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Scurvy

2020-12-30 | 🔗

Scurvy is a deficiency in vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, and its story goes way back in history – all the way to our evolutionary ancestors living more than 60 million years ago. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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welcome to stuff you missed in history glass. Production of Iheart radio hello and welcome to the bar gas, I'm Tracy bewilderment Molly, for I was out of the last up. I am writing for the year twenty twenty spent here. Yeah hooray, I've ever had minimal contact anybody, besides must bow said almost nine months and for some reason my brain keeps being like scurvy In that connection, does it make sense? Really? Because if I were to get a vitamin deficiency because of the pandemic, it would probably be about vitamin d from
I'm not going out into the sun, is that what you're saying is that your brain is making a weird jump of concern of vitamin deficiency may be back, can concern, but maybe more like at least I don't have scurvy like huh, but brain that doesn't make any sense anyway. That's why we're going to talk about today is scar, because just for some weird reason, my brain keeps coming back around to it in these times of winter and pandemic. So scurvy in case you don't know, you probably do- is a deficiency in vitamin c or a storbeck acid, and its story goes way way back in history all the way to our evolutionary ancestors living more than sixty million years ago and with a few exceptions including guinea, pigs and bats, most men They can generate their own ass, orbic acid and then included those priming ancestors
but somewhere along the way, a random genetic mutations broke. The ability to produce an enzyme known as El Galina lacked own oxidation or goo low, which is a necessary part of making US orbic acid I think it is also necessary. The body uses it to synthesize. The protein college in and college in is a crucially important part of our connective tissue, to do really important things like hold our skin and blood vessels together. So if the body cannot replace worn out, collagen causes serious problems, the first symptoms of scurvy, involve fatigue, lethargy and aching joints. People start to bring easily wounds. he'll and old wounds reopen the gums to bleed and the t start to loosen and can in fact come out entirely. This is also a company by foul odors, including very bad breath without
treatment with vitamin c. Scurvy is eventually fatal, often because of acute internal bleeding around the brain or heart, but when our ancestors stopped being able to produce goulash, This really did not matter, they were living, untrue, local areas and their diet included lots of fresh fruits and vegetables. So they were getting plenty of vitamin c through their food. If this had not been through this genetic mutations, TAT shut off, the ability to synthesize Gula would have wiped them out, but since their diet, we're rich with vitamin c they continued to thrive. As people started living farther from tropical areas, they started eating more foods that did not necessarily contain as much vitamin c, but most of the time. Who still not a big problem, most diet. Recommendations, call for significantly more vitamin c, but it does it actually take that much just to prevent scurvy only about ten million times a day or all you need in a low voice
we see is mostly associated with fruits and vegetables. It is found in other foods as well. Most meet contains a little if it hasn't been cook too long and liver, and kid me meet in particular contained quite a bit. It. So as one example, the practice of eating raw organ meat in far northern indigenous communities provides protection from scurvy, even when plant based foods are unavailable or out of season. So as communities established themselves around the world, people had to have some kind of vitamin c and their diets, otherwise that community just could not survive, but any time that access to food was cut off in some way say because of a war or a famine. People could start to develop scurvy, and this is also true for people with diseases in conditions that kept I'm from eating or kept them from absorbing the nutrients and their food, and the word scurvy comes from older terms that mean lazy, scabbed or scourge which
is to be used to describe dandruff people and using it to describe this disease in about the sixteenth century, but written Descriptions of scurvy that predate that word are much older, the earliest likely description of scurvy is found in the egyptian document, known as the Ebro Piracy, which dates back to about fifteen hundred BC e past podcast, subject shrew shrewder described a condition involving bleeding gums and loosening teeth around eight hundred BC. Three, four hundred years later, greek physician hypocrisy ease described what was probably scurvy, and he did not go into detail about the cure he knew for it. He did note that it wasn't effective and that patients usually died. Traditional chinese medicine texts described collections of symptoms that very much resemble scurvy as well. So today, scurvy is associated with long see, voyages and has humanity took to the sea. People worked out some ways to prove
said, although really without necessarily knowing that that was what they were doing. Many of the earliest seafarers stuck close to the coasts or they island hot, and that gave them plenty of opportunities to stock up. On fresh food. But his voyages got longer. Many also had foods on board that we're rich in vitamin c, it's possible. that polynesian way. Finders introduced, sweet potatoes to central and South America. They would have brought them with them over thousands of miles of ocean and sweet potatoes, contain vitamin c Scandinavian stocked their ships with cloud barriers which have about four times as much vitamin c as oranges due on pasteurized milk also contains vitamin c,
