« Stuff You Missed in History Class

SYMHC Classics: Skellig Michael

2021-03-13 | 🔗

Today, we revisit a December 2017 episode about Skellig Michael. This small island off the west coast of Ireland recently became a film star, but Skellig Michael has a rich history all its own.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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The money in your car insurance is easy, with progressive. It's an average savings of over seven hundred fifty dollars for customers who switch and save. In fact, customers can qualify for an average of six discounts on their auto policy with progressive, including discounts just for starting a quote online or having multiple vehicles on their policy. Get your quote online a progressive dot com and see how much you could be saving national annual average, auto insurance savings by new customer service in twenty nineteen potential saving. Will very discounts very and are not available in all states and situations. happy Saturday, everybody, Saint Patrick, stays just around the corner. We always get it As for irish history, we ve decided to pull a little bit out of an archive. This is episode, unskilled Michael and alone, We chose this episode because Schelling Michael's uses a star wars, filming location,
also the sight of one of Ireland's early christian monastic sites. This episode originally came out December. Sixth, twenty seventeen so enjoy welcome stuff, you missed in history class, a production of Iheart radio. Hello, unwelcome upon cast I'm hardly fry and I'm forty feebly wealth of Europe, STAR Wars, SAM and, frankly, even if you're, not you have only seen themes of Luke Skywalker in the force awakens and in promotional material. So the last at I, where he and eventually re or standing on an island with ancient, Looking structures on it. That is a real island. That's another set in those structures are also not sets that were built for the film. They are part of a real in that his ancient Schelling my goal, the island removes scenes were shot, is a hiss
we're excite with a fascinating history. All its own is also got paid him. A nice juxtaposition. because a big chunk of its history is I told her and then there's a newer history of some of the more modern things and build on the island, so since I have star wars, rabies and, like you, barely manage to contain myself while away from last night a premiere and because this really is a legitimately very, very interesting historical site. I thought it might funded delve into this location in its rich history, for the pond casts here If you were concerned based on an times that we said the last jet. I we're not going be talking about anything in the movie at all on island at all. There are no limits, all the star wars talk except a story about filming at the end Senate. Even that has nothing to do we're not going to spoil anyone anything related to star wars, star wars you would have had to have not gone to see the force awakens. Yet for that to have been a spoiler
Yes, I don't know- maybe I'll bet this point. If you haven't got to see the force awakens then I would have to have been in media black out because it appeared on so many lake, magazine covers television, shows no interviews are often inner cut. If see them on television was shots of this island. So it's I don't think we're giving anything away. I feel confident that we have skirted any threatened here is where I think, if you have not yet seen force awakens you probably don't care, about star wars, spoilers re, none of which mere. Anyway. We are literally just talking about the history of this one of the very clear, very aim Scully, Michael is one of two islands that make up the Schelling islands. The word Schelling derived from the irish word for steep rock and then the other island is the smaller one of the two. It's called little island when it's closed.
there is sometimes it also sees scaling Michael called the great Schelling yet also you'll see it spelled in various different ways, were going with kind of the most basic globally, facings vowing. That gets used a lot. It's probably the Americans spelling. That's just the scoop on that. If you see a spell the different way, that's why Hence going my goal is seven miles at eleven point. Six kilometers west of the edge of Ireland's ever a peninsula in county carry highest. Elevation of the island is seven hundred and fifteen feet. That's about two hundred and eighteen metres this island is tie me. It is less than a square mile in area. So if you do hectares twenty nine, twenty one point: nine hectares, the Minister for ART heritage and the girl Taft OWN Schelling. My go on behalf of the irish people, and there's also a lighthouse and support buildings for the lighthouse on the southern end of the island, as well as a hella pad and
portion of the island falls outside of the ownership arrangement mentioned above will give a little bit more into that in a bit. The Article make up of scowling Michael, is: what's called old red sandstone sedimentary layers of rock deposited somewhere between three hundred sixty and three hundred seventy four million years ago during the devonian period, when Ireland was part of a much larger continent western most european instance of Devonian, Saint Sandstone, which can be found throughout Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and Greenland. It's also importance of Canada. Schelling, Michael, also has two twin peaks: Valley in the middle, which has come to be known. As Christ's saddle. Hell, a path that we mention briefly is for emergencies, only that's not a standard way to get on and off the island or special cases.
