Most of what we know about Olga comes from the Russian Primary Chronicle, also known as the Chronicle of Nestor or the Tale of Bygone Years. Some elements of the story may borrow more from legend than from history – it involves an elaborate, gruesome, very thorough revenge … and then a religious conversion.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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way to go all the way back to the middle ages, specifically to given Ruth and Olga of Kiev,
was married to Igor, who was prince of Kevin Reuse, and she gets to the tiniest tiniest bench in an episode that we did a long time ago on her grandson, Vladimir Grand Prince of Kiev
was from right after Holly, and I joined this Pakistan twenty thirteen and that very, very brief mention I mean her name's comes up in a couple of them.
that's not nearly enough to do her justice. Most of what we know about Olga comes from the russian primary chronicle, which is also known as the chronicle of Nestor or the tale of bygone years. We're gonna talk more about that
error, but some elements of this story might borrow a little bit more from legend than from history. This involves a very elaborate, gruesome and incredibly thorough revenge
and their religious conversion and adjust the notes, but that revenge story is also going to include the kind of gruesome killing of some animals. So everyone brace, I will be bracing with you. We have a bit of background before we get to Olga and eager to Kiev en route
is a term that was coined in the nineteenth century to describing loosely organised federation of Eastern Slavic and finish tribes with a capital in key of its name.
here. I am for the roofs people who probably came from Scandinavia and invaded the area around key of more than a thousand years ago, according to the primary crime
Call the Viking Rurik invaded Kiev in the middle of the nineteenth century and then another Viking, a leg, started consolidating the tribes in the area, a leg and rurik might have been related, but that's not a hundred percent. Clear and firm historian suspect that elements of bricks, invasion story might be apocryphal, and there is also ongoing debate about exactly
where these invaders were from and whether they were scandinavian at all. Regardless, though, roofs is the origin of the word Russian and that's why all of this is
currently rolled up under the umbrella of russian history today, even though the territory involved also includes parts of Ukraine and Belarus. Today, there were also lots of other tribes in this part of Eastern Europe that were not part of this federation
These tribes were variously at war or allies with the roofs depending on the time and the circumstance all of the tribes were ruled by princes and the Prince of Kevin Ruse considered himself to be the most important of all of them know whether he actually called himself the grand prince kind of varied overtime. But I consider that to be the fundamental support. Messed prince a yank, the economy of given reuse rested on the collection of tribute and then trade, primarily with Constantinople, which is now Istanbul across
black sea. The Kevin Prince would collect tribute from all the other princes over the winter and then in the warmer months. They would take that tribute by boats to trade with Constantinople. Sometimes the tribes paid the tribute at least partly in money, but the tribute also included goods like furs, honey and wax enslaved. People were also a major part of the tribute and a huge part of the trading economy of governors. The people enslaved included prisoners of war criminals, people who can pay their debts
In some cases, people who sold themselves into slavery, and one of the many subjects of ongoing debate in this episode is whether the word slave is actually derived from Slav and grew out of the Russo enslavement of slavic people's there's trading relationship with Constantinople came about during our
rain as prince about nine o seven, he had gone to war with the Byzantine Empire through the roof usually described as Greeks. This war ended in it.
Eddie between I'll egg and the Byzantine Emperors LEO the Sixth and Alexander, and that extent established terms for their trading relationship under this treaty. The Greeks would provide food baths and supplies when the roofs came as merchants, but would provide nothing too.
she came to the area without goods to sell a few years later, the roofs and the Greeks negotiated. Another treaty, one
covered a lot more terms beyond just trade, including what would happen if various crimes were committed against a Greek by roofs and vice versa. This treaty also establish things like ground
rules for what to do if ships from one had to go into the territory of the other because of bad weather and how prisoners and slaves were to be treated.
