Between 1854 and 1929, about 250,000 children in the U.S. were taken to new families by train. Except ... they weren't called "orphan trains" at the time, the children weren't all orphans, and "family" didn't always factor into it. Read the show notes here.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to still be missed in history from house networks. Tat can welcome to the Mai, Pastime pcb loafin and I'm Holly fry today, weird drawing straight from
no request again another one that has been request
Many many many times it is all
Never heard of orphan dreams before this probably
We see you, like trains, full of orphans being taken
two new homes, it's kind of correct between
Fifty four and nineteen twenty nine about two hundred and fifty thousand children work
It means a new families by train, except they weren't, really
orphan dreams at all the time allowed.
children were not actually orphans and a lot of times. These families who were taking them in were more like employers, so
That is a story that we're going to tell today to get kind of some
work leave or going to start with the context of the situation after the
if the word eighteen, twelve, the population of the United States, and particularly in the eastern port cities, really exploded. For example, about forty thousand people lived in New York and eighteen hundred m by nineteen hundred suggest a hundred years later, it was
close to a million and a half. So many of these new residents were desperately poor and very sick,
arrived with, basically no
from wherever they were emigrating from depending on
where they were emigrating from. They often faced a lot of prejudice and discrimination,
which made it harder for them to find work and get on their feet as a consequence of this influx of people in poverty, the, U S, saw the rise of its first
poverty has had always existed, but now there were entire neighborhoods that were really destitute. They had high crime rates the buildings,
fury rating, and the circumstances were just apparently hopeless, and that was the prevailing scenario.
in an alarming number of the people who live in these neighborhoods, were children, thumb
the children really were orphans somehow
at least one living parent who, for whatever reason, couldn't or didn't support them, but regardless by
made eighteen hundred there were somewhere between ten thousand and thirty thousand homeless children living in the slums of New York City, which at that point only had the whole city only had a total population of five hundred thousand people. So that's a pretty significant chunk of the population that are homeless street children in the EU.
In other cities, children formed gangs to try to keep themselves safe and supported themselves through petty theft and other crime, or even through begging, others would find work in factories or
you, boys are shoeshine boys and some sold matches are rags on street corners and in some cases became prostitutes because they kind of wandered like nomads through the city,
people referred to these children, often as St Arabs, and this all kind of calls up. Images of like Scrooge is
treat origins or Oliver twist and for a lot of children. That's pretty much how it really was and when do other resources to handle them. Cities resorted to incarcerating children in work. Houses in prisons that had
meant for adults, but eventually they would build prisons in asylum for juveniles, which were really not much better. The field of social work
so barely if at all existed. At this point, we ve done a previous series
I cast on Jane atoms, you thought of as the mother of social work. She started doing her groundbreaking work kind of in the middle of when all of this was going on. So there was no, if, if law enforcement founded
child who was endanger their it wasn't like there was a social worker or a department of social services. They could call for help. There was also know, foster care system, foster care itself,
this, but it was in a very inform away with individual families taking on children in need and in that sense, fostering has really existed for as long as families have
but there was no organised system for placing children and foster families or for screening potential foster parents
and there were also virtually no adoption laws in the United States. At this point, the first adoption lie
passed in the. U S was in Massachusetts and that was passed in eighteen, fifty one
but other than that there was really no. Before that point, there was no less
governance about how you one
official that this child was now part of your family. So
the result of all of this in all of these sort of gaps in so
way to deal with all these children homeless. Children were a huge issue in many cities, particularly port cities, and the governments in question just didn't. Have the resources are programmes that they would need to do much about it.
This brings us to Charles Loring Brace of Hartford Connecticut. He was a presbyterian
and from a middle class family, and he moved to New York City in eighteen. Forty eight three could go to seminary. He was really
horrified at this situation with homeless and orphaned children, and it was not just because what was happening to these children was horrifying. It was also because he thought that these hordes of
supervised marauding children were a threat to the social order. His opinion was that these kids, who didn't have families
what kind of left up to their own devices and were often making ends meet for themselves through petty theft and other crime. You just that they will get that gonna grow up into hardened criminals
jobs and he became really fixated on them. He would go exploring through the city's poorest neighbourhoods and interview them and record their conversations and a journal, and
came really motivated. Try to find some way to take care of this problem of homeless children left alone to do as they will in March of eighteen. Fifty three he started the children's aid society
and the first programmes of the children's AIDS society were Sunday School and vocational training and the society all
started the United States first home for runaways, the newsboys lodging house.
