbacks, though Many extend shelf life for a few weeks or months, but not far beyond that, and some others will change the flavor or texture or nutrient content, or even the overall quality food in a way that is necessarily desirable for
ample salted meat can be incredibly salty, I'll see why that problem with it and soaking it to remove the salt so washes away water soluble nutrients cure Food also takes a lot of sugar or salt, and those can be expensive or scarce. Pending on win or where you're talking about the obviously, these are also just examples. Things can also a lot more complicated with all of this. If you are a nation that has gone to war with most of your neighbors, causing you to lose most of your trading partners, while also needing to support an army and a navy, in other words, if your France, around the turn of the nineteenth century.
Thanks for margarine, the other so much stuff that we ve talked about on the show that is related to gather literary history in France and the late seventeen hundreds early eighteen hundred gap. So some of the specifics of France's search for a better way to preserve. You are a little bit fuzzy. There are a lot of general articles that describe Napoleon's government, offering a reward for a food preservation method that could help society. The army and Navy in seventeen. Ninety five buttonable and did not actually have control of the government in seventy ninety five, he became first Council one thousand seven hundred and ninety nine and emperor of the French in one thousand, eight hundred and four his highest rank seventeen. Ninety five was commander of the army of the interior. Other sources described the french director, which was the first. Revolutionary government offering
born in one thousand, seven hundred and ninety five or Napoleon himself, offering it in one thousand eight hundred the book that actually earned this award It does not mention any of that. Instead, it describes these society for the promotion of national industry, which had been established in eighteen, o, one which offered rewards for quote Memories from which the nation and humanity may draw substantial benefits. The book also describes the agricultural society. Putting out a
all in eighteen, oh nine. To quote collect all the information and documents which might contribute to the composition of a work on the art of preserving by the best possible means every kind of elementary substance. The person who earn too that prize for the development of canning, leading to the writing of this book, was Nikola a pair who was awarded twelve thousand francs under the condition that he right up. This detailed account of the work that he has done and provide the board with two hundred copies of that book printed at his own expense how much that, bit into that twelve thousand francs. The good question a pair was born in Shell on Sylmar, now called shell on shrimp on your friends on November 17th, one thousand seven hundred and forty nine Son of an inn, keeper Benny did not have a formal academic education. He was interested in food and cooking, though
and he learned how to brew and pickle from his father, and he did a prentice with a chef in one thousand, seven hundred and eighty, a parent moves to Paris became a confectioner. And five years later, he married Elizabeth been why the two of them went on to have five children, and by this point he had his own business, which combined a confectionery with the grocery store. He had enough money to spare that he donated to the revolutionary army during the french Revolution, and he was also prominent enough to represent his political district at the execution of loose the sixteen. This also meant that he was prominent enough to be tar, did during the reign of terror. He was arrested, but ultimately cleared of suspicion in the seventy nine. These appear added a wholesale produce business to his confectionery, grocery store, and that seems too. When he became more interested in food preservation, but he was missing a huge piece of knowledge that really would have helped them in his research and now
his knowledge of microbiology back in twenty eight team. We did an episode on Antony one labour, who is known of the Father of Microbiology, thanks to his spending a lot of time, observing things through a microscope and documenting what he saw. He had started this work back in one thousand, six hundred and seventy three, but by a Paris lifetime two centuries later, this field was still really in its infancy. People didn't they are, and what these tiny things were that viable, even hook, had described as animal fuels. They did understand how they got there or what they did. A lot of people believed that these little things that he had documented so carefully, somehow just spontaneously underrated. I still want there to be an animated series called Animalcule. I think that would be a lot of fun. I would watch it. It would do so like hot cake. Just me in some
the sixty seven. So almost one hundred years after of unladen hook started his work. Priest in biology, Lazard Spallanzani, published a paper on this subject. He had done experiments with four vials of brass one open once the old one, boiled and then left open and one boiled and immediately sealed when he looked at broth under a microscope. After some time had passed. The first three contained micro organisms. The four that one that had been boiled and sealed did not spell in Vonny concluded