a leg died and nine twelve, and while his death itself is strictly related, today's episode, its account in the primary chronicle, is just too good to leave it out, because I like it, according to the primary chronicle, a prophecy had foretold that a legs favorite horse would be the cause of his death, hoping to keep that from happening. A leg ordered the horse to be sent out to pasture and be taken care of very well, but never brought into his presence again some years passed and he started to wonder whatever had happened to that horse when he asked he was told that it had died. So he asked to be taken to see its bones and once he was there, he laughed at the idea that the horse
supposed to have caused his death and he stepped on its skull. But the problem was there was a spake hiding in there and the snake bit him and he died well yeah. I don't wanna vilified snakes that they now he's just in his name
apartment he was. I would expect all day after a legs, death, Otis, husband, Igor, assumed the throne and its powers.
Well. That IE or may have also been related to rhetoric, but it is not completely clear. Eagerly
born around eight. Seventy seven and older
is born in an estimated eight. Ninety Olga may have been the daughter of a prince, but some sources specifically note that she was of common birth. The primary chronic all places her birth at the city of scarf.
What's now, Russia eager in Olga married in nine o three, so they had been married for about nine years when a leg died and eager assumed the throne eager did not have a reputation for being
particularly wise or skilled leader. He did conquer one of those neighbouring tribes, the drive lions and he impose them
higher tribute on them and his predecessor had demanded, but he also waged war on the Greeks and an unsuccessful campaign that lead to most of his fleet being destroyed by what was described as greek fire. Eager responded to this defeat by raising an army rebuilding some of his ships am trying again, which lead to a new treaty with the Byzantine Empire negotiated in nine
ready for, but this treaties terms word is favourable to the roofs as legs earlier treaty had been so. This was over.
Alas, the treaty did, though, illustrate how Christianity had started to become established in Kevin,
Christians were still in the minority, but they were a large enough minority to be specifically addressed in this treaty. Their inclusion also suggest that eager was at least Pollard of them per the treaty. The baptize roofs or the Christians acknowledged the treaty by taking an oath in a cathedral, while the Unbarring Eyes Bruce, or the Pagans swore on their swords eager was pagan, so he swore on his sword. Kevin roofs also had a significant jewish population, which was a reference to the signing of the treaty, and there may have been at least some people of other religions as well
here later, when eager was out collecting tribute, he demanded even more from the draft lions than he had previously, which was already more than a leg had required and when they resisted, he attacked them once he had defeated them and collected their tribute, he spent most of his retinue on ahead, but he turned back with a few of his men, apparently to try to collect. Still more tribute at that point, the deadlines killed him along with his S court. Then the dreadfully and tried to press their advantage. They sense.
Boy. It's a vulgar in Kiev to inform her of eagerness death and to seek her hand in marriage for their own prince who the primary chronicle names. As now. It wasn't all that uncommon
there are rumours widow to marry the man who had defeated ham, but the prevalence goal wasn't so much to cement some kind of alliance between Olga and now it was to take custody of eager and August son Soviets love. It was worth it,
idler and groom him to rule in a way that would be the most favourable to them and just to acknowledge
This chronology is a little odd, Olga uneven.
We're married in nine ninety three, but Soviet Slavs, birth is recorded as nine forty two and the primary chronicle doesn't record any other children from their marriage. This,
mean that they had been married for about thirty nine years before of yachts, love was born and the ogre was in her fifties at the youngest and then eager was about sixty five. So that's not impossible, but it does seem kind of em.
Above all, the odds are a little long rights. There are cases on record of people having children at those ages, yes and having surprise babies later in their life.
but though you have to do the Van Diagram, calendar math gets awkward. The farther end.
They're back. You go in history yeah, so, regardless of that sort of interesting chronology August response to her husband's assassination. According to this, account was dramatic and we will get to it after a sponsor.