Almost immediately, though, that children's AIDS anxiety was just over run with demand. There were not
jobs or enough money to provide the services that these children really needed. You know that at this point in here
where he was pretty normal for children to work in some way, and while they were trying to match up children with jobs, the children vastly outnumbered the job.
And they they did not have the funding to to do more to really help and break
wanted to do more, but he didn't just want to build more facilities to him a more children. He thought prisons and asylums where the wrong approach, in his words quote the best of all asylum for the outcasts child is the farmers home. The great duty
to get these children of unhappy fortune utterly out of their surroundings and sent them away too kind christian homes in the country. This kind of alludes to the plan that brace came up with which he called the emigration plan.
This was that they would gather up children from New York who were homeless or whose parents can
for them, and they would send them a west to work on farms. This became known as outplacement, so you're placing children out verses, placing them in to an orphanage or an institution.
He didn't exactly invent. The idea of outplacement, though this act of like placing children out with other families existed,
four, but the children's AIDS, the city influence on it really became the biggest and most
well known outplacement effort, so the children's aid society turned its focus
Raising money and working through all of the legal requirements evolved in finding new homes. For children and to finding the children to send sometimes working directly with the birth parents themselves, ass,
children. Bathed society started, sending the children out on trains, and the programme really started to take up. Other agencies followed suit and they
children from other major cities in the northeast elsewhere.
The United States and before we talk about what exactly was happening with these trains. Let's take a moment for a brief word from sponsor
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put on the trains these children would be given
clothes or put into their best clothes. If they had closed that we're serviceable. Often this meant that they were in a new out that they had been provided to them by charity. They were meant to work their best, but depending on
a long and difficult the journey was sometimes what really
it was by the time they arrived. They were filthy and sick. Someone represent
the agency usually went on the train with them, and often another agent had gone ahead to spread the word and begin screening potential parents and assembling
city of local people, which usually included doctors and clergy. To help with the approvals agencies would also distribute, leaflets and place advertisements about the
dream here is an example of an add that ran in Nebraska in eighteen. Ninety, three all children received under the care of
Association are of special promise and intelligence and health, and are an age from one month to twelve years and are sent free
there's receiving them on ninety days trial unless a special contract is otherwise made. Homes are wanted for the following children: eight boys ages, ten sixty four years: english parents, blondes very
promising two years old blonde. Fine, looking healthy American has had his foot straightened walks now, ok,
Years old, dark, hair and eyes good, looking at intelligent American, ten babies born
girls from one month to three months. One boy baby has fine head and face black eyes and hair fat and pretty three months old agencies also have rules for the placements themselves. Here's that children's aid society rule for the placement of boys applications must be endorsed by the local community
boys under fifteen years of age, if not legally, adopted, must be retained as members of the family and sent to school according to the educational laws of the state until they are eighteen years old. Suitable provisions must then be made for their future boys between fifteen and sixteen years,
Aids must be retained as members of the family and sent to school during the winter months until they are seventeen years old, when a meal
The range may be made boys over. Sixteen years of age must be retained.
Most of the family for one year after which a mutual arrangement may be made. Parties taking boys
three to write to the society at least once a year or two have the boys do so removals of boys providing unsatisfactory can be arranged through the local committee or an agent of the society. The party agreeing to retain the boy a reasonable length of time after notifying the society of the desired change scan of reminds me of
When you get a path through pet rescue lake
Obviously, this particular set of rules is from after states inserted. The passive acts of laws which was
done in part a kind of curtail the more willy nilly aspects of these displacement of children. That is going on
when the train arrived at a town that children would be taken to up,
house or a theatre, or some other suitable gathering place that had places for spectators and places to display the children and the
don't be paraded across the stage for the families to inspect, and so the term up for adoption. Purportedly comes from this practice of literally pudding the children up onstage, and
often the whole town would come to watch whether they wanted a child or not, sometimes that children would be asked to say something or perform in some way. In the perspective, families would ask questions of them and
times inspect them in a way that was more reminiscent of buying a horse or a slave. Instead,
sounds demand, for these children was really huge and families would almost come to blows over. Who could pick from the limited number of children foster families where support
they have references from their past her or the justice of the peace attesting to their character, but if none,
the the agent in charge would often just judge based on their appearance, their dress in their demeanor children, who couldn't find a placement would be
back on the train to be sent onto the next town or failing that, would wind up in a local orphanage or some other local facility for homeless children for most agencies, the record keeping was pretty lax.
