At the end of World War II, the United States used atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A young girl named Sadako Sasaki eventually developed A-bomb disease as a result of her exposure, and the origami crane became a symbol of her story.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Ok, honey, I'm at least that new car today, but first hear some Flash hard to go, releasing vocabulary quiz me. You do not need to know all these. You don't hear look. This is the right of people to carry one and they, we were simple price. Then they deliver the car to our house Possum because I didn't know any of those words not one. Well. to the future of leasing. Road, You choose from hundreds of cars to lease. The pricing is Crystal clear and will deliver the car right to your house, so download the roadmap or go to rodeo dot com. Today, welcome to step you missed in history class from hast up works, tat, come hello and welcomes the pod cats. I am Tracy. Well, then, I'm Holly frying bizarre one thousand episode, kind of Really I prefer nine hundred and ninety nine part too, will be episode. One thousand, and if your pod catcher numbers epoch,
then you're like way. That is not right. I have more than a thousand episodes already. There are some stray re run, an archive that we didn't count because those are not new and we also didn't count Saturday classics since the whole point of those is that they not new. They are from the archive, but we did count updates that we did considered to be new episodes back when we did them back in the archive as well. So we have a hard time trying to decide what to cover for our thoughts, episode. We started out with things that happened two thousand years ago. What happened in the year? One thousand and nothing was really grabbing us. So back at the start of February, we put the question out to our listeners on social media. We got literally hundreds of response. maybe even a thousand total responses. There were a lot and a lot of them were just what is, as someone said thing one time, but a few things came up over and over and one of those repeat submissions was the japanese tradition of folds
thousand origami cranes, or maybe the story of sad echoes the Saki who died of leukemia after the bombing of Hiroshima and her effort to fold. A thousand creams became part of a grassroots peace movement among jacket children. I was the one we decided to do from those repeat request that we got. This is ultimately a hopeful story, because a thousandth episode seems kind of like a little bit of a celebration, and it did not seem right to have a complete downer. We did get some very, very tragic requests, but we thought seemed a little. few heavy today's episode number nine. Ninety nine, though, does start off with some horrific wartime details and we're gonna be talking about a child with cancer, but episode one. thousand as well, more optimistic and its tone, and just for the sake of clarity,
early in japanese names are typically presented with the family name first and the given named seconds in English. There often presented the other way around. So in these areas We ve used that western order of given name first, primarily because of how they were presented in the japanese resources that I had that were either written in Japanese and translated into English or written by japanese people in English. So although a Saki story begins bombing of Hiroshima. We really need to go back a little bit farther the man to put that bombing in context and thus to the second sino japanese war. This is generally marked, as stretching from nineteen thirty seven to nineteen forty five and then, in its heat later years it became the Pacific Theatre of war to the second finer. Japanese war start
after years of japanese incursions into chinese territory and then into other parts of South EAST Asia, this included the horrific Nanjing massacre in which jap unease troops killed as many as three hundred thousand people, most of them civilians and raped or sexually assaulted, tens of thousands of women and Japan in Germany were allies, and, after France fell to Germany and nineteen forty one. The Vichy government agreed to allow Japan to take control of the colonial territory of French Indo China. Today, that's Vienna, louse and Cambodia in response to the japanese occupation of French Indo China and in the hope, checking its advance into other parts of South EAST Asia. President Franklin D Roosevelt froze all japanese assets that were held in the United States. Other nations followed suit it states ordered an embargo of steel and oil exports to Japan as well. Pleased
major sanctions and the goal here was to pressure Japan and the backing out of French and China and stopping its imperial expansion into other countries. Instead, it really have the opposite effect: Japan continued its push, attempting to reach territory that could supply it with these rules Yours is a capital that it no longer had. These sanctions are also cited as one of the factors that led Japan to attack per harbour Hawaii a little more than four months later. On December, seventh, nineteen, forty one fast forward to nineteen forty five at the end of world war, two, the allies accepted Germany's unconditional surrender on May eighth of that year, ending world war to in Europe, but the war with Japan continued as we discussed in our episode the. U S as Indianapolis by the summer of nineteen forty five most american troops believed they were preparing for a full scale. Invasion of Japan itself.
Meanwhile, Japan's Navy was nearly destroyed and the allies had started firebombing made or japanese cities its estimated that and three hundred thousand japanese citizens were killed and firebombing attacks between January of nineteen. Forty four in August of nineteen, forty five in Tokyo alone, more than a hundred thousand, people died in a firebombing over marked, ninth and tenth nineteen. Forty five, in addition to the death, these incendiary attacks were incredibly destructive. Japan had started to western eyes of architecture in the late nineteenth, century and at the same time, a lot of japanese buildings that we're still standing were historic wooden structures that were extremely flammable during all of this. Ordinary japanese citizens face huge hardships, including a critical food shortage. This stemmed from disrupted supply chains, crop failures and destruction of its merchant marine fleet
in the summer of nineteen. Forty five much of the population on the japanese homefront was facing starvation. The japanese government had to continually work to convince its civilian population that the war was still in the nations best interests. In spite of all of this. On July, twenty sixth, ten days after the first successful test of a nuclear bomb, the United States issued the Potsdam declaration calling for Japan to surrender. unconditionally or faced quote prompt and utter destruction. As we now know, this was a threat to use nuclear weapons which, at the time were still a military secret, and there are two main trains have thought about this point in the warm one is influenced by how dire conditions were in Japan and how destructive the fire bombing campaign to ban and how Japan was increasingly out of options.
This train of thought is that Japan was headed toward surrender, although not necessarily on an unconditional one, and that conventional methods could still bring the war to an end. The other point of view is influenced by western perceptions of japanese culture and tactics that had been used by the japanese military during the war, for example, that Companies military included, kamikaze suicide bombers and an infantry that demonstrated an almost fanatical fight to the death mentality. The list of war crimes committed by and during world war. Two is long and horrifying, and this just did not seem like a fighting force that would ever surrender no matter how certain defeat seems to be so under the strain of
continuing the war, especially if it involves an invasion of Japan itself, would cost far too many lives on both sides. So the allies needed to take decisive, dramatic action to bring the war to a faster and, ultimately preventing that of life, and it was the latter point of view that lead the United States to drop in atomic bomb on the japanese city of Hiroshima on August. Sixteen nineteen, forty five, which point of view was correct and whether the use of nuclear weapons was justified, continues to be the subject of debate the whole subject of contention. enough that a ninety ninety five, the Smithsonian National AIR Space Museum, cancelled an exhibition on the end all again, which was the plain that dropped the bomb on Roma. This cancellation came after five sounds of revisions between museum, curators and veterans groups. The museum staff wanted to focus on the first use of nuclear weapons in warfare as a global turning point
one that connected to the nuclear arms race and the cold war, but veterans groups wanted to focus on sacrifice and on the atrocities that have been committed by the Japanese that led to the first use of the bomb, the peoples of the the respective countries involved, also do not agree about whether the use of atomic weapons was justified. According to a twenty fifteen report by the non partisan Pew Research centre, fifty six percent of a mere hence believe the use of nuclear weapons was justified and thirty four percent say it was not Meanwhile, in Japan, just fourteen percent say the use of nuclear weapons was justified. Seventy nine percent say it was not, regardless of all of that, Hiroshima specifically was chosen for maximum.
Value. It was a city of more than three hundred thousand people, but it hadn't yet been targeted or damaged by the incendiary strikes that had stricken so many other major japanese cities. The surrounding terrain was also hilly, which scientists believe would focus the blast and cause even or damage. In the end, the bombing of Hiroshima destroyed about ninety percent of the city and killed at least eighty five and people instantly, most of them civilians, tens of thousands more died in the aftermath from radiation poisoning and radiation induce diseases they rights had expected that Japan would offer an immediate, unconditional surrender after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima that that surrender did not come and on August Eighth, the Soviet Union also cleared war on Japan, the Soviet Union roughly a million troops into Manchuria, which is now part of China on the ninth, and then
so on, the ninth, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on a city of not a fact instantly killing at least forty thousand people. Estimates of the final death toll of the two atomic bombings are all over the place in part the bodies of many of the victims were destroyed, along with the buildings that held all the records of their existence. But the combined death toll of the bomb of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was at least two hundred thousand people. This point. Japan had only discussed conditional surrender options like trying to include guarantees that Japan wouldn't be subject to military occupation or that that implies your family, and especially the emperor himself would be protected, but on August tenth, Japan. Finally, Moving toward an unconditional surrender, it
formally announced on August fifteenth after a failed military coup meant to stop it from happening. Japan's formal surrender took place on September. Second, nineteen, forty five, this ended were war too, and it also to the end of Japan's imperial occupation of multiple other areas, including Korea. Manchuria and French Indo China and, of course all of these places have their own complex histories. After this point, just over ten years later, that. Of course, the Saki died of radiation induce leukemia as result of having been mere the Hiroshima bomb blasts, and we are going to talk about her after a quick sponsor break this episode of stuff you missed in history, glasses, brought. You buy Norton three sixty with lifelong
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Twenty five percent or more of your first year go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, Dotcom, slash history for twenty five percent off. five ass- was born on January seven. Nineteen, forty three, her mother for Chico at her, other sugar YO owned the barbershop, see also had an old brother named Masahiro. They believe in Hiroshima and a three story: wooden mortar home. One point: six kilometers from the hyper centre of the atomic bomb blasts Senecas Father was drafted during the war. and her mother kept the business going. While he was away on the morning of August six. Nineteen forty five Sancho was too and her brother was for Food Mercosur Saki was at home with both of them, along with one of their grandmothers when the atomic bomb experts,
it over Hiroshima at about feet. Sixteen m: it blew the roof off the Saki Family home most of their neighbors were killed. Physique Saki was not in German, but must the Euro had a head injury and the force of the blast had thrown Sancho from where she was sitting into a box? For a moment, the family thought that she had been lost her grandmothers arm was injured as well. Pretty girl, everyone up and as a fire spread throughout their neighborhood, took all of them toward the nearby river. They were rest. you'd by a neighbor who loaded about ten people into his boat and took them to the middle of the river they waited there until the flames subsided unaware that they were being exposed to massive amounts of radiation. Their weight with horrifying this boat wasn't big enough to hold so many people, and so when they were afraid that it would sink or capsize an oily black precipitation
started to fall, and this black reign was a mix of radioactive fallout particles and particles from smoke that was blanketed. The remains of the burning city they could also here Paul, all along the banks of the river. He were unable to escape the fire to either burned to death or drowns trying to get far enough into the water after the flames cited and they were able to get back to shore. What they found was equally horrifying in a dish to the destroyed buildings in the bodies of victims. There were people who were still alive but suffering from extreme radiation exposure. We're not gonna get into the details of what this was like, because this information is both widely available and widely known, but it was truly truly gruesome. Twelve members of the societies extended family were killed that day, including photos, grandmother who had turned back saying she needed to get something from the house before they got to the river.
Sancho surviving family left Hiroshima for about two years after the bombing, and then they returned to reopen their barbershop. They all recovered from their injuries And for years it seems as though Sadako had not been effected at all soon she had a little sister midway in a little brother agee there and many other neighbours did not talk about the bomb. What's when it did come up, they more often called the pizza or pick a door which met the flash or the flash and boom Culturally, the nuclear attack was viewed as embarrassing and shameful, especially because of the grizzly and deadly nature of its effects on human health. Sancho grew into a girl who is well liked at school. In the sixth grade, their teacher who Yoshino Moura, began training them in Baton, relay and other track and field events and sought blossomed. As an athlete, she wound up running
anchor leg on the relay team, because she'd been so close to the atomic blast. Every two years Sancho had a check up, but the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, as established by the United States government and nineteen forty six to study the ongoing health effects of the bomb. Some of these effects, where immediate or they started shortly after the attack, this included cured scarring, cataracts, stillbirths miscarriages and infant mortality among women who are pregnant when the bomb struck, but other diseases, especially cancers, developed. Much later and general. Japanese people didn't trust. The ABC they associated with the american military and really its purpose, was to study the effects of the bomb not to provide medical treatment or care to the people who were so affected for about a decade. Saga
check. Ups and blood work at the ABC were all normal in November of nineteen. Fifty for, though she caught a cold and noticed a swollen lymph nodes under her ear, she didn't have a fever. So the family wasn't particularly worrying the even those survivors of the bomb dreaded. The possibility of what was known as a bomb Disease Avon Disease was a catch all too for a variety of cancers in conditions that were induced by radiation exposure during the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People who were close to the blasts or who entered Hiroshima and Nagasaki soon enough afterward to be effected were called. He boxer or bomb affected people. Most of these are japanese citizens, but there are also significant numbers of Koreans who had been forcibly relocated,
and essentially as slaves, Sancho continue to feel a little run down over the new year holiday and the swollen lymph nodes got worse. So she went to the doktor who initially thought she had a virus and when she still didn't improve after treatment, her parents took her to the ABC, see where she got extensive work. Ups on January, twenty Eightth and February sixteenth of nineteen fifty five on February eighteenth, her parents got the call Sadako had a bomb disease. Her specific condition was leukemia, which is the cancer of the parts of the body that make blood cells. Most types of leukemia cause the body to make too many white blood cells, which means the body produces fewer red blood cells and platelets. Since the red blood cells carry oxygen and platelets are involved in clotting. This imbalance in blood cells causes a range of other progressive health problems. The typical leukemia array
in Japan was two to three people out of every one hundred thousand, but among Hiroshima, survivors. It was closer to thirty out of one hundred thousand people who had entered Hiroshima in the days and weeks after the bombing has doubled or tripled risk for leukemia as well after they learned that she was l Those mother wanted her to have a traditional commodo. If Sancho had a bomb. he's and was going to have to be in the hospital for drink. I wanted her to have the experience of having a beautiful kimono first. So after getting the call from the hospital she and her husband went to pick up Sancho from school and they took her to pick out fabric, which has a cherry blossom pattern for her kimono. They told her. It was a tree because she was going to need to be in the hospital, but they didn't tell. but she had a bomb disease or that it wasn't curable. Sideshows, mother and her aunts worked overnight to make this kimono so that she can have it and where it before she was admitted, Sancho entered the Red Cross Hospital
in Hiroshima on February Twentieth, nineteen, fifty five- that is just two days after her family, was notified on the way she stopped at school. To say goodbye to were classmates. There were sixty one other students in our class. even though so many people have been killed in the bombing. Her school was still overcrowded because of the return of japanese nationals from the empires former territories after the war throughout the school year, her teacher had been encouraging the class to develop. Culture of always looking after one another and taking those lessons to heart after Sadako left, her classmates organise themselves into a rotation to visit her in the hospital in groups of three today leukemia is far more treatable than it was in nineteen, fifty five, the five year survival rate for children with acute lives Leukemia today, is about eighty five percent and for children with acute Mila, genus
Emu is now it's about sixty to seventy percent, but in nineteen fifty five there was no treatment for the disease itself. The best the doctors could do was to give Sancho transfusions of healthy blood along with a drug called met. The tracks eight, which lowered number of white blood cells but didn't, do anything to address the condition itself. This care was very expensive and there was no insurance or state supported medicine and no central blood banking system. Families were responsible for finding blood donors themselves and if they could it for buying blood from the local blood bank and after buying blood, they still had to pay for the transfusion itself. Sancho societies family put all of their money into her treatment, eventually even selling their home and their business in Hiroshima and moving into a barracks. To try to save money. The Red Cross Hospital didn't have a separate pediatric, word said: Zadok as fellow patients, including children and adults.
and see, became really beloved by both the staff and the other patients. She was always really optimistic. She very rarely complained the pain that she was then or the other effects that leukemia was having on her body a string of one thousand, Me cranes was delivered to Sancho in a hospital in July of nineteen. Fifty five in order talk more about these crimes and exactly what they represented after we first have a sponsor break. This episode of stuff. You miss than history classes, brought to you by Norton three sixty with life. Luck with your shopping online with your smartphone. Its super feels like ear. Personal information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going up places, in fact, whenever you shop, bank or browse online, your personal invoking, get out of your control, and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals. More threats demand more protection. That's why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company Norton three
stay with. Lifelike is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and a VP end for online privacy. No one can prevent all cybercrime and identity theft, but nor in three sixty with lifelike as your ally in today's connected world, because your information is out there sign up for Norton three sixty with lifelike today and save twenty five percent or more off your first year, go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, DOT, com, slash history for twenty five percent off the thousand origami cranes, the thought occurred to Saki received in the hospital connect several pieces of japanese history and culture together, so we're gonna walk through all of them, starting with origami
Paper was first invented in China in about the year. One hundred five buddhist monks introduced it to Japan in the sixth century for centuries, paper was really expensive and quite difficult to obtain, so it was mainly used for religious purposes. The arrow period began in Tina three and by then paper was far less expensive and p are you using it to make all kinds of art we talk about? The art of japanese would black printmaking in our past podcast on cats. You should go home. I printmaking allowed art of artists to mass produced and distribute paper copies of their artwork, and there are prints from this period in museums all over the world. Today, the first concrete evidence of paper folding in Japan comes from the meadow period as well. People were likely folding paper into shapes before
this, especially in ceremonial and religious uses. One book written in seventeen sixty four documents: ceremonial folds, the samurai used on wrapping paper, which changed depending on what gifts were inside the first written instructions for what we probably recognise as origami today came with acute social retailers, Sinbad Giroux or a quota four thousand Ukraine folding, and this was first public. in seventeen. Ninety seven so or a cut out means folded, shapes and for a while it was almost used interchangeably with origami, which comes from or a new meaning folding and commie, meaning paper. More written instructions followed the seventeen eighty seven publication, although
People today describe Origami, have using one flat sheet of paper with no cutting these early japanese instructions included various cuts. Indifferent paper shapes as aside no you'll, see a lot of the same subjects in both woodlot prince and origami. including lots of flowers, birds and other animals, and there are also lots of would block Prince the depict origami models and people folding origami paper full was becoming common in other parts of the world as well to pen was not the only place where people were folding paper for some reason, Friedrich Frugal, known as the Father of Kindergarten, saw the use of folding as a teaching tool, particularly because the value of its connections to geometry and math, and the late alien hundreds fro balls origami, like and patterns were introduced into Japan and put to use in japanese classrooms so eventually, beneath origami, was being used as an educational tool outside of Japan, and the youth german folds are being used
in Japan, they all wound up influencing each other for centuries, almost All origami followed the same. Traditional shapes and steps that have been documented in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a cure she's Iowa is credited with expanding the form in the twentieth century. Creating symbols, arrows and diagrams that are still used today, along with it having new folds and techniques, his work sparked a resurgence in Oregon all over the world, starting in the nineteen fifties today, in addition to the frogs cranes box, and other traditional models. Artists use origami to make all kinds of work all along the spectrum, from realistic, too abstract to move on to cranes and japanese culture cranes, particularly red crowned cranes, are significant. Their symbolic of happy
as the long life and according to Legend, they live for a thousand years. Turtles are revered as well. There is actually a saying that the crane lives for a thousand years, while the turtle lives for ten thousand years. The number one thousand itself is considered to be auspicious services like layers of good fortune and positive things. A string of one thousand origami cranes or send bizarre route is said to bring luck or to grant a wish. So strings of one thousand cranes had been traditional gives to honour things like weddings and births. The string of a thousand cranes that struck us, Saki received in the hospital, had been made by a high school class that was folding chains of paper cranes to give to patients with a bomb disease. This part was not shared with sad occurs, since her family for doctors were still trying to protect her from the knowledge that she was dying by this point. Sancho had made friends with Cairo occur before
you're old, with tuberculosis. The two of them started folding cranes together to pass the time working with very small pieces of paper, because it was easier to manage those smaller sizes. While they were confined to bed, they used whatever paper they could find from wrappers from other patients. Gifts to discarded no paper one day as they were, folding cranes sat echoing higher, talked about kind of a variant about Annette Legend we talked about before, which is that, if you folded a thousand cranes, you would get well, so Sata GO decided. She was going to follow the thousand cranes and the hope that it would make her better. Some of the fictional depictions of saudi GO societies. Life say that she died before finishing four thousand creams, but according to the people who knew her, she finished her first thousand and moved on to a second set before she died by the end she was, or he would tiny tiny pieces of paper that required a toothpick to help fold,
old and cranes is not the only way she was spending her time over the summer of nineteen. Fifty five Sadako route, formal cards to everybody that had been in her six rate class. The class had formed a unity, at the end of the year, because they were moving onto junior high school. They wouldn't necessarily be in the same class or even at the same school anymore. So the unity club kept visiting her after the school year was over by August about the time she finished. Her first thousand creams sought echoes condition, was seriously declining and that same month, Cayos tuberculosis treatment was complete and she was released from the hospital Kayo promised to visit, but did not make it back to the hospital before Sancho died. Sat echoes, the Saki died on October, twenty fifth nineteen
the five at the age of twelve after her death, an autopsy revealed that she had thyroid cancer, as well as leukemia and later on. Doctors would establish a link between a bomb exposure and thyroid cancer as well. It was also after her death. The doctors discovered that Sir ECHO had been looking up. Her own blood test results at the nurses station, in keeping track of them for months on a scrap of paper, hidden in her bed So, even though no one had told her what she had, it became clear that she had known for a really long time that she was dying and despair them from the pain she had. Let any one else knew that she knew sat, echoes classmates, started to hear that she had died at school, and this mostly spread from student to student in the halls, since a lot of households in Hiroshima didn't have their own phone. That was then reported in the newspaper as well a lot of class, It went to the Temple where her body was placed and then they attended her funeral and then at the funeral. Fazekas family gave the class
see we're there some of the crimes that she had folded after Sata goes death. She and her means inspired a movement for peace, and we are going to talk about that. But that's gonna happen in our next episode. You have listener mail I have a thing I wanted to generally address from a previous episode that we have done, which is ours you partner. On the Wilmington Q, we ve gotten a nun, a very angry letters about something that we said at the end of that episode alive. Those angry letters from people who told us they're, not gonna, listen to the show anymore. So they're not gonna, hear this explanation. The thing that people really. I mean there are several things that people are angry about, that one of the things we ve heard about over and over. As that we talked about a north. Anna voter ideal law that had been struck down by a panel of the fourth. U S Circuit court of Appeals who described it
They described as voter ideals as made to target african Americans with surgical precision, and we ve just had a whole lot of people I have written to us and been like, but you have to have an idea to cash shack. Why don't? You have to have an idea to vote and I wanted to clarify that was not the point. What this, secular voter I D law was the lawmakers gathered lack of information about how people were exercising their right to vote and North Carolina. So when, where people voting, where they're going to Lee voting. Were they using absentee ballots? What kinds of ideas they're using when they exercise their right to vote, and they specifically asked for that information to be broken down by race. And then, when they wrote that new voter ideal. Ah, they got rid of the forms of idea, an early voting methods and lots of other tools for exercising their right to vote that were disproportionately used by black residents of North Carolina, so
a whole lot of people that were so angry saying. It's not races to ask somebody for Idee. That's not really what was happening here They specifically were no longer allowing the forms of idea that that black people were using more often than white people, and that is like a textbook definition of racism, so Idea that this voter ideal was racist was not something that we made up out of thin air and it was not something that we just sort of threw out their willy nilly. It was extensively documented in the court, the court documents, the sorts of questions that have been asked in the framing of this law and thus the very clear pattern and with which pieces of idea were allowed, which boating schedule state in place. That kind of thing so.
If any of the folks who are still really angry or still listening to the show that came from a further folks who may be to send us angry letters, but were kind of wondering how I wonder what was up without law, because the stuff you missed in history class house don't usually use words lightly. Now you know if you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast we're at history podcast stuff works dot com and were also all over social media at Miss in history, and that includes Facebook and Twitter and Instagram and Pinterest. You can come to our website, which is missed in history, dot, com or you will find a suitable archive of all the episode that we have ever done, we'll find shone out for all the episodes Holly and I have done together- has the total list
forces for everything that we have talked about today. Sickened, do all that and a whole lot more at Miss than history dot com and you could send you can subscribe to our show on Apple pie, casts Google play Wherever else you get podcast for more or less, and thousands of other topics has therefore start com
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