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according to the primary chronicle when the draft
legation arrived in Kiev. They were in a small boats, caring about twenty men. Although welcomed them. She
offered them hospitality and she told them that she wanted to meet with them in the morning. They should go back to their boat that they had come on and that she would send men at act is an escort the next day. She advised them that to make a good impression, they should carry themselves very
Thirdly, I should basically be arrogance and then, when her retinue came to collect them in the morning, they should refuse to go with them by foot or on horseback and instead demand that they be carried to her. Still in the boats, I mean
I'm a wary pursued by major too so I like, if I heard this advice, your punkin me during the night
though, Olga ordered a deep trend to be dug alongside the castle when her porters carried the dreadfully and men to the castle, they dropped them still in the boat down and
trench we're all gonna had them buried alive. Then Olga sent a message to the travelling thing that she would concern
there are that offer of marriage if they sent a delegation of distinguished men to act as her escort Prince Mile agreed to this and say what was described as the best man
of the drop lions when they arrived August said she would receive them after they had baths, so they were led into the back house and locked inside, at which point August men set the building on fire says. Maybe when you stop trusting Olga I'm just saying she did make sure that these she acted quickly before word could go.
active Mouth separately of what had been going on, but she wrote again saying that she,
on her way to marry Prince Mouth, but the first she needed to have a proper morning and funeral for her late husband. She asked that the drive lions prepare large quantities of meat for that purpose, and then she travelled to the site of eagerness death where the drug lions had buried him once she had mourned for her late husband at his tomb, their Auguste set up a funeral feast with her retinue serving the dreadfully and who had attended according to the primary chronicle, the devil
said sent a retinue of about five thousand men, and then August men were very generous in serving the mead that the deadlines had brood for this purpose. Once the revolutions ral, drunk August, retinue massacred them again, don't don't trust Olga I'm not I'm not judging her actions. I'm just saying: don't trust this person, but she was still not dine sharing.
to Kiev and raised an army before returning to the dreadfully in capital of scores, tend to lay siege to it that sees went on for a year. Finally, that Revlon's offered to surrender saying they would pay tribute of honey and furs, if only Olga would just leave them in peace. She finally made what seemed like a generous offer if they brought her three pigeons and three sparrows from each house, she would indeed leave them in peace, but then, when they brought her there's pigeons and sparrows, she had her man turned them into living incendiary devices. The primary chronicle describes. This is tying small pieces of sulphur wrapped in cloth to each bird, probably not straight up.
For it was probably some kind of highly flammable substance that was just described with that term, maybe something that would have been relatively stable until it was somewhere very warm like a dove coat or a chimney. Regardless all these birds flew back to their nests and caught fire burning, most of the city to the ground, as always Army rounded up and killed survivors you try.
To flee. A few revelations were left alive after all of this and Olga enslaved, some of them and demanded huge tributes from others talking a little bit more about that whole revenge campaign. Later on, when we get in sir
Some of the details about the russian primary Chronicle em and how accurate all this may be, but once that massive revenge campaign was over, ogre really seems to have had an efficient and effective time leading.
you haven't Ruth. She served us her sons region for nearly nineteen years. She reportedly been a lot of basically establishing at administrative state to run Kiev and re sufficiently, and this made her the first woman to rule Kiev and roofs and the only woman ruler described in the primary chronicle.
The primary chronicles next check in with Olga is during a trip to Constantinople which slavic people's referred to as Sagrada. She met with Byzantine Emperor Constantine, the seventh son of Emperor LEO the sixth. This was not Constantine. The great who lived about six hundred years earlier than the events were describing this haven't sometime around the nine fifties. According to the primary chronicle Constantine was really a prayer impressed with Olga. He noted her intellect and her wisdom and said that she was quote very fair of countenance. He also said that she was worthy of ruling at his side, at which point she told him that she was peg it and that if he wanted her to be baptized, he would have to do it himself. He did this according to the chronicle, with the help of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and at her baptism, she was christened Helena, reportedly after the mother of Constantine
great to quote the primary chronicle quote when Olga was enlightened. She rejoiced in soul and body. The patriarch who instructed her in the faith, said to her blessed art, thou among the women of routes for thou, hast, loved the light and quit the darkness. The sons of Ruth shall bless tee to the last generation of thy descended.
