« Stuff You Missed in History Class

Robert Smalls: From Contraband to Congress

2016-02-17 | 🔗

After his daring and impressive escape from slavery, Smalls was considered to be contraband, which was a term used for formerly enslaved people who joined the Union. But this was the beginning of an impressive career as a free man.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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you missed in history has worked well. Can I am highly, for they were picking up where we left off in the story of Robert. So very very briefly, we got hurt one he was inflate wrapper and the Mcfee household of Buford Falconer line. I would whenever differently from Beaufort North Carolina, even though they are both named after the same person during the A war you made a dramatic escape aboard a boat called the planter directly under the noses of the confederate military. His escape was a boost. Around the union and an embarrassment for the confederacy, and it also serve to rally other enslave persons who heard about it. He became something
Liberty in the north and a spokesperson for African Americans with the union at the time of his arrest? Rather small was only twenty three years old. He was hailed as a hero in the union newspapers, while the newspapers of the confederacy alternated between strongly denouncing when he done and then kind of downplaying it, while simultaneously casting tons of blame on the white soldiers than officers that had failed to stop him. Those authors who had left about over were indeed courtmartialed, although it was eventually thrown out on a technicality from the time they reached union blockade aboard the planter. Robert smiles and his family were pre. They were considered to be contraband, which is a term that was used to describe for Lee enslaved people. You join the union, but this was just the beginning. of an impressive career as a free man when he
reach, the onward, which was one of the ships in the union. Blockade robbers malls is reported to have said till within a J F Nicholas who was in command quote. I thought this ship might be of some use to Uncle aim. I have some guns: the Confederates took away from Fort Sumter and the planter was in fact extreme useful. She was fast and she wrote very high in the water, so she was easy in and out of shallow areas, whilst still carrying lots of men or cargo. Smiles himself was a huge asset to the union as well references to his competence, intelligence, forcefulness, are all over the letters and papers of the union officers and soldiers who encounter him in the words of ads I'll Samuel Afterpart quote this man, Robert smiles, is superior to any.
has yet come into lines. Intelligent of many of them have been. His information have been most interesting and portions of it of the utmost importance. I shall continue to employ Robert as a pilot aboard the planter for the inland waters. He appears to be very familiar pilot by the way Dupont referring to him. That way was a promotion because he was enslave the highest rank that small could hold The confederacy was wheelman. He would eventually become the planters captain, but when I use the word Wheelmen with also basically what we have to call with the therein slave, like he was doing islets inside, but they wouldn't call him that, because he was enslaved. His familiarity with the inland waters was a huge certain strategic importance to the union. He knew where minds had been laid. He knew which spots were likely to be used as ambushes. He knew which routes were used by smugglers,
He basically brought with him a mental atlas of the islands, rivers and sounds as well as confederate fortifications and the area rather small was happy to lend all of this knowledge to the union. Doing so meant that he was working against slavery rather than for it, as had been the case when he was forced to work for the Confederacy Robert MILES. Military service for the union began pretty much immediately, but he couldn't actually jointly and maybe to do that, a person had to be literate in spite of the fact that the Marquis family had been pretty lenient with him during his enslavement. They haven't allowed him to learn to read, said work, restrict Regarding his literacy, he was instead made essentially a civilian contract or for the army and the detailed back over to the navy during this war. Small participated in seventeen different military engagements aboard the planter
ironclad ship called the key, a cook and other ships as well, but in addition to this time and combat thanks to the fame that followed in the wake of him, escape, he also did a lot of diplomatic fund raising and recruitment work for the union, for example, after it took part we'll South Carolina, the union want its residents to grow Clayton, they needed cotton for the war effort, but most of the people living there have until the arrival of the union been enslaved on a carton, plantation, continuing RO cotton that, like doing the same thing for a different master, so a lot of people had planted food crops instead, smells was set in negotiate. He was familiar with the people in the area and he was bilingual able to speak both English and Gulf.