The screening was pretty minimal and, depending on who, you asked these people taking in children could be considered parents or they could be considered more like employers.
There is also not a follow up after the fags travel was really difficult and expensive. At this point, which became a big deterrent against sending representatives from the agencies to check up on people, some of them like the children's aids,
already had planned initially to do in person, follow up on a regular basis, but that never really came to fruition and that pretty much
They were relying on the families or the children to send letters back to the agency, which also sometimes happened and sometimes not, and although most of the
agencies. They were kind of doing these sorts of projects out placing children followed similar methods that children's aid society really got some particular criticisms and we're gonna talk about those after me,
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twenty five percent or more of your first year go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, DOT, com, slash history for twenty five percent off. So a lot of agencies, not just the children's AIDS desire. He got involved in sending children out where
or to some other place by train trials. Warring grace in particular, though, had some aspects to what he was doing at his philosophy that are kind of problematic
really sure that farms, where the best places where New York's impoverished children, they would get used to doing honest.
Work there, and they would ideally have the affection in support of a family, and this I mean it sounds like an at least well made
I plan on the surface, but there are aspects over the are pretty problematic.
more than half of the children that were sent on the trains by the children's aid society were actually orphans, Wesley occur
of them, have one living parent and about a quarter had both parents still living. So fifty percent of them had some parent in the mix. Arguably, the living parents couldn't afford to or didn't want to raise their children or the children are being abused, neglected or mishandled in some way somewhere. Also teenagers who were making the step to leave home themselves with the aid of this free passage and clothing and work, help that would come without placements did not fine horrors,
Is a lake children being taken with no regard to their parents, but I did find ones where the parents were pressured pretty extensively to give up their children for their better good. You know, based on
a person who is speaking to dams idea of what would be best for them. His critics argued that braces really taking it upon himself to dictate what was best for these children, regardless of the parents, feelings or their actual situation and as a side. Now the existence of parent,
about. Half of these children is one reason why the phrase orphan trains wasn't really used at the time. The more common terms for the set up, worm
she trains and even baby trains. So one of braces, actual stated goals was also
to provide labour and the less popular populated regions of the United States where people were moving
we know that there were new families who were getting out somewhere in the west end. We know
Typical situation, they probably would eventually have children and their children were eventually help them on a farm, but they needed that show like that filed help. Now,
So, for this reason, in most of the children they societies- children, where between six and fourteen, so they were old enough to do what.
But young enough to still be like trained,
educated and maybe not so said that in their ways and an obstinate as to cause problems for their new families.
Greece also definitely handsome monetary motivations pointing out how much cheaper it was to place children out then to put them in the institutions.
And the last one in something that he denied, but a lot of people play
Now, a lot of the children who went on children's aid society, trains were catholic or jewish
a lot of them were also its highly in polish or irish, and these were all groups who face massive amounts of prejudice and discrimination as highly in
polish and irish people were all viewed as like second class and inferior citizens. The families who
see if these children were mostly protestant and they were mostly not italian or polish or irish, and so critics argued that grace was trying to kind of strip these.
of their religion in their heritage and to force them to assimilate the culture that he thought was the best one is risk like this was sort of the response of him be like now, and his critics being like ya
It does seem a little a little problem
That was that
generally, how it when he would say, will but they're they're discharges. Many you know non protestant people out west. That's why
would say. I dont really by your argument Leah it definitely that, like the data set those sort of supporter of certain prejudice going into it,
Indeed. Society also did not work with african american children. Although exactly why this is the case is not.