So from the middle of May two September, visitors may travel to Schelling my goal, but only by boat, and it is for Davies's exclusively, and I should also mention that, sometimes if they have had damage in the winter, they will shorten that window. The visitors can come tourists also cannot stay overnight on the island and therein amenities basically do you for a little while and you get back on the boat you leave. the island is also designated a statutory nature reserve, so no animal visitors are allowed and no trash can be left behind the animals most commonly benefit from the Islands reserve status are birds seeber often nest there during their respective breeding seasons. Schelling Michael is, that is one of the most important breeding grounds for birds in Ireland and for some species. It's one of the most important places in the world. The store petrol and makes sure water have some of their largest breeding groups on the island and also homesick puffins, which I love and care
among others. Pilgrim Falcon, also nest there, although not every year- and there are a few minutes- on the island as well including gray, feels house mice and rabbit Also of interest in terms of its natural make up is the like in that grows. On Schelling Michael there, actually one hundred and twenty different species of lichen found on tiny rocky island and to like him, COLA's fungi, that's enough to classify it as a nationally important site for liken growth based conservation study that was conducted in two thousand and nine to get to you The human made structures Scully, though, is also home to a monastery that was built hundreds of years ago and we're going to get into the history of that and more detailed descriptions of the monastery and just a bit, but it first first we're gonna talk about how it exists there today, the sun,
it has two different segments and the first is the monastery itself which is built on the Islands EAST side high up on sloping areas of rock them. history, has three access points, all of which involve navigating a lot of steps. A lot of steps, they actually say in the visit. the visitors stuff that you may read like the visitors adviser he's sick. Please don't Coventry are ready to take on like six hundred steps, because it is vigorous work, and it's not there's not an easy way up. There's like us that there are no amenities, there's no elevator, bigger, no cheer lives. You know to handle. yourself. steps are really amazing because their cut from the rock of the island from the landing point where you would first step foot on the island up to the highest point where water can possibly reach and then, above that height, the steps can t you, but from now on there made of dry stone masonry. This
fractures within the monastery included church to oratorios, seven beehive cells water cisterns and assessed Terry and locked, which I have also heard irish people say Lee ACT, lacked the square or rectangular structure built with layers of stones, but no mortar, while they have found at a number of irish early christian monastic sites. Their function is an entirely clear. There have been several theories, including that they may have marked graves of important, wholly people or were used to house relics or had some sort of social spiritual function, and there are also two large garden terraces and retaining walls which form the foundation of the entire site. The second air of construction is separate from the monastery itself on ledges of the South peak its composed of sex structures and including an oratory alter lacks an waters. The stones step,
cut out of the rock provide access to these structures, which are described in archaeological strata, graphic report written in twenty eleven as daringly constructed eggs. feel that way about everything on Scully, Michael, it's so beautiful, but I don't know that I am its target visitor because hoping spend the whole time screaming and feared that I would just fall. It's all very steep. That name is apt. Gonna, go a little bit deeper into talking about those daring structures that Tracy just mentioned and where they fit into the island's history, but first we're gonna pause for a quick sponsor break the boar first step. He missed in history glass, from Lord Jones makers of the world's finest dvd products featured in the New York Times. People vote vanity, fair and more there's a reason. So many people are talking about Lord Jones. Not only was Lord Jones, one of the first premium
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The first known reference to scowling Michael, goes all the way back to seventeen hundred BC. Ie is reference the place where the prince Error- fifth son, of malicious died when his ship was separated from the rest of his fleet during a storm crash upon Iraq and sank this is, however, a folk Warwick account, so it remains unverified. Is another unverified story of scowling Michael set in the fifth century, in this instance after a conflict between the kings of castle in the kings of Munster, the king of West Monster theme, the walk sense, who have fled to Schelling, Michael and while this event is written as happen in the fifth century that a cow was recorded either the eighth or the ninth century sets. Its accuracy is hard to gauge. We know for certain based on the structures that we talked about earlier, the monks
into the island at some point, but exactly when that happened also isn't clear. The earlier estimates place it up a place. The start of the monastery somewhere in the sixth century, although it have been built it'll as late as the eighth century, when the earth is known. Reference to the monastery is an animal entry from the year eight hundred twenty four which describes a nurse raid on Schelling, Michael yeah, there's a lot of disparate accounts that that place that at different times, but somewhere in there. I think most people tend to favour the earlier thing, because a lot of the accounts they happen later on and we'll talk about it in a minute suggested. It was already functioning. The position of this monastery is actually quite well chosen at six hundred feet above sea level and where it sits. On the island and in relation to its peaks offer some natural shelter and it has played of stones to use in building the monks. Could access stone from there on the island to build these structures
and it enabled relatively easy water collection, so channels were cut into slope stone to direct water right in cisterns that they had placed in it. who primary cisterns that were used were built to hold roughly a hundred and twenty gallons. That's about four hundred and fifty leaders of water. We of the unique aspects of the monastery is the cell structures that are sometimes described as as be hives, he's hives are shaped, like inverted elliptical, Parabola Lloyd's, so not not be hives, like the flu, ones in boxes that are manufactured but the domed. Why the bees would actually build on their own yeah, or that you know sometimes people keep bees and baskets that are that shaped, like an inverted semi, domes or structure they doorway built into the front of each of them, and steps that lead in and out of the doors the beat
cells are all arranged along, the monasteries large oratory, but there are some differences among them, and the cells are lettered for identification. Yeah engine for clarity. The cell letter order does not in any way pertain to their age order, which I was trying to explain this to to a friend and they got a little thrown by that. So just know that this, the Through the gene, is not in any way suggests that a came first them she was at the end. There was completely separate naming this system so sell a is the largest one actually has a second interior level and its believed to have been a communal space and it's quite low, at the base of the structure, the walls of Zella are one point, eight metres thick, so that's almost six feet Interior space is about fifteen by twelve point five feet. That's about four point, six by three point: eight metres and theirs
interior height of sixteen feet about five meters cells b in sea or smaller thereabout, two thirds the site so a cell de is actually no longer intact, but it was probably the oldest sell on the site. Probably collapse before cell see was completed. ie is bigger than b and c, but smaller than a like a word problem. But as a team cell ass, Smaller in size to be in sea when and how these interior slabs that are arranged in a manner that suggests that might have been a sleeping area. These cells were bill. at various points in time and they aren't homogenous and their size as noted or in the way the stone work is done yet pretty clear. Instead, they were worked on at various points in time. So it's it's me Some number of years there is a central church at the monastery that is Saint Michael's and, if
actually collapsed and what would have been its roof, which would have had made of wood, is long gone. The appears also to have not been built all at the same time, but in two different stages. The second one to expand on what was a fairly small church that was built in the first phase, while a prominent in it, impressive aspect of the monasteries design is it retaining walls. They have experienced multiple structural failures throughout the life of the site, beginning when it was still occupied, the walls of and focus of a lot of conservation and preservation work over the years. Yeah. They're amazing, in that they really are holding up all of this man made structure, but they definitely are bearing the weight that man restructure and, as a consequence, sometimes big time they break cells, don't really get
whilst a really get tired. I now nobody needs tell me, but they were so. The daring structures that we reverenced a little while ago make up what's come to be called the hermitage, and so in the modern era, these men, structures on Schelling, Michael South peaks. Their little bit away from the others were first referenced, eighteen, forty one mapping survey, and then they made another appearance on record in the eighteen. Fiftys, when Lord done Raven visited the island in wrote of having seen the ruins of a quadrangular building there this, peak. Ruins were noted again by visiting scholars and nineteen fifties, but it actually wasn't until the nineteen eighties that stuff if the site was ordered by the Office of public works. There are three heiresses that make up the hermitage there's a garden and dwelling terrorist. That's forty three feet. That's about thirteen metres long their ranges and whipped from six point five to thirteen feet, which two to four metres wide
the end of the terrorists, which includes a section of the retaining wall about five feet or one metres high and that remains intact. The other end of it, though, has collapsed. The oars or a terrorist sits at a right angle to the garden and dwelling terrace in its about thirteen feet as four metres higher up on the peat on this here. It is a small oratory with an interior space of seven point: five by six point five feet, two point: three by two meters. terrorist extends far pass the oratory to the east, although it is quite a narrow sort of terrorists that you're you're on that point, The oratory terrorist, the outer terrace, used to be reachable via traverse that was chiseled from the stone by the monks. but in modern times at the place, that's really best visited by skilled climbers and no one else. It's treacherous to navigate the ledges that you have to move across its, not clear. If that outer terrorists was ever completed, an it's also knock there. What its function was yeah, why
A brief news real of a team that was going up when they were doing some preservation investigation and it's like low We found handheld like their looked eagerly sickly, just scaling up the rock face until they actually found something that a human could stand on. So it is not just some you'd, go here like to go there. I thought it again not a place that I should maybe visit, because it looks terrifying some time before the early eleventh century. The island monastery was dedicated to Saint Michael say, Vietnam, is also closely tied to the history of the monastery and may have been its founder he's. Often reference does the founder, but again it's all a little unclear methods of the late wealth century indicated the settlement was occupied and having regular mass at that point, but soon after thirteenth century. Shifting church structure in Ireland and increased instances of income at whether on and around Ireland led the the
I'm sorry to be abandoned. The monk who had been living. There moved to the mainland village of balance, colleagues, and after that, wait, the monastery at Schelling Michael, was considered part of the balance colleagues monastery, yeah. But it wasn't really it's not believe to be occupied at that point, it is kind of was was noted as part of their their larger canoe organizational structure. but again like there had been a shift in climate than they. It really was not easy or safe to occupy that area any longer from the fort. Into the sixteenth centuries. The island appears on navigational charge that were used by both italian and burying seafarers. The monastery was officially closed in the sixteenth century with Henry the eighth dissolution of monasteries and it passed into private owners. by a family named Butler, the butler. we retained ownership of the island until eighteen, twenty one in November of eighteen, twenty J Butler was approached by the government's board of works about a permanent lease on the island.
two lighthouses could be built there and after some back in What legal experts investigating the situation determined that butlers legal ownership of the land was not clearly documented after an appraisal of the press, de the Butler S, Bay was paid. Seven hundred eighty pounds for Schelling, Michael and the commissioners of irish lights assumed ownership of it for a time. But the lighthouse is it just a moment, but first we're gonna pause and have another short sponsor. Break A cover starts with a calm Pennsylvania substance use disorder hotline staffed by real people who are train to help their here. Twenty four hours a day, seven days a week, they'll catch or your loved ones, into treatment, regardless of your access to insurance, or someone you know is suffering from addiction call one eight hundred six six to help covering starts with a calm paid for with Pennsylvania taxpayers dollars
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Construction of the two lighthouses scowling Michael began in August of eighteen. Twenty one better George Helpin, designed the buildings and roadway and oversaw initial construction neglect else. Road runs from the Upper Lighthouse sites, which is on the western side of the island south to the car, and then around the island, south and east edges to the east landing. There is no road along the northern shore of the island. There many records of the actual construction process, but both light houses were completed and induced by the end of eighteen. Twenty six tower of the two lights was nearly four hundred feet: that's a hundred twenty metres above the high water mark
The visibility range of twenty five miles or forty kilometres, the lower light, was a hundred seventy five feet or fifty three point three metres above the high water mark, with a visibility range of eighteen miles, Sir twenty nine kilometers were not moving lights. in a sad note in eighteen, sixty mine, so more than forty years into the lighthouse, his life small modern grave was added to the chapel at Schelling. Michael that point light housekeeper W Callaghan buried two of his while children there after both had died of an illness. He, then, wasted and was granted a transfer elsewhere, as he was concerned for the health of his remaining child. So there is one in of a modern I'm using the air quote since it was in the eighteen hundreds, but a modern grave there at the site, the upper I was in service for forty four years until it was the planted by another lighthouse north of the scottish islands in eighteen. Seventy,
the lower lighthouse has remained in use is still in use today, although there has been an update to it that will talk about in a moment ago. There is excellent couple of dates, but the office of Public works took possession of the monastery as a state guardianship in eighteen, eighty with the intent to repair them. Crumbling structures in this. Was an ongoing plan for conservation of the site in. one thousand nine hundred and nine the lower light House was renovated, updated with a rotating, more powerful light. The lower light in the original rubble masonry power remain and use for a hundred forty six years. It was a distinguished in nineteen, sixty six and a temporary lantern was erected, while an entirely new tower was built following year, the new lighthouses online boasting another upgrade to one point: eight million candles light in nice. Sixty nine Schelling Michael's telepath was constructed on the eastern coast of the island, hello pad
made of reinforced concrete and three very thick column support it off the cliff face. It is you're fighting as everything else similar till a cap on the cliff side, the open side of the hill, a pad. It is a one hundred and twenty one foot or thirty seven meter drop directly into the ocean and nineteen seventy eight scale Michael became the focus of a long term conservation project. At that point, retaining wall near the church. That's part of the monastery Saint Michael had experienced struck. rural failure and it was prioritized as the project's first order of business Additionally, steps that were leading up to the main entrance of the monastery also needed restoration, natural water erosion had claimed some of the lower sections that reach the water line and heavy use of these stairways during periods of lighthouse construction at all. Really damage. Some of the masonry aim only
one of the three stairways leading to the main monastery is currently accessible to visitors in nineteen. Eighty excavation work began at the site. About work, has continued for decades Snow Monument Service of Ireland, was responsible for these efforts That organisation has been part of various government departments over the years, but its work at Schelling Michael, has continued seasonably throughout all those reorganizations there's a narrow window winter. You can't really fear it do any sort of excavation you examine the ruins, because it is too cold nineteen eighty one project was completed that had begun and nineteen seventy eight to finally automate the lighthouse in Nineteen, eighty nine, the commissioners of irish lights, sold the island Schelling Michael to the state which was already the guardian of the monastery with you adoption of, the remaining active Whitehouse and its related structures. The commissioners of irish light still retain that lighthouse area and then Ninety ninety six Schelling Michael
a UNESCO World heritage site. On October, twenty, in two thousand one. That lighthouse was converted to solar power, a lamp chain which was done at the