oh seafarers who had dairy animals onboard could get it that way, while scurvy was common enough to be documented in ancient medical literature, one of the first specifically documented outbreaks happen in the thirteenth century during the eighth. crusade. King Louis, the ninth lay siege to Tunis. Although there were plenty of ash fruits and vegetables available in the area. The king and his fighting force were mostly eating fish and many were also undertaking religious fasts, the king and about a sixth his men died of disease during the siege for time. Their deaths were attributed to plague, but more recent research has found evidence of scurvy in the kings. Jawbone, not after this scurvy started to become a serious problem on european ships during long civil ages and most of the literature that's related to scurvy in
three today is focused primarily on Europe and its colonies, mostly during the age of exploration, which was from about the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries. But of course, Europeans were not the only people taking to the sea at this point. That's possible that other nations aren't as represented an english language, literature because of language barriers or prejudice, but it also possible that scurvy was just not as much the problem outside of european fleets. Most of the time it takes between two months and twelve weeks without vitamin c for a person to develop scurvy and why Sailors from parts of Africa and Asia were taking voyages that lasted much longer than that overall often they were, going that long between stops to resupply. It also seems like may have been doing a better job at providing their crews with foods rich and vitamin c past podcast? Subject: Ibn,
Peter, who was from what's now Morocco and travelled extensively during the fourteenth century, described green vegetables, ginger being grown in tanks on chinese vessels. He also wrote about salted, ginger pepper. Men's and mangoes being loaded onto ships in preparation for long voyages. Another previous podcast subject is young, her, who led fleets of treasure from China all the way to Africa in the fifteenth century, and we don't have lists of exactly what provisions he took, but we do know that his fleets included huge supply vessels whose whole purpose was sustaining the voyage itself and that the ships had kitchens that prepared meals for crews and passengers. There are also multiple references to tee in relation to his voyages. Anti does contain some vitamin c for the most part written records of scurvy on chinese vessels. Don't really start
till the nineteenth century when people left China bound for California during the gold rush. But european ships were another story, especially as european ships crossed whole oceans. People's diets were often restricted salted meat and hardtack, and not much else quickly. Emmy vegetables grown on board were only for. The officers consequently has estimated that scurvy killed. Two million european sailors between the fifteenth century in the nineteenth century, which is when navies started to more consistently connect, scurvy prevention to things like citrus juice. During these centuries, scurvy was the leading cause of death among sailors at sea. It was also a major cause of death among enslaved Africans during the transatlantic slave Aid, although the details of that aspect have not been nearly as specifically documented as with ships, crews
we're to talk about some more specific scurvy information. After we first pause for a little sponsor break. This episode is brought you by best feed, feel like. You have already been watched just about everything this year. Well, let me suggest something better to do with your free time. It's called best fiends cleans, that's for without the are best fiends. It's the epic puzzle, game available to download for free via the app store or Google play best. Fiends is easy to play, but it really makes you think, and there are more than five thousand level so best scenes, a lot of ours of entertainment and there's nothing wrong with that. I mean you. Ve got a treat yourself and if winning a puzzle battle isn't totally up your alley, thus chill, because best fiends is, admittedly pretty darn adorable too, with best fiends, you get your choice, of which cute little insect. You wanna play the game,
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subcontinent that started in one thousand four hundred and ninety seven Ferdinand Magellan left Spain, with a fleet of five ships in one thousand five hundred and nineteen searching for a way to reach Asia from Europe by traveling West by sea. Eighteen of his of his original crew of two hundred and seventy made it back to Spain and fifteen twenty two with scurvy being a major cause of death. Here is how, when a Magellan crew described conditions in his journal quote. We ate only old biscuit. used to powder and full of grubs and stinking from the dirt which the rats had made on it when eating the good biscuit and we water that was yellow and stinking the men were so hungry that, if any of them caught a rat, he could sell it for