Really clear. There were definitely fewer african american homes in the west that could have taken the children, but it is also possible that this whole exercise looked way too much like slavery, for anybody to be comfortable, sending black children or its also very possible that racist did not want
that to be part of the system there. Nobody really clearly said why they were not working with african american children
of the other outplacement organizations, seeing what
was doing and seeing the flaws that people were pointing out in his plan tried to avoid the controversies that he was generating. So, for example, the New York Foundling Hospital was a catholic organization
and its children, including babies and toddlers lot of babies and toddlers actually exclusively to catholic homes. The Boston
for a little wanderers also claims that its screening and follow up processes were much more exact and stringent than braces were so, while their children's aid society.
the most well known. There were a lot of other organisations that were into this whole practice in some of them either
by their own claims or by actual documentation, seem to have taken more deliberate care with
the whole process, and while the children's aid society was mostly sending children out to rural farming communities, the New York Foundling Hospital and other agencies replacing children much closer to home. So many of the children who are placed during this time actually state in New York. Contrary
perception that they all went west and some of the other agencies were
evidently more oriented towards children's welfare, and not so much with the providing labour aspect of it. So this
the phenomenon of the trains and out, please
really hinged upon assuming the best in people. So everybody was assuming that the parents who are surrendering their children
generally were doing so because they thought it was in the children's best interests and everybody,
sort of assumed the parents who are taking in these children really
doing so out of love and charity and not to get free labour. But in reality, of course,
We are not always doing their best and when it comes to what happened to that
when they were involved. It's really something of a mixed bag. Some found themselves genuine
and happy homes when they were loved and cared for as though they were a member of the family.
King, alongside other siblings, on farms or in family businesses the whole planet
had its share of horror stories to, though there were definitely children who were abused, one whose foster families took them on strictly to act as
unpaid manual labor, they were family members, sewers,
created one another separated from one another and then put the like there
lots and lots of surviving letters and diaries that tell of children whose parents,
sent them away with notes that contained their names and their addresses so that they could come back home eventually and stay in touch. Only for these notes to be taken away
the children by placement agents, as they slept on the trains so heartbreaking,
many many first person accounts of children who just did not know or understand what was happening,
firstly in what was happening to them somewhere to you
to really grasp the situation and others were simply never told what was going on and in at least some cases. Parent seem to have been pressured, as Tracy mentioned earlier, into surrendering their children when they didn't really want or possibly even need
here I'll place. Children also did not necessarily get a warm welcome and their new communities a lot of people
the train, children as they were called with suspicions shore
we they must have been of poor character or have come from bad families. There were also religious and cultural tensions, as catholic children replaced with protestant families and as we
speaking earlier freaking out earlier ethnic attention.
Who were place into communities that carried prejudices against all of these people, all of these nationalities so
these nationalities so sums
You know somebody a child would leave us. It's you.
and where they were homeless and begging on the streets, and they would wind up in a situation where they had food and shelter, but we're outcast and faced derision from the community,
and there were also cases where foster parents had taken in these children and they truly loved them, and you know rate
miss their own and they lived in this sort of constant fear that someone was gonna, come and take their child away from them. Some day
there was finally and independent investigation of the children's aid society in eighteen. Eighty three and found that there was there.
little screening of the prospective parents and very little supervision of the overall process, a significant
of the older boys who had been out placed had later run away from home but
Overall, the investigators found that, for the most part, the
when, under the age of fourteen who had been out placed by the children's eight society, were doing. Ok I'll placed as it
I'll do, Andrew Burke became governor of North Dakota and John Brady
came governor of Alaska. They had both been sent to the same
in Indiana on the same day and the man who adopt
on Brady had actually been a judge there because records
kept very well. What we do have need of stories
what some of these children grew up to be,
times. The children who had been placed out lost all track of their birth families if those families still lives
and so in you no more recent years, their children and grandchildren have been trying to trace down the family genealogy and just have been able to figure out where their parent or grandparent came from before they got on the train.