What he was seeing in those other three vials were living organisms that had been carried in from the air spelling things. Work did not totally convince proponents of spontaneous generation, though they made arguments that, like he had damaged some kind of vital essence that was necessary to spontaneous generation by boiling his brow for too long. He also hadn't really made the connection that the life forms that he was observing could spoil food or cause illness, but he did demonstrate that heating something up and also protecting it from exposure to the air accomplished. Something and his work on this subject was really the only thing in Prince in a pair was doing this work that documents id that connection poorly understood as it was you VE killed. The animal fuels now appear became convinced
ceiling food away from air was the key to preserve again, and it took him almost fifteen years to come up with a myth. and to demonstrate that it worked his conclusion. After all that time quote, it is obvious that this new method of preserving animal and vegetable substance proceeds from the simple principle of applying heat in a do degree, to the several substances after having deprived them as much as possible of all contact with the external. Here, the we'll get into more details about that after a quick sponsor break. This episode of happiness and misery, glass is broadly by audible, dot. Com anytime I am going on a road trip with my husband, which I mean it's been a while, but it's one of the things we really loved to do. We always always always make sure we have an audio book cute up and ready to go and audible has now
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other weary, exploring the margins of history and specifically at the intersection of history and true cry welcomed the committee only Applaud cast our first season of the show is all about. Lady poisoners. History has not been kind to Ladys. Women have been more generalised, vilified, falsely accused and often justly misunderstood time and time again. But sometimes women take power for themselves, and sometimes they do it through.
some of these women absolutely were guilty, but some of them were probably labelled as criminals, but that was not the case. All of them were viewed through societies, lenses sitting at this intersection of being both killers and fairer sex. But how many were just misunderstood this into criminal earlier on, I hard Medio Apple podcast, wherever you get your pockets, Nicolas Appert started trying to work out a way to preserve food in one thousand, seven hundred and ninety five- and we understand today, but what he was doing, was getting the food hot enough to kill the microorganisms in its at least most of the time, but without cooking it so much that it became inedible. He was also keeping the food in a sealed container, so that are
micro organisms couldn't re contaminated. The sealed environment also meant that if any bacteria survived the heating process, they would not have the accident that they needed to survive. Although bacteria It did not mean oxygen like the one that causes botulism, still could potentially thrive but a didn't really know about the connections between micro organisms, foods, voyage and illness. He didn't know what temperatures it took to kill these organisms or how long they had to be at that temperature. He also didn't have a way to immediately tell whether he had been successful at any of it, so he did you all of this work by trial and error, including just allowing time to pass before he opened his containers to see whether the food within them had spoiled or whether the container swelled up and burst, or otherwise were visibly ruined. His first successful attempts were in eighteen, o four nine years after he started, but it took another five
years before. He was confident that he was seeing consistent results, since a pair was really sure that air was what was causing food despoil. He worked with glass containers closed with an air tight field, some of the first experiments he did. He used champagne bottles, which were designed to be stronger than a lot of other glassware. Eventually, he was using custom made vessels ones that roughly the size and shape of a champagne bottle for liquids and ones that had a larger mouth more like a jar for solid foods. Although the specifics varied from one food to another, In every case, the method a pair developed, followed the same basic forced out process. In his words, translated from the french quote, it consists principally, for in closing in bottles the substances to be preserved. Second, income king, the bottles with the utmost care, for it is chiefly on the corking that the success of the process depends. Third, in
meeting these enclosed substances to the action of boiling water in a while. bath, Bonita, Maria for a greater or less length of time according to their nature and in a manner pointed out with respect to each several kind of substance. Force in withdrawing the bottles from the water bath. At the period described a pair stressed that the cork used for this absolutely had to be high quality. You could not skimp on it. Cheap cork could break or leak and let the errand and that would ruin the contents. The same was true for the glass which had to be able withstand the pressure of the cooking process and being jostled around and transport. Even with those precautions, though, sometimes his bottles did break during cooking, and for this reason he put the bottles and jars into purpose, made canvas or linen facts, and then that would cushion the impact. If they bumped against each other, while they were cooking and it would also
and all the pieces if they shattered. I remember my grandmother doing the same thing after cooking the bottles for a greater or less length of time, according to their nature, appear. Typically, let things cool for about fifteen minutes before draining the water from the bath. Then he everything's cool for another two hours or so before, carefully removing and inspecting each bottle any that had cracked or d of some kind of flaw in the glass were discarded, slower that had moisture around the cork, which was a sign that they were actually airtight. Even after all, this careful inspection, though there were still times when the food went bad a pair. I dental fide several possible failure points as the cause of this. In some cases, the bottle itself was to blame and had some kind of law that wasn't immediately evident. But beyond that, he noted for sources of spoiling quote what