my price to someone who would eat it in one thousand, five hundred and thirty five french explorer Jacques Cartier established a fort across the St Charles River, from the iroquoian village of Static Ona, that's near. What's now Quebec City, that winter was extremely harsh. Cartier's ships became they were not able to return to France's planned and when they heard of an illness that was spreading through the indigenous population, they tried to cut off contact with them, but then that same illness started to spread through courteous own men in an account translated by Richard Hack, let its described as this quote. Some dinner lose their strength and could not stand on their feet. Then, did their legs swell their sinners shrink as black as any coal others also had all their skin spotted with spots of blood of purple. Color, then send up to their ankles knees, thighs, shoulders, arms and neck. Their mouths became stinking
gum so rotten that all the flesh It fall off even to the roots of the teeth, which also all fall out about the middle, February of a hundred and ten persons that we were there were not whole. There were our the eight dead and more than fifty sick and, as we thought, passed all hope of recovery. So at some point, Cartier went for a walk and encountered Domo Gaia, who was the son of Don Corner? Who was the chief of static honour, dumb, a guy? It's hold Cartier about a treatment for this disease, which was to prepare a tea from the leaves of a local treat. This tree is not conclusively identified today, but the most likely candidate of the EU White Cedar, whose leaves always contain some vitamin c, but have a whole lot more of it in the new growth that comes out in the early spring, although at least twenty five men and the fort died of scurvy, this cure was effective for the ones who survived
there is a core, of course, a whole lot more to this story outside the part about scurvy Cartier, actually abducted d Gaia and his brother on his earlier voyage and force them to accompany him back to France, bringing them back. North America with him and fifteen thirty five and at the end of his voyage Cartier, abducted them for a second time, along with their father and seven other indigenous people but one of them died before Cartier return to North America for his third voyage. In one thousand five hundred and forty one, probably the most dramatic and notorious outbreak of scurvy at sea was during George. Since, for your voyage, around the world which started in seventeen, forty written was at war with Spain,
and because the war Anthon had a serious labour shortage. Even press gangs who were abducting man off the street to force them to serve in the royal Navy could not provide him with enough men for its fleet. Eventually, this gap was filled with men from Chelsea Hospital, most of whom were sick injured. Elderly to the point that they weren't able to just leave on their own when they got released from the hospital. The people who did have the capacity to just walk away did that so he was left with like the old thickest Ben from a hospital, and then there were delays in outfitting, the ships and the crews. Eight thing, but ships rations four months as they waited and well we're treatments for scurvy on board. None of them contained much if any vitamin c, so they did not actually work for the most part they
also really unpleasant. Like drinking a bunch of straight vinegar, I like vinegar and vinegar things, but the idea of just go up and down a whole bunch of it does not sound great to me hard pass once they finally got underway. They sailed through terrible storms and were blown off course by April of one thousand seven hundred and forty one most of the men who had survived those treacherous seas, developed scurvy. By June, they were down from six ships to only three, with only three hundred thirty five survivors out of about thirteen hundred original crew. Finally, they reached the wand, Fernand as islands off the coast of Chile aim. These were onto plenty of fresh fruits and edge tables and as the ship's took on fresh provisions and the men eight these foods they gradually began to recover
because their conditions were so dire when they started getting more vitamin c into their bodies. It actually took more than a month before men stop dying of scurvy Anselm's dwindling fleet was struck by scurvy again in the Pacific Ocean in the summer of one thousand, seven hundred and forty two so obviously after they had run out of the fresh provisions that they brought on board with his two remaining ships. Finally, to China, there were only two hundred and twenty seven of the original crew still living. In spite of that, they manage to capture a spanish galleon that was bound for Manila on June twentieth of seventeen. Forty three and then with a homely, a hundred and forty five of the original men. They made it back to Britain because they had kept. The spanish galleon, they were treated as heroes with treasure from the galleon paraded through the streets London and Anson
First, Lord of the admiralty, and one thousand seven hundred and fifty one got this point. I mean it might seem a little weird for the person he was in charge when all of these people died. So then becomes the first Lord of the admiralty. But at this point, european naval officials have long seen scurvy as an almost inevitable side effect of sending men out to sea for long periods, and they really did not know what was going on with this disease. They did not know about vitamin c or about vitamins at all. It would be more than a hundred and fifty more years before Casimir Funk would coined the word vitamin to describe specific chemical substances that the body needed to survive. They did not know about Kyle either. Molecular structure of colleges was not discovered until the mate team thirties complicating all of this diet that lacked vitamin c, often lack the other essential nutrients as well and outbreaks of scurvy.
frequently happened alongside outbreaks of contagious diseases.