From AIR Olga began, studying with the patriarch learning, all their traditions and values and modes of worship of the orthodox church. After the baptism Constantine proposed two August, something that seems like he might have been thinking about earlier in the story when he said that she was worthy of ruling at his side. But she said quote
Can you marry me after baptizing me in calling me your daughter for among Christians that is unlawful, as you yourself must now? In other words, you
My god bother at my baptism just now. What do you even thinking Constantine ants
Olga you have outwitted me, he gave
lavish gifts like gold and silks before she went back home to Kiev promising descend gifts of her own in return when she got there. Although is pretty savvy, though, as she has been with entire time once she got back to Kiev and Constantine wrote to her about his promised gifts, she said that she would send them along once. He spent as much time with her in her country as she had spent with him in his according to accounts from the time. Once all
They got back to Kiev. She began destroying pagan idols, but it's not clear whether this was part of an attempt to outlaw pagan worship. She had apparently tolerated Christians, while she herself was pagan and its possible that she continued to tolerate pagans once she had become christian, meaning that she was destroying idols to conform with christian law, not as part of an attack.
To drive out all paganism after her conversion to Christianity, Olga did try to persuade of yachts love to do the same. He was old enough at that point. To make this decision
not really old enough to rule he didn't want to be baptized, though Christians.
Still really in the minority and Kevin Reuse, and he worried that he would lose the respective his pagan subjects if he converted ogres region
c ended in nine hundred and sixty four once of yachts, love turn twenty one. He followed in his father's footsteps and embarked on a series of military conquests, although these were much more successful than.
fathers had been, although Olga was no longer regent, she continued to run Kiev's administrative state. While her son was away at war. Sylvia S, love was really ambitious. You wanted to unite the roofs and the neighbouring
boulders until one resale bulgarian empire be conquered an assortment of neighbouring peoples, along with a series of cities along the Danube River earning the nickname, Soviets, love the brave and nine sixty eight. He captured the city of Paris love it's on the mouth of the Danube River and he made his home their Sylvia Slavs move to parents love! It's left. Kiev relatively vulnerable, though, while he was living in Paris love, it's a semi, nomadic turkic speaking people come Pechiney. Eggs attack Kiev, as they lay siege to the city, Olga tried to protect her grandchildren.
Who included both of the next princes of key Evan roofs. Their pension eggs force was large enough that nobody was able to get into or out of Kiev while it was under siege or even really to send any kind of message to sub yachts, love. The besieged city was finally able to send for help
a young man who knew the turkic language had an idea for a little subterfuge. He sneaked out of the city with a bridle and started asking around if anybody had seen his horse, so the pageant eggs thought he was one of their own force. He was able to kind of work his way through the crowd searching for his make. Believe, whore,
before being noticed me was able to get away carrying word of what was happening to soviets. Yes, loves nearest general. This journey
all was able to relieve the siege of Kiev pretty quickly and once a vyacheslav heard what had happened. He raised an army to drive the patch of eggs out of the area once that was done, though said yes, I really wanted to return to the Danube River region. He thought Paris Lavish was a lot more strategically located city. It was more central and his newly expanded territory that have better access to trade and luxury goods has mother got him to promise that he would we
until after her death to go because she didn't want to be separated from him again. She died on July, eleventh, nine, sixty nine in the words of the chronicle quote, Olga was the precursor of the christian land, even as the day spring precedes the sun and, as the dawn proceed,
The Dame for she shone like the moon by night, and she was right
and among the infidels like a pearl in the mire since the people were soiled and not yet purified of their sin by wholly baptism, but she herself was cleansed by this sacred purification.