from a bad cork, too, from bad corking, three from the bottle having been filled too near the brim and four from bad tying. That was the timing of the court to keep it in place. The also noted quote a single one of these faults fishing to spoil a bottle more easily, therefore, a complication of them. The book that appear wrote to document? All of this was called the art of preserving all kinds of animal and vegetable substances. For several years, describes a number of modifications of the basic process to get the best results when working with various foods is illegal. boiled meet gravy broth, various cuts of me new labour eggs, milk cream way: vegetables, peas, asparagus, which are vegetables, they get specific natures. Various beans, artichokes cauliflower sore
oh herbs, fruit, juices, chestnuts truffles and mushrooms and soups breakdown of categories is funny to me, because there are some things where it's like: peas in asparagus, our vegetables, also artist. Oaks and cauliflower are also there's the general vegetable version and then there's this is actually best for peas, though yes, so he found keys to be the vegetable that was the hardest to work with. If they were harvested too young, they were so tender that they just disintegrated in the cooking process but if they were harvested just a few days later, they tended to lose their flavour, or else they would ferment and cause the bottles to explode. Milk had to be condensed before preserving and he found that unless egg yokes were added in their the cream settled out of it as
when you use it later and hated it back up, it would be reincorporating, but it wasn't that attractive in the bottle appear also hand, eggs recommending freshly laid eggs for the best, results put into a jar with bread crumbs to fill up the spaces and protect the eggs from breakage for strawberries. He found that he had to add a lot of sugar, but even then their color real. faded, appear also detail how to use foods that had been preserved through his methods and in a lot of cases he was basically I use he's. How I use the normally or by a warm this up with a little bit. Assaults reading through that part of the book was really body to make us a lot of really
I drink the water out of this and cook it and eat it. Some of them with my eye, delude this condense soup, and then I need it. It's the best part of it. Delighted me, in addition to keeping bottles and jars of food on hand, to see his results for himself. A pair also gave samples of them to various people in the french Army and Navy and other officials who opened them up after months or years and then eight or served what was inside and then reported the results back to him. His book included a written report from the society for the encouragement of national industry, whose committee had received samples of pot offer consummate milk way: green peas, small Windsor, Beams cherries, apricots current juice and raspberry.
Overall, the committee described each of these foods is retaining their flavor and their character and just generally being excellent, a pair published his book and in one thousand eight hundred and ten, he collected his monetary reward within a year of the book. translated into multiple other languages. He was also awarded a gold medal from the society for the encouragement of national industry. A pair seems to have understood that his invention could do a lot more than just provide food for the army, which had been part of the reasoning for this work. In the first place and his practical remarks at the end of the book, he wrote, Madison will find in this method. The means of relieving humanity by the facility of meeting everywhere and in all seasons, animal substances and all kinds of vegetables, as well as their juices preserved with all their natural qualities and virtue
by the same means that will obtain resources infinitely precious in the production of distant regions preserved in their fresh state. She went on to say quote: This method will arise a new branch of industry relative to the productions of France by their sir. play through the interior and their exportation abroad, of the produce with which nature has blessed the different countries, and then he concluded quote finally this invention cannot fail to enlarge the domain of chemistry and become the common. In a fit of all countries which will do the most precious fruits from it. So many encourages and an infinity of others, which the imagination of the reader will easily conceive, produce by one and the same cause are a source of astonishment. He was real not wrong her overstating any of this canning really changed
the world in a lot of ways, and it has also involved a lot from a Perez work with glass bottles and jars back in the late seventeen hundreds in early one thousand, eight hundred lift the highlights on that evolution after a sponsor break. Hey, I'm Steve Green Bird, the host of pie, gasped, the speed of sound Speed of sound is a music history. Podcast that gives you an all access pass into the song and sound that have become the soundtrack to our lives. You'll hear how the hits really hit the top of the charts straight from the artist and innovators who created them from groundbreaking cultural shifts like a teen pop explosion of the mid 90s to dance crazes like the twist and disco I wouldn't do that song and she fired me, which was perfectly fine cuz. I didn't want to go down the guy, who did Aretha Franklin.