The last train rayam on May thirty. First of nineteen, twenty nine carrying three children to sulphur springs. Texas and there were.
several things that kind of worked altogether too really bring an end to this approach to outplacement one was that the great depression made the trains financially unsustainable and people began to focus more on local outplacement of children. Prior to that, the trains have gone nearly to every state included in as well as Canada and Mexico, but also a big factor in it was its social agencies had started,
focusing on trying to keep children with their birth families, wherever that was possible. The agencies that had been part of the orphan train movement later morphed into adoption and foster care agencies, as we think of them today and braces.
idea that children are better off in homes than in institutions continues to be at the heart of today's foster care programmes. This movement is often credited for spawning the foster care system. As we know it today in many states adoption laws were put on the books in an effort to rein in braces, seemingly haphazard placement
of children with families. A lot of the news articles that you'll see about orphan trains, but Mary
heritage series that was,
Are the american heritage a tv show in
it was about the orphan trains, mostly
from the MID Ninety Ninetys as the last writers of the orphan chains or getting into their eightys and Ninetys so very few,
if any of the people who were placed out on the train survive today, but fortunately, in
in the Eightys and Ninetys people did a lot of documentation like oral histories and first person accounts and talking to people who had
had not the trains and been place of the new family about their experiences today, the orphan training
flax and other orphan train historical inherited societies. Try to keep the movement documented and help the descendants of children's who rode the trains connect to one another,
so a lot of people have asked us to talk about orphan drains yeah, it's here.
Leaving it wanted turned out
a lot more layered, then what I knew of it going into it. I basically knew the orphan trains. They took orphans on trains to get new families, and that is pretty reductive.
Yeah. Well, it's all those things that there are a lot of complex angles to like, while the initial impulse
for it was surely like a good, the intense ino it. It ended up doing some, not so very things, but also had some legacies that were good, yeah well, and I think one of the things that
I may not have occurred to anyone- or am I not have been merely as much common knowledge at the time. There have definitely been efforts and multiple places in the world too
these minority children with majority families in an effort to make them assimilation of, and while that was not this lake specified in time
ten of any of the agencies that we're running orphan trains. It did not
bitter that flavour, which is troubling yeah. It's like, I said, good and bad. Some good legacy, some very unfortunate circumstances. Spites, do you
a spot of listener mail for us- I do it is run. Bowery Valerie, says hey how
Tracy, I was so excited to hear the Pueblo revolt episode I, along with others, I am sure, sent any request for so long ago. I spent a lot of time as a kid learning about that time. Period outside of school growing up in Santa FE, with
dad creating another home museum has affected my life in so many ways. Things like spending a couple weeks,
and are living in a Hogan is not part of everyone's chop. It there's a favorite story that my friend of my dad sold us, but I thought you guys might enjoy too of the artists my dad met through the museum.
to give tours around the peddlers around Arizona and New Mexico. They were getting off the bus with a group ETA, HOPI Village. They walked up to the,
there is a large fine asking the visitors to respect the laws of this area, since it is an independent nation. The first analysed was no photography. A lady in the group was taking pictures of the
I'm saying Toggery wasn't allow. They asked her to stop and not take any pictures. The woman responded that they should have told
her. If they really meant it up, I wonder if they put up a secondary part of the site-
No, we really mean it. Oh yes, that that's gonna get to you. This was so surprising to them that it became kind of a joke phrase ending stable state,
then requests with, and I really mean it- they even began to you,
Acronym aid. W are Emma
and we really mean it s into the
they made as part of the identification marks that cracked me that its funding practice Bertha. So
few podcast there's one that I know some of the basic information because of a board game I play based on that time period. Most recently, I played a game themes to being dressmakers and the french court a little before the time period,
pretend I added of winning the game and like the plague, knowing about rose, gave me an edge. I also have a game called
see about running ships of the debt is envy accompany. I think that if I studied all the themes,
The games I played, I could probably become a history bath and then Valerie hasn't episode suggested. I wanted to read this in part,
but- and I really mean it story made me- laugh so hard ass, because I love having board games that have some kind of nod to you
we somehow or tie into history. In some way we have a giant boardgame closet, several of which have some kind of historical high in Pakistan when we make a french town pretty after so thank you Valerie. If you would like to write to us, you can wear his reply. Gas tat discovery, dot com, our Facebook, Myspace, looked outcomes.
Listen history and our twitter isthmus industry are tumblr as Mr Industry that Tumblr com- and we are also unpicturesque- address Telecoms lash, missed in History-
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