So I wasn't always clear exactly what disease was at work, then often multiple conditions were getting lumped together and described as scurvy. So over the centuries, various people noticed that an assortment of foods seem to care scurvy. Sometimes they did put that discovery in writing, but it took a really long time before navies started consistently keeping effective treatments for it on ships. This was not just a matter of people forgetting that citrus fruits cured scurvy, though it is definitely described that way, sometimes like people kind of frame it as people in the past were great big dummies who just kept forgetting that, although needed was oranges and hindsight, it is really easy to see that the things that treated scurvy effectively all have vitamin c on them. But at the time not only did people not know why any of those things actually worked, but their explanations for why they worked
totally off base. So as people tried to come up with cures, there were easier to keep fresh on ships than fruits and vegetables. Are it just kept going down the completely wrong track? Often James Lynde is the one who gets credit for solving the scurvy problem, but its of course history. So that means way more complicated than that and we're gonna get into Oliver. After we pause for a sponsor break, I wear them so. The pack you down were excited to check out the new. Content series from Ford Motor Company titled. who power America forward. Women accustomed to putting out fires at home in our work Queen a new name, who is a deputy fire chief broken down barriers and risen through the ranks of the male dominated fire. Fighting industry, where it is about that, and what it feels like to constantly have to prove yourself. We are
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for hundreds of years, medicine in Europe rested on the idea of humours, and this drew from greek physicians and philosophers like Galen and hypocrisy tease. It also appears in the work of person. Polly Math Encina, similar concepts are part of traditional chinese medicine and aggravated as well and in terms of the understanding of scurvy and much of Europe for hundreds of years it was believed to be due to pewter. A faction of the humours then, that future faction was made worse by bad food, bad air, bad hygiene or sometimes just laziness, and there were a lot of people who figured out something that work to treat this in fifteen before about Duennas RON. Cs wrote about oranges, curing scurvy in dutch sailors in the late sixteenth century
Henrik lawyer wrote about cloud berries, treating scurvy in nor sailors and sixteen seventeen John would all published a reference book called the surgeon mate or military and domestic surgery discovering faithfully and plainly, you method and order of YE surgeons, chest uses of the instruments, the virtues and operations of new medicines with the exact cures, wounds made by gunshot and otherwise as namely wounds oppose fumes, ulcers, Fistulae fractures, dislocations, with a most easy and safest ways of amputation, or dismembering the curse of this scurvy of e fluxes of your belly of your colic and Elio Patio. TED ask them ass, an exodus Anna and of the column tour, with a treatise of YE cure of YE plague published for the service of his master and of the Commonwealth
by John, would all MR in surgery as that very long title mentioned it have entire section on scurvy and its treatment I think we should bring back the days where we basically include the index in the title, and I looked at the table of contents for it and it at one point. I had the table of contents for what the section on scurvy included in here, but it was really just like scurvy its description, its treatment there. What else descriptions of scurvy are similar to what we talked about earlier in the show and ass for its cure? He wrote that quote as affair this writer named Johannes acquiesce in a treatise discord Bhutto, a firmer, consistent, chiefly in four things, namely opening obstructions, evacuating the offending humours, in
during the property of them and in comforting an corroborating, the part sleep. Diseased, would all stresses the need to keep the crews quarters clean and sweet with as much high quality comfortable food as possible. But if so, does get scurvy. They should be bled and given some quote pills of you, four p m or otherwise PAMELA Roughy or Cambodia, and then, after that, some spoon, meat or some oatmeal or egg yoke or abroad of currents and other fruit. Some sugar or spices, or some barley, water or some ill of vitriol, which is Self Europe acid, or putting some dried wormwood in the patient's drink and then quote further. The surgeon or his mate must not fail to persuade the governor or purser and all places where they touch in the Indies and my
to provide themselves of juice of oranges, limes or lemons, and banned them of tamarinds in the surgeons What all makes lots of references to citrus fruit, but he's really fast used on when cruiser in places where those fruits grow, because quote the sea. Surgeon shall do little good at sea with them. Neither they endure. He had step about citrus fruit in here, but is really about when they were on land, and he also included so many other things that would not have been. at all the oil vitriolic
very common scurvy treatment, literally sulfuric acid. It was that was not helpful in one thousand six hundred and twenty two Sir Richard Hawkins, who called scurvy quote the plague of the sea and the spoil of mariners, wrote that sour lemons and oranges could treat it and one thousand six hundred and thirty, five and brosious rhodius defended and published the first scandinavian doctoral thesis and it was on scurvy. It describes treating scurvy with scurvy grass, common chickweed watercress mustard plants and the cloudberries that we mentioned earlier on in the show, Ambrose is Rodya, did seem to understand that scurvy was connected to nutrition, but his ideas on how that worked were a little bit fuzzy. It was connected to the idea of cancelling out opposites. She were by the late hundreds of people were using the word antiscorbutic to describe things. They believed to be useful against scurvy.