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as is so often the case. We can really get into the details of every single of development in the world of canning in the course of one episode, so we're just going to touch on some of the biggest moments. Almost immediately after Nikola Pair worked out his methods using glass containers, people also started doing the same thing with metal cans and eighteen. Ten Peter Durrant of England was awarded a patent for preserve foods and a range of vessels including tin, coded iron cans, he's cans or made by rolling a sheet of iron on a cylindrical form and then soldering, the top and bottom of the can't onto it. Steam escaped from a whole during cooking and then that whole was soldered shut. Afterward this, even though he got the patent for it was not his own invention, though it had been quote, indicated to him by a certain foreigner living abroad.
That person was fully de Gerard of France, who had apparently gone to London to pursue his work because of administrative hassles at home, but since Britain, and they were at war. De Gerard could not apply for a british patent himself, so Durrant applied for the path on his behalf and then sold it to Brian Duncan of Duncan Iron works. Ten coded iron had some advantages over glass, the biggest being that it was not so fragile.
but these early cans were also a lot different from the ones that are in use. Today they were a whole lot, thicker and heavier and a tin Smith had some make each one of them by hand. The solder that was used to seal the seams also typically contained lead which could lead to the food and cause lead poisoning. The canning process itself could be incredibly time intensive with the cooking process taking several hours at a minimum, and that meant the quality of the food often was not. That great switch was compounded by the fact that a lot of what was being hand, sort of that cast off stuff. It was a pretty or fresh enough to be sold at a market. Also, no one had invented a can. Opener gets I'm getting. Nothing out of the attempt was a hassle. Even with a can opener. I struck even so by eighteen, twelve Duncan, had a factory up and running it wasn't pro
food to the general population. Now the Cannes themselves held up to thirty pounds of food and Duncans primary. Customer was the British Royal Navy either, within the Navy. Can food was mostly reserved for very long voyages or expeditions that wouldn't have good opportunities to re supply and also for hospitals, were treating sick and convalescing men. A pair was still working in France and the open to them. first commercial cannery there in one thousand, eight hundred and twelve, although it was destroyed in one thousand, eight hundred and fourteen as a result of the napoleonic wars. He has a rebuild after the war was over two pairs. New factory used tin cans rather than glass killing was also spreading beyond Europe in the early 19th century, with Robert Ayers opening a cannery in New York City in one thousand, eight hundred and twelve, and canneries in the U S, following from there, but still be I don't really know why canning work. They just knew that it did most of the time, sometimes
aims, cans, swelled up, unexploded or when they were opened, the food inside was spoiled, but people just didn't really know why to protect their mutations canneries often stored their products for a while before shipping them out to customers inspecting them for signs of sweat. Being or other indicators of spoiling before filling their orders. For the next few decades, the canning industry continues to grow and evolve. Nikola appeared died on June Third of eighteen, forty one at the age of ninety one, although hid received numerous awards for his work during his lifetime and he'd also done other work and in the world of food he had developed, bullion cubes, he had created a method of extracting gelatin and he'd. Also develop an autoclave in addition to his work on canning. He died alone and was buried as a pauper by the time of appears. Death Food is becoming more available outside of military context, but often
haven't really been accepted by the general public in many places that sir, to change as soldiers returned from war having gotten used to eating can foods while they were serving for ample in the United States. Gale burden received a patent for canning, condensed milk in eighteen. Fifty six, his factory could make sixteen courts of it days Inn during the: U Dot S civil war. There was so much demand for it from the Union Army that Borden had to license his method to other factories. Confederate soldiers got a taste for condensed milk and hospitals and prison war camps and also after reading union supplies, consumer demand four condensed milk and other canned foods, Roach, Thirdly, in the United States after the war was over, the first practical can't openers were a patented in eighteen. Fifty is solving a long standing problem at that
It was also in the mid nineteenth century that home canning technologies started to evolve. One step in that process. John L Masons patent for the Mason jar with a threaded neck that could accommodate a screw on cap and that patent was issued in eighteen. Fifty eight in eighteen sixty one Solomon of Baltimore started: adding calcium chloride to the water used for boiling cans, which raised its temperature from two hundred twelve to two hundred forty degrees Fahrenheit. That's from one hundred to one hundred fifteen degrees celsius, the higher heat, let canneries review the cooking time required to make the food mostly safe, then After all, of this decades of canning being in existence in eighteen, sixty four Lui Pasteur concretely established the link between microbial contamination.