Go on, isn't English based Creole, that draws from several west african languages and spoken in the sea. Eyelids of South Carolina in Georgia. Smiles was able to negotiate a temporary compromised that allowed the growing of both cotton and food crops. Powers of persuasion were directed at the union government as well, as we mentioned in the pre instalment of this story? General David Hunter had on a couple of occasions tried to free all of being slaved persons in places where he was in command and the federal government had, on both occasions, shut this down, arguing that it was at the Congress or the president's ends,
re, not a general acting off on his own. In August. Eighteen sixty two hunter met with smiles on the subject of recruiting African Americans into the union military. Although Hunter had been encouraging the acceptance of enslaved persons who reach union lines into military service in areas that were under his command. This was not official military policy hunter made arrangements for small to go to washing They see travelling with reverent Mansfield French to speak with a secretary of war at when Stanton and with other members of Lincoln's cabinet smiles met with the Secretary of war on August twenty Eightth, then he met with the Secretary of the Treasury and after that, he and Reverend French met directly with Abraham, Lincoln Others, including Frederick Douglass, had already advised the president to encourage the recruitment of black soldiers into the union army. Smiles advise the same and said that he would
Cruet ten thousand men himself. If the president allowed it ultimately, the president and the Secretary of WAR authorizing enlistment of black troops into the union army on August twenty fifth eighteen sixty two Robert Small added recruiting black troops into the rest of his military work. He is reported to have recorded five thousand people, but I didn't really vibrant documentation. Now that number was calculated, then he did all of this war time work, while the south had placed a four thousand dollar bounty on him along with an eight hundred dollar. both he, his wife or children. Spalls continued, have military service, After the civil war becoming a major general of the South Carolina militia, he also moved into political service, which is what we will talk about after a brief word from a sponsor
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wars over. There were one country again and also there's no more slavery. There needed to be a plan for the former confederate states to demonstrate their loyalty to the United States, and they are also needed to be a plan to address. social, political and economic inequality that stem from the institution of slavery and try to rebuild as to the nation and its infrastructure that has been caused by the war itself. These plans and the years through which they can now became known as reconstruction. There is way new, much reconstruction history to cover in one episode or even handed episodes. So this is an extremely basic overview. real idea behind reconstruction, was to rebuild and unify the nation and to offset the inherent disadvantages that African Americans faced because of the institution of slavery. But a lot went wrong. First, there was significant back and forth between President Lincoln in Congress about what the plan should be
Lincoln's plan boil down to the states abolishing slavery and ten percent of their eligible voters swearing an oath of allegiance Congress not like this was not enough and pass the weight. Davis bill, which set a significantly higher bar for readmission one, the president felt was too high, so he refused to sign it a much bigger The issue was that when Abraham Lincoln Republican had run for re election in eighteen, sixty four, he had selected Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, as is running mate, and the hope that it would bring him the support of Democrats and perhaps boaters with broken better at leanings along. other strategies, this works and Lincoln was re elected by a landslide. But that meant that when Amy
Lincoln was assassinated. Johnson became president the same trades that had led some voters to support Johnson's. Vice presidency also led him to undermine some of the most important elements of reconstruction. He granted an amnesty that affected numerous Ex confederates, many of whom were then elected to the new governments of the southern states, that standards for re admission to the union that didn't do much to address the issues Congress was trying to fix. He vetoed civil rights legislation. Although Congress adopted it over his veto, he ultimately declared that the union was. Doored, even though many of the rebelling states have actually done one or more of the very basic things that they were expected to do to be readmitted to the union s side, no Johnson also the first president to be impedes for dismissing Edwin stand Secretary of war which violated the tenure of office act and to be clear
we're strides made to try to bring about equality after the civil war between eighteen, sixty, five and eighteen. Seventy, the thirteenth fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the? U S: constitution, which are known as the reconstruction amendments were ratified, the thirteenth abolish slavery. fourteenth, which we have talked about in a lot of episodes on this show, gave all citizens due process and equal protection under the law and the fifteenth gave all male citizens the right to vote, regardless of quote race, color or previous condition of servitude. In eighteen sixty five, the Friedman Bureau was also established with the help of providing education, medical care and assistance with labour contracts to previously enslaved persons. But none of this was as broad a far reaching or effective, as Congress had hoped at the conclusion of the war. Sometimes people talk The failure of reconstruction, but really reconstruction was never given a chance to succeed the election of former
moderate leaders to southern state governments led to their governments actively working against reconstruction. Many past explicitly discriminatory laws and policies immediately as early as November of eighteen, sixty five governments and former confederate states were passing black codes, which eventually evolved into grit, Jim Crow. which denied african Americans basic legal rights and protections all of this playing out as robbers falls became a community and political leader first in view first and then in South Carolina after the war, small, his wife and there to survive in children returned to Buford. He had been awarded fifteen hundred dollars for the capture of the planter, for quote rescuing her from the enemies of the guy
It also saved a lot of his pay, as well as other financial awards that he got from various aspects of his service, who used six hundred and fifty dollars of this money to buy the former Marquis home, which would which has since been sold to another family at attacks auction from air. He used some of his money to help establish businesses and to help other black families establish businesses of their own. He acquired land and property, helped build a black own real road in Charleston. He also use them of his new found wealth to assist its former owners.