she put off the sinful garments of the old Adam and was clad in the new Adam, which is Christ. Thus we say to her rejoice in the Russo knowledge of God. For we were the first fruits of their reconciliation with him. She was the first from room to enter the kingdom of God and the sons of Ruth thus praise her as their leader for since her death. She has
seated with God in their behalf to close the loop on her story and nine. Seventy two. Seventy love was on the way back to Kiev with a small retinue when he was ambushed by the patch and eggs and killed. He was succeeded by his oldest son Europe Hulk, who was then succeeded by his brother. Vladimir, the great is the one we ve talked about in that previous episode, and he was the one who converted Kevin rooster. Christianity, like we said at the top of the show it is past
Moreover, some elements of all his life a little bit closer to allege that in actual fact and we're gonna get into that after we first pause for a little sponsor break,
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If you read a bunch of article about Olga of Kiev from different sources today,
you can find dramatically different takes on her depending on he was writing. Some of them focus only on
revenge against the drug lions, while others focus only on her conversion to Christianity, describing her is equal to the apostles and completely leaving out all of that earlier. Revenge arc, some focus both on the revenge and the conversion crediting the conversion to Christianity, with transforming Olga from a blood thirsty pagan into a peaceful christian, and there are also a few that try to build the case that this revenge was just a total fabrication. That has nothing to do with Olga as a christian figure at all. It's true that there is not a lot of documentation of their revenge campaign outside of the primary chronicle. The russian primary chronicle is typically attributed to the monk Nestor, although it was probably the compilation of work by multiple p.
It's usually cited as having been completed in one thousand one hundred and thirteen, so about a hundred and fifty years or more after all, of these events happened. The oldest surviving copy of it is from about one thousand three hundred and it's considered to be the most important source of information about the early history of the Eastern Slavs Olga
I said earlier- is the only woman ruler described in the primary chronicle. She is also the only ruler presented as having this degree of cunning, but that disparity isn't necessarily evidence that this revenge story is a fabrication. Most of the male leaders who are described in the primary chronicle are mentioned in terms of their military skill. Sort of their value and attitude is, as a leader is tied into their military campaigns, all get didn't directly participate and military campaigns the way the roofs princes did so the stiff.
It's in tone might just be because August leadership took a very different form than the men's leadership did. But even though there isn't a lot of corroboration of the revenge story itself, there is.
information to suggest that something like it could have happened, although perhaps not on such a massive and prolonged scale. There are plenty of other
stories from Medieval Europe and Asia, both in factual, chronicles and in stories and legends. So this one didn't just come out of nowhere. Also, the primary deity among pagans at the time was Perron, God of thunder, enlightening and he's associated with order, and right and purification, so some
Saurians argue that augurs medieval pagan. Background is right in line with this revenge story and an attempt to put things right to purify the region of dress aliens, the Russo relationship.
With the Greeks, on the other hand, is much more documents. Ed, eager,
a legs treaties with the Greeks are both recorded from the Byzantine empires perspective. Ogres visit to Constantinople also appears and constant teams book of ceremonies, which is an extremely detailed book of all the ceremonial protocol at court. When I say extremely detailed, I'm talking about
Evan, page long descriptions of all the decorations at an event and who was there and what they were wearing and where they were all positioned in the room. If you have ever read the book, the princess bride, it's basically an entire book of the things that are cut out of it,
I was going to say it sounded like some of the writing of Gustaf Flaubert Constantine doesn't specifically mention August baptism in the book of ceremonies, though, which he wouldn't have if it took place somewhere other than at court. He also calls her by the name, Helga, which is the scandinavian version of Olga, but there are plenty,
other references to this baptism in the historical record, including Slavic byzantine and latin accounts, but they'll contradict each other in terms of exactly when and where the baptism happened. Some accounts place, the conversion is happening in nine hundred and fifty four or nine hundred and fifty five. But if you line up the dates with the days of the week that appear in Constantine's writing, it was really nine hundred and fifty seven some accounts that suggests an earlier date also suggested it was a local priest, name Gregory.