And spoiling he was building on the work of earlier scientists who had determined that the yeast involved in fermentation was alive. We was trying to help a distiller figure out why his products were going sour during fermentation, and he discovered that bacteria were contaminating the fermentation process. This led to the development, past relation. This started to give canneries more information to go on in terms of what temperatures they needed to use in canning for how long the same time. There was still a lot of trial and error involved. Consequently, canneries were extremely protective of their methods and formulas, and within the industry there was a lot of corporate espionage and attempts to entice skilled employees and the knowledge that they had developed away from their employers have really we're you're formula for what you were canning and your process for doing it mostly he's hey thinking,
who is just like a highly valuable piece of information, and it totally made the difference and whether your cannery kid succeed or fail. The first machine tat rather than hand made tins, came out in eighteen, sixty eight, and that was part of an overall trend within the canning industry, to cut down on the time and labour that was required, this point low paid, laborers, typically women, that a lot of the food preparation, the packing and the labeling skilled, tinsel three were usually men and were paid a much higher rate capped and sealed the Cannes. So the industry really worked towards me I advising the lower paid jobs to reduce the need for labour there entirely and then Debating the task that required specialised training so that they could be done by less experienced workers
Other innovations shortens the cooking process, which both increase two factories output and helped improve the quality of the food. One of these was the steamer short patented by Andrew Shriver in eighteen. Seventy four, the steam oratory, was like an autoclave which used steam and pressure to cook canned foods faster, but which also tended to explode in its first iterations other CIS, thus depriving amount of things exploding in his hurry here in eighteen, eighty five Samuel see Prescott and William Underwood started taking some of the mystery out of all of these times in temperatures that were needed safe, canning, Underwood was the director of Underwood Food Company, which can the variety of foods, including Red Devil HAM Prescott, was an assistant chemist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Underwood had guards at MIT for help because his companies can cause
AMS kept spoiling and while they were inspecting their goods before shipping to keep the spoiled clams off the market, this meant that they were just wasting a lot of product. They were canning a bunch of stuff that they had to throw away. They discovered that the There was a spore forming bacterium that could survive boiling for twenty four hours through trial and error. They discovered that ten minutes of exposure to pressurize steam at a hundred degrees celsius. That's two hundred forty degrees Fahrenheit would kill it Prescott, an underwater and started, examining other foods figuring out which micro organisms were causing their spoiling and what needed to be done. all those micro organisms.
Way more specific than the previous work, which had kind of worked out the time and the temperature, but now really understanding why that was what worked most of the time Prescott turned this work into a career that focused a lot on food safety and microbiology and played a huge role in reducing bacterial contamination and spoiling in canned foods. But in spite of his work, something's continued to be a problem, including specifically botulism and the United States, for example, there weren't clear standards for botulism prevention and the canning industry until the nineteen twenties. I was after a series of outbreaks in the nineteen teams, tourism contamination has also continued to be a rare, but deadly issue in foods that are canned at home, home canning, was becoming more widely available, am easier to do by the late nineteenth century. The boy all corporation started: producing home, canning jars in eighteen. Eighty four care glass manufacturing corporate-
she started doing the same thing in nineteen o three and in nineteen fifteen, Alexander CARE was awarded a patent for it to peace, metal, canning lid, which replaced more complex did and harder to use lid systems from earlier models care built on the work of Julius Landsbergis, who had had created a canning lid that had incorporated a ceiling gasket, the first pressure caters for home use, were developed by the early nineteenth twenties, although at first they were so expensive, Multiple households in the same family or community use It is sheer one among them to make it cost effective, and nineteen o for the maxims machine company of New York unveiled the double seem. Can this involved a machine that rolled a metal sheet onto itself creating a scheme that only needed to be sought on the outside the machine? Also sealed the cannon crimped the edges, in addition to making this whole process a lot