Had been financially ruined by the war. He purchased a small house for the Marquise any help their children find jobs after Henry Mickey died, small small had Missus MC he cared for in his own home. So I want to be clear here. This turn about does not somehow negate the fact that the marquise had owned Robert smiles and his mother and other people, s property and it doesnt erase the institution of slavery as a whole. but smiles compassionate treatment of the keys and other white citizens of Buford did wind up earning him. The respect of many in the white community robbers We also did a lot of work in the area of education. He had begun educating himself through private tutors during the war back and Buford. He resumed the practice hiring a tutor
waking up at five a m every morning to study for two hours before the rest of his day began this desire to educate himself carried over to a desire to educate his children and the black community of South Carolina as a whole. He helped form the view for County School Board. Have you sixty seven and was immediately elected chair the School board, then purchase property and established a school it's an surprising given that, after this much community involvement after the war, smiles also moved into medical leadership in eighteen. Sixty seven, he held on the Republican Party in South Carolina and he was a delegate at seven different republican national conventions along with men,
their black civic leaders, he made huge strides and getting South Carolina black citizens which, at this point, outnumbered its white citizens registered to vote. He was elected to be a delegate at South Carolina constitutional convention in eighteen, sixty seven when the constitutional convention, which was one of the requirements for South Carolina to rejoin the union, was convened in eighteen, sixty eight, seventy six of its one hundred twenty four delegates were Small was appointed to the finance committee. Any also propose a resolution to set free public schools that were available to everyone in this region. Should ultimately led to the first public schools in South Carolina that same year, he was elected to a two year term in the South Carolina House of Representatives that year A majority of representatives in the South Carolina General Assembly were black and they were nine blackened twenty four white senators and the states in it. In fact, during reconstruction south.
Oh, I had more black citizens holding public office than any other state. South Carolina also had black representation in the United States Congress during reconstruction than any other state as well. At the end of his. In the House of Representatives. Smiles was elected to the South Carolina state Senate Reserve to terms continuing to focus on education, economic opportunity, an investigation of alleged corruption in the Republican Party from the earth miles. Next stop with the United States federal government, which we will talk about. Another reef sponsor break. This episode is brought to you by the all new twenty twenty Forward explorer Tracy. I know that you have been thinking about an interesting thing lately, which is why your pic would be for the greatest exploration vehicle of all time. Yeah, gotta go with the research vessel petrol that was owned by the late Paul Alan found, so many shipwrecks which our listeners love that we started to make jokes about it like we were like, and this is a shipwreck that wasn't
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In eighteen. Seventy four robbers falls was elected to the United States House of Representatives representing a majority black district, that included view for counting South Carolina between eighteen, seventy, five and eighteen. Eighty six, he served five non consecutive terms in the House of Representatives. He continued to work towards the social and economic interests of South Carolina, especially its black citizens. He advocated for a navy base to be built in Port Royal South Carolina Wit, wound of becoming a signal. it contributes to the state's economy. He also championed a bill that required the federal government to return land that have been confiscated for non payment of taxes which allow residents of South Carolina and many other states to buy the land to the low cost. This measure led the black citizens of Buford County owning most of the land there in eighteen, seventy six, one more time. Eighteen, seventy six
Robert smiles proposed an amendment to an army reorganization bill which would have integrated the United States armed forces. Although his efforts weren't successful, they did demonstrate that people were genuinely attempting to these segregate. The United States armed forces, long before President Truman signed executive order. Ninety nine eighty one nineteen forty eight, however, during these same years and intense violent backlash against reconstruction, was growing more pronounced and severe. In many southern states, the White Supremacist Organization, the coup Klux clan, had been established at eight sixty six and by eighteen, seventy if it really spread throughout the south. In eighteen. Seventy six armed white men killed several black members of the militia near Hamburg South Lena and that same year, elections in South Carolina were overrun with violence and voter intimidation in an effort to remove black officials from power in eighteen. Thirty