Dutch physician, Johan his box from used the term to describe fresh fruits and vegetables in seventeen thirty four also in the eighteenth century The baron, Gerhard VON Sweden, talked about scarcity of green, vegetables as contributing to scurvy, but he s attributed it to quote: noisome vapours arising from marshy grounds and stagnating waters, inaction, drinking of corrupt. and stagnating waters. The use of salted and hoped, flesh and fish Dan Angelo lodgings as well,
sorrow, nostalgia and homesickness according to you than Sweden treatment? First scurvy involved quote correcting the impure waters and also purging. He also made dietary recommendations quote the food should be broth with servile sorrel, spinach Letteth on these secretary cabbage, especially red cabbage young nettle, buds and tops, or any other sort of tender herbage boiled in it. The preference to be given to those easiest to come at fruit, quite ripe used moderately, always produces a good effect, but if neither fruit nor dreams can be procured The patient must have his broth with barley, oats or rice. He may eat likewise a little veal or foul, but it must be moderately. So a lot of people had noted fresh fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits, as a treatment for scurvy by the time,
Kingsland had entered the British Royal Navy as a surgeon's mate in one thousand, seven hundred and thirty nine, he became a full surgeon in one thousand. Seven hundred and forty six He was aboard the HMS Salisbury in one thousand seven hundred and forty seven when there was an outbreak of scurvy Linstead, an experiment which is sometimes described as the world's first controlled clinical trial. He selected twelve sailors. All of him had scurvy that he described as being at a similar point of progression and he paired them up and he gave each pair a different treatment. Over the course of two weeks
These were treatments that already existed for scurvy, except for seawater, which was apparently more of a placebo, don't drink seawater. It's not a good plan, but these these pairs were each given a quart of cider per day. Twenty five drops of elixir of vitriol three times a day: half a pint of seawater a day, a nutmeg sized paste of garlic, mustard seed, horseradish balsam of Peru and gum murmur, three I am today to spoonfuls of vinegar three times a day or two oranges and one lemon. Each day I mean I might opt for. The vote makes size paste of garlic But that's just speak me. trying to do than any of the men who were insider improved somewhat, because the way cider was made at the time it probably did have some vitamin c in it, but the two
and who got oranges and lemons improved so dramatically that they were determined to be well after six days and from that point they actually help take care of the others. While he was writing about this land referenced about Duennas, rosiak, writing about oranges, curing dutch sailors from like two hundred years before and he said quote here indeed- is the remarkable and authentic proof of the great efficacy of juice of lemons against this disease. But these fruits have this particular advantage above any theory that can be prepared for trial, that their experienced virtues have stood the test beer two hundred years, Lind left the Navy in one thousand seven hundred and forty eight and one thousand seven hundred and fifty three, he wrote a treatise of the scurvy. Containing an inquiry into the nature causes and cure of that disease together critical. In chronological view of what has been published on the subject, and while his did include the sentence,
quote oranges and lemons, were the most effectual remedies for this distemper. It see that was only tiny part of a four hundred page work that talked about a lot of other stuff related discovery. For example. He did not There was a direct cause and effect relationship between the fruit and the scurvy. He actually, scurvy was digestive disease that was caused by blocked, sweat, glands and that the fruit and, to a lesser extent the cider we're all clearing those blockages, and we also thought that other blockage, clearing substances- could potentially have the same effect. Lynde also recognise that you cannot really just keep citrus fruits fresh on a ship for a lengthy sea voyage, so he recommended concentrating the juice and sewer rob, but because of the way that Rob was concentrated, the end result would
I have actually contained much vitamin c at all. I'm I'm thinking of people who drink orange flavoured drink and make jokes about not getting scurvy like, there's not really much or yeah over the next decades. Other people writing about citrus fruits and scurvy attributed their effectiveness to there being a stimulant or because They were full of eight vital are air that was reaching out of sailors bodies at sea. Irish doktor, David Mcbride tested malt warts, which he believed provided fixed air as scurvy, meant, although his results were clouded by the fact that he also gave some his patience citrus fruit and other person who claims to conquer scurvy with Captain James