less labour intensive, also meant that there was no longer led containing thought or on the inside of a can. The filling capping process also became a lot easier before this point most of the industry, with spilling cans through a hole in the cap and then feeling just that whole it took about fifteen years before double seem. Cans were really reliable do before that they intended to burst at the themes by nineteen, ten commercial canning lines could produce about thirty five thousand cans of food per day. It's a huge and he's from this sixty candidate a day back when Tin Smith's were making cans by hand, and they today, look allow they did in nineteen ten, although now there are more specialised coatings to protect the food quell. And their innovations like peel tops and aluminium cans for beverages about industry has also in a range of criticisms over the years involving,
whether canned foods are healthy? Everything from the botulism contamination that we already talked about to the salt content of the food to the use of it like this banal, a in camp construction. Even so at least one thousand five hundred different items are sold in ten plated steel, today and Americans alone use more than thirty six billion, cans of food per year and twenty eight team, the global can't food market, was valued at ninety one point: four billion dollars: that's billion Bobby the development of reliable cost. Effective canning has had such an enormous impact on the world that it's kind of difficult to describe. it in a concise way in general canning, has made the global food supply more homogenized. So many became available outside of their regular growing season and outside of the region where they are grown, prepared and traditionally eaten. Many farms moved
growing, a variety of crops that their immediate community would need to growing a few crops to be sold to processing companies, the farms themselves consolidated and so did the king companies. Clearly, there is more involved with that whole shift than just canning, but coming is a significant piece of it. Get canning also made of other things possible, or at least a whole lot easier, including every from the westward expansion of the United States to long term scientific voyages to warfare to food relief efforts like there's a lot of stuff that rests on the ability get food, so people and canning made a lot of that a lot easier. Whether people are buying canned goods from a store or canning food themselves. Canning has also made it possible for people to keep more food and more types of food on hands for emergencies, in a way that just one
possible. Before it was developed. I mean you might have a whole lot of dried fruit in and dried beans and hardtack ants. You know some salted meet that's a whole different world from just being able to open a can of corn any time you, one key peaches, canned tomatoes wins: NATO's or not in seas, then re, it's like I mean it a whole other part of it about how things like air travel have made it possible to get foods that are in season some other completely different part. The world yeah. That's both those like a whole other story, added right, the thin here but like if you have the means to contribute to a food bank near you, either with some canned goods or
The money is such a huge need right now and, like I know, that's not within the means of every one right now but like if you can as a definite way to help people in this moment that we're living in yeah. I mean that's that's to me like the real gift of canning, at least in terms of how it impacts our modern world. Is that leg? There are so many ways of giving that are now available to people. You know, even you probably have it Massachusetts. I know we have it here in our community where the male carrier will periodically be like we're doing. Canning, DR oh yeah and all you gotta do is put in a little bag and hang it on your mail box, and that goes to people that actually need that food. So just small things like that that seeming insignificant in your daily life. But it's a huge impact thanks to Nikola Pair yeah, I'm so glad we finally moved all of that up to the top it if they live in this moment where it seems particularly
relevant I have some listener mail from Rebecca Rebecca says: high tracing holly. I wanted to write to you about your recent episode about Ignatius Sancho and the episode you mentioned that there is a portrait of Sancho by Thomas Gainsborough in the National gallery, of Canada in Ottawa. I live in Ottawa and last week the National Gallery reopened for the first time since the start of the pandemic, and I was lucky enough to be able to visit, I wasn't sure where the portrait would be or if it would even be on display, but while walking through
gallery. I saw the portrait and immediately knew it was him. The accompanying description, noted Sanchez quote easy pose saying his quote: nonchalance and self confidence were considered appropriate for men of status, but I thought perfectly match your description of him in the episode. Thanks for everything you do and the show I've been listening for eight years and I'm always struck by how thoughtful you both are in your choice of topics, your choice of words and how you approach, difficult issues in history, stay healthy and sending lots of happy thoughts from Canada all the best Rebecca. Thank you so much for the snow Rebecca. I am glad to know that it's boy right now now in Ottawa. It's always turkey when you know something, isn't a collection of particular museum that doesn't necessarily mean that its on display in the museum right now correct yeah. So anyway, thanks for letting us know, if you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast read history project
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