seven Republican rather for behaves, took office as president of the United States. After an incredibly long and controversial presidential election, his opponent Democrat Samuel day till then had won the popular vote, but when it aim for awarding electoral. Both their results reported by the republican and democratic parties in three different states did not match up. Consequently, it was at the Congress to decide how to a lot the electoral votes from these state. In the end, a compromise was reached. Rutherford behaves would become president, but as commander in chief of the army, he would have to issue the order to withdraw federal troops, which is part of the week. Wretched effort from the south. By this point, a lot of the early strides towards equality that had been made during the earlier years of reconstruction had already been erased, as states had passed, black codes and other discriminatory laws, state and local governments that had briefly, but from a lot closer to reflecting them racial make up of their constituents
didn't anymore. Voter intimidation and violence against black citizens at the hand of white citizens were really on the rise governments all over the south returned to being mostly you entirely white with many of government leaders having ties to the former confederacy Alot of people, feel like this. Withdrawal of of the federal troops was really the final nail in the coffin of reconstruction, and it was against this backdrop that in eighteen, seventy seven, Robert Small was accused, tried and convicted of accepting a bribe. The case boil down to a man named Joseph Woodruff, who claim that he had bribed smells with five thousand dollars on January nineteenth. Eighteen. Seventy three, a key piece of evidence, was a czech data, the nineteenth which was made out to quote cash or bearer and not to robbers malls. Another was a hand written note writ
pencil David the eighteenth the day before the check with no signatures on it by the fact that none of what we decide really adds up and the fact that there are a lot of other inconsistency, ease and unreliable witness testimonies involved in this trial, small those found guilty. The conviction was upheld on appeal. but he was later pardoned. Although the South Carolina press continued to use the issue against him for the next two years. At this point, most historians agree that this was really an effort to try to keep small out of office and not a crime that he had committed point, even though he was running in an overwhelmingly black republican congressional district small lost in the race for the? U S, house, in eighteen, seventy, eight to White Democratic, George Tillman. He continued to work within the Republican Party in the face of ongoing harassment and threats and intimidation. He lost to tell them
in eighteen, eighty, although the results of the eighteen eighty election were heavily contested and the House of representatives ultimately decided to see falls instead, more than eighteen months into the two year term. in eighteen. Eighty two small withdrew from the race in favour of another republican candidate in part because his own political support from voters hadn't yet recovered from the bribery charge. Robbers falls. Wife Hannah died in eighteen. Eighty three small later married, a woman named, Annie Wig, and they had a son together who they named William Robert Annie died a few years into their marriage in eighteen. Eighty four Robert smiles ran against White Confederate veteran, William, Elliot Senior, and one at this point very man He had guaranteed that all, but one of South Carolina districts had a majority white population, so black representation in the south government and in South Carolina representatives to the federal government, had dropped dramatically.
Eighteen, eighty six Elliot defeated small in the race for the House of Representatives, although he was now needed in subsequent years. Smiles did not return to elected office. After this point. In eighty, eighty nine. He was appointed collector of customs at the port of viewports in eighteen. Ninety five South Carolina Governor Benjamin are Tillman urge the state to convene another constitutional convention to revise the state constitution, and it did because of all Work they had been done to gerrymander the state, intimidate black voters and get black people out of public Office Nero all of the delegates to this constitutional convention were Y. Know black delegate, were appointed to the committee on the rights of suffrage? It was this committee that as many barriers to black citizens. Voting is possible without directly contradicting the fifteenth amendment to the United States constitution
were the strenuous objections and counter proposals of the six black republican delegates to the constitutional convention. South Carolina adopted a new constitution and under this constitution, in order to vote, people had to pass illiteracy test, pay a pull tax and own at least three hundred dollars worth of property being convicted of a number of crimes, including arson, burglary and robbery. Also stripped people have the right to vote combined these stipulations in the state constitution stripped most black citizens have the right to vote, which continue to be the case until the passage of the Voting Rights ACT of nineteen sixty five also included in eighteen. Ninety five constitution- the establishment of segregated schools. Robert smiles continued to hold his customs posts until nineteen twelve, when he was reappointed by William Howard Task, but not confirmed by the Senate. By this point, has health was