and although there were some scurvy outbreaks on his voyages, there weren't any deaths because of it. His preferred scurvy preventives were portable soup, which was basically bully on powder, which I am calling portable soup from now on, as well as malt and sauerkraut, and of those three things. Only the sauerkraut would have contained much vitamin c as long as they were eating it raw. He also insisted on bringing fresh provisions onto the ship at every possible stop which would have kept them supplied more with fresh fruit. Vegetables, and he also insisted on keeping the ship really clean, which would have helped slow the spread of communicable diseases. Finally, after hundreds of years of various people suggesting that citrus might play some part in curing scurvy in seventy, be five Gilbert blame got the British Royal Navy to issue lemon juice to every sailor. This work to Britain's advantage
during the napoleonic wars and during the nineteenth century, more and more european explorers, enable official started, stressing the need for lemon or lime juice, or for some kind fresh vegetables on board in seen twenty one, William Parrys expertise, to the Arctic took quote a shower trade filled with mould on which to grow, mustard and cress, and their parties only death from scurvy was in office, who refuse to eat them. Sir John Franklin's Expedition and in forty five kept scurvy at bay. For twenty seven months with lemon juice, with scurvy outbreaks, beginning
We, after that supply of lemon juice ram out. For the most part, the british Navy had started out using lemon juice made from women's from the Mediterranean to prevent scurvy amid nineteenth century. They instead started using limes from the caribbean islands of Montserrat and Bermuda part of the rash. Now here was the idea that lime juice was more acidic and with the be more effective in clearing out purported blockages results, because Britain had claimed those islands as territories, so there was, they can get things from them. That was a free asset in their minds for sugar through them, is the very very important part of that phrasing, but Skirt outbreaks kept happening in other places. Besides european navies, scurvy was a problem, during the great famine that started in Ireland in eighteen, forty five, which would later lead people to incorrectly conclude that it was connected to potassium deficiency.
when pasture relation was introduced in the late nineteenth century, there was break of scurvy in babies whose families were wealthy enough to be feeding them. Pasteurized milk in the early 20th century researchers at the Lister Institute in London realized that guinea pigs could develop a condition that seems identical to Kirby, as we mentioned up at the top of the show. Guinea pigs also cannot synthesize their own vitamin c axles. Hulst and theater froehlich discovered that if the guinea pigs were fed only grains, they became ill, but then, if they were given cabbage or lemon juice, they got better. They publish their work on this in one thousand nine hundred and seven, and then five years later and ninth
well, was when Casimir Funk acquainted, the term Vita mean which later morphed into vitamin. At this point, the Lister Institute was doing a lot of research into nutritional deficiencies with many of the researchers being women at the institute. Harriet, chick and Margaret Hume started identifying more and more foods that had antiscorbutic properties, including cabbage, onions, carrots, fruit juices and potato
was Alice, Henderson Smith also researched, exactly which fruits had historically been used in british Navy treatments and their efficacy by the nineteen twenties. It was clear that scurvy was a deficiency any specific nutrient, but nobody has been able to isolate the nutrient itself. Then, in nineteen, twenty eight Albert sent Georgie isolated a compound in paprica, but he named hacks your on EC acid, but it was later renamed, acerbic acid, because of its whole antiscorbutic effect and nineteen thirty seven. He was awarded the Nobel Prize and Physiology or medicine quote for his discoveries in connection with the vile
coal, combustion processes with special reference to vitamin c and the catalysis of remark acid today, it is, of course, common knowledge that vitamin c prevent scurvy, but it can still develop any time. People cannot get enough vitamin c yeah it's! I read lots of articles about various outbreaks in various places, for everything, from like refugee camps, where their interests are not adequate provisions to like fad diets where people have tried to cut all fruit out of their diet, latest Allah replaced. You know, as we set up a tablet, so people who have whether it's a physiological conditions in or psychological condition who either are able to eat or are able to absorb nutrients from their food lots of cases still happen today.