Not the patriarch of Constantinople, who actually performed the baptism on top of these differing accounts. There are also modern scholars who have tried to piece together, a timeline based on other bits of information like whether Constantine wife Helen would have been August godmother, since her husband was ogres Godfather,
and if she was whether that was why Olga was given the baptismal name of Helen, and if the answer to both of those questions is yes, if that's evidence for an earlier baptism because Empress Helen,
was in very poor health for several years before she died in nine sixty two. Some of this analysis suggests that augurs baptism, wasn't connected to her trip at concept to Constantinople at all that she had been baptized in Kiev years before going there. Some of these accounts speculate that the primary chronicle suggestion that
Olga, headed off an unwanted marriage proposal by getting the emperor Toby. Her godfather is just fanciful addition made by the chronicler and that no such marriage proposal ever really happened. There is
exaggeration, a ton of scholarship on this question of when and why
Oh go was baptized Tracy up a looked at for different papers, the exclusively on that subject,
one of which references that there had been eleven major studies connected to it and that particular paper was written thirty
years ago, so there are surely even more by now that there has been so much so much research into exactly when and where was Olga baptized. So basically, we have enough evidence to know that Olga was a real person that she really was married too eager and that she governed the roofs of Kiev as her sons, regent, that she travelled to Constantinople at least once and that she converted to Christianity. Some of the other details are a little fuzzy air and some aren't. There are some arguments that Olga revenge, or at least some elements of it, might be a powerful. Even though
They are kind of fun to read about, especially if you're a fan of things like game of thrones. It is a very game. Game of Thrones Life Shoe
Ojo was canonized in the Roman Catholic M Eastern Orthodox churches and her feast day is celebrated
July, eleventh or twenty fourth, depending on where you are of Olga of Kiev, Olga
You seem fine,
It is always a time when the
primary document that we have on somebody is is like a thing that you can find it read for yourself on the internet at that's easily accessible, rather, rather than having to rely like exclusively on papers. Referring back to a thing, that's buried it in an archive somewhere, I'm not knocking archives. All they do valuable and important work, helping people we'd through all of this information, but I always like it when, when the primary source of the thing that I can go and read all the
through for myself before getting into the article, are before getting into the pie gassed yeah? Do you have a little bit a listener? Rail, I do, I have something from Caitlin, Caitlin says hello, Holly and Tracy, I'm listening to your latest episode on Mary Winston Jackson and had to stop to write this note before I even got through the intro. You mentioned the Harvard Observatory and their star plates, along with the women tasked with cataloguing those self same stars. In addition to any jump, Canon of fantastic death, astronomer Henrietta, Swan Levitt was also a notable employee. Her work built on the foundations for measuring objects outside of the solar system, which helped proved that there were indeed objects outside
solar system at when hovels, seminal work used Henrietta as part of its basis had she not died of pancreatic cancer, she would have won the Nobel and in fact, three years after her death of mathematician tried to nominate her thinking she was still living. I write to say this because, apart from being the most space obsess person, I know
I worked on a play about Henry and Annie and their stars. It's called silent sky by lowering Gunderson, and I can't recommended highly enough. It's a beautiful script that I've been fortunate enough to work on a beautiful production as well anyway
you have a billion miles suggestion list and that you ve literally just done a lady astronomer, but maybe Annie or Andrei, can go on that list Caitlin them. She also goes on to say that she particularly likes the episodes like the ghost army because of her work as a sound designer, which is pretty cool. Thank you so much Caitlin. That is not a name that I came across when I was working on that episode. So I am glad to hear about her dont know if she will become an episode, because our list is very long, definitely go on their yeah if
You would like to write to us about this or any other podcast or history podcast, that how stuff works, dot, com, or also all over social media missed in history. That's where you ll find our Facebook and Twitter and our Instagram and our pinterest. You can also comes our website, which is best in history: dot, com. You can click on the link at the top of the page. That says Paris trip to find out about the trip that we are taking to Paris in June. You can also find a searchable archive of all the episodes we ve ever done and the show no, it's probably upsets HOLLAND. I have done together, which will include a link to the russian primary practical. If you want to read it for yourself, you can also
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