the poor and the Buford Customs House closed after he left. He died at the age of seventy six in nineteen fifteen in the nineteen forties camp robber, small, which was part of the great lakes, enable training centre and was created to train black, maybe seamen while the Navy was segregated was named after him and nineteen seventy six Robert smiles, Buford Home was added to the national register of historic places. He was awarded the palmetto cross on May thirteenth, two thousand to the one hundred fortieth anniversary of his capture, planter in recognition of his servants to the South Carolina militia. An army transport ship was christened the major General Robert smiles on April twenty first, two thousand for at various points. Multiple schools, in view for county, have borne robber, smiles, name Roberts Malls Middle School, which is now rubber, smiles international academy. Still does it twenty fourteen some of its alumni protested that its logo, which featured a man with a face that
darker on one side and later on, the other wearing what appeared to be revolutionary war era. Garb didn't accurately represent who robber smells was the There was temporarily change to a g for generals, which was their school mascots, but the greatest It was still ongoing at the time we recorded this episode to end with a quote from the man himself. Well, my race needs new special defence for the past history of them in this country proves them to be equal of any people anywhere. All they need is an equal chance in the battle of life that is Robert small. I had a surprisingly difficult time researching this episode, because view can find lots of children's books about Robert Small in a typical public library. There are a lot of them. There are also numerous like rigorous academic
works for adults about Robert Small and you get any of them. I had to go to a university library, like public library, only had the you'd like children book levels stuff. It's a trend that frustrates me like. I am glad that their children's books- you all of these people in these stories, that's great, and I am glad that there are available for free at the public library, that's great, but a kind of. Flash really facts when a lot of the story is our wish. That is like inspirational stories, were children rather than things for adults, to study seriously Also. So, if you're interested in learning more about rabbits mouth, that's, u works, but I had to go to diversity. Library, forget our gala statesmen, Robert smiles from slavery to Congress. By
Edward Miller, an yearning to breathe free Robert smiles of South Carolina and his family's by Andrew Billingsley, and they are both really good. Do you also have some listener mail for us yeah a from Aaron. Here in five. I ladys thanks so much for keeping the pike ass interesting. I listened at work and help me focus when I get overwhelmed and stressed thanks for giving me something else to think about what everything else gets too crazy, I don't want them to the progress on the schoolhouse blizzard and you're. A little five discussion into relative comfort in cold weather hit very close to home. I recently moved Madison Wisconsin. New York City and, while in Y, see isn't necessarily worm. It certainly isn't have quotas, as was content. Now, just my second winter here in Wisconsin, and finding that I treat most winter temperature is the same as I used to teach treat temperatures thirty degrees warmer for
since I'll, go out in twenty degree Rhett. Whether the same way I used to prepare for fifty degree weather, and this change in behaviour was so drastic that even my husband took notice and got worried. He did some research and learned that this is not an unexpected and an unexplained phenomenon. People that spend more time in cold weather, we'll have the structure of their body fat change becoming more insulated. when someone comes the fat structural changes back and the following winter, your body has to prepare all over again. This explains why, now more comfortable in cold weather than any other ever was before, and my people in northern climates wear shorts in the winter simply because their bodies are more prepared to deal with. The cold is cut off.
Explain why, years ago, after spending, two weeks in Cambodia working outside a ninety nine degrees, temperatures and nearly ninety nine percent humanity, I returned home to the hottest summer in New York City on record and found myself cold wearing a white summer alight sweater all summer long. Thanks for the podcast, there is able to teach you, ladies something in exchange for everything you ve taught me Aaron. Thank you so much Erin. I looked into this. That is indeed the case and, of course, most newspapers reported on this research is being like. Did you know being called might hope you lose weight thanks newspaper
For that not the point at all interpretation of a scientific study yeah, that's the clickable version, re yeah. What did you find any studies on my winter raves disorder cause? I never about like a baby I'll reactors that afterward unrecorded. I have the exact same experience as Erin like I will go outside and its thirty degrees and I dont have gloves on and that. I usually regret that, after about three minutes, but the fact that I will even walk out of my house without a hat and gloves on when it is in the thirties is still continues to baffle me because that used to be the freezing of temperature pretty cool anyway. You like the right to have written history, pod tasks that have the com reform. Facebook basement that Tom Flash Miss than history it on twitter I missed in History- are tumblr, is
history that somewhere about found were also on interest and to start mom flashed missing in history. The evidence today, our neighbour Instagram, Alto, misspent history, you think I'm too, our parent Company Limburg Helstone works back on all kinds of information about all kinds of fascinating subject. You can also come to our website, which is missed in history. Dot com, where you will find show notes for all the episodes Holly and I have worked on You'Ll- find an archive of every single episode we have ever done. You can do
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