Do you also have a little bit of listener? Mail that may or may not contain vitamin c? I do have some listen to mail. The person is actually super super quick, a listener. Tweet. In the episode on Vivien Thomas I had said, I was not sure why he was given an honorary doctorate of laws. Instead of an honorary medical, right. Now we got a sweet, firm Randy. You said the M d degree has never given an honorary status, as it confers the ability to apply for a medical licence. Doktor of laws of doktor of humane letters may be given in its place depending on the institution. That is a thing that had occurred to me as the possible reason when I was researching, but that I saw that there were people who had gotten honorary embassies and it occurred to me only after reading Randy's tweet, that those people were probably already doctors thither
because it has been a very long year right. I also got an email from dust in. He wrote an after our episodes on Jim Thorpe to talk about the the amateur athletes requirements in the Olympics and so destined wrote, Holly and Tracy. I want to start by saying that, although I have not been listening to your pod casper long, I absolutely love it cover a wide variety of interesting people from so many different fields of interest, and you always have interesting commentary as he narrate us through these lives. I appreciate your research in the details you bring in from different biographies or other sources, while listening, to your first, though, perhaps not last three partner on Jim Thorpe. That really have me riveted, the hallway, through I was wondering about when the Olympics changed as it clear, now allows professional athletes to compete. Furthermore, after some of your other list formula decided the programme myself and share what I found with you. So it was not
one thousand nine hundred and seventy one that the IOC removed the rule requiring amateurism what's most interesting was that it was not a result of the deal is rising. Amateur sports and the blurring line between the amateur improve level which you spoke about in the podcast according What I read it have largely to do with Eastern Bloc nations such as the USSR, sponsoring their best prose and listing them as soldiers to skirt the rules. Essentially, the Soviets cheated Pembroke, the rules and the process, the next step, with the adoption and the law of the Amateur Sports ACT of nineteen. Seventy eight also known as the TED Stevens ACT name for the? U S senator who introduced it, has established the? U S Olympic Committee and allowed them to create additional national governing bodies for each sport, such as? U S, figure skating in the United States, Fencing Association is bodies, are basically use to select olympic team members and govern the amateur competitions in these sports on side note. The act requires these en GB
it is to be at least twenty percent voting representation to include active athletes completed within the last ten years. Ensuring the athletes have some say and the way their sports are formed keeping a head tiny bit. So this wasn't necessarily a response to the factors of increased rigour at the amateur level, but, spurred on by the same issues of soviet state, sponsored athletes having an upper hand as well as the issues with the EU. As the Alps customer podcast, a you had made some questionable decisions regarding the rules they had in place, and the ways in which these rules were interpreted and enforced. So there is the more detail and email from there. I had not looked more deeply in how the amateur definitions and requirements had had developed following Jim Thorpes time in the Olympics,
No. There is still so many other social and and representative issues going on in the world of sports, and it is fascinating to me that how how much of that was related to not exactly internet politics, but having like grown up in the tail end of the Cold war era, is like I get. That makes a lot of sense so anyway, thank you, so much destined for poking into all that. Sending us what you ve found If anyone else, I would like to write to us about this or any other broadcast we're at its three podcast that I heard radioed outcome and we are all over social media at Missus history. Mr you'll find our Facebook contrasts Twitter and Instagram, and you can subscribe to our show on Apple podcast, and I heard radio APP enemy, wealthy vodka supplements the district class, the production, I heard radio for more pod cap, for my heart rate
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Transcript generated on 2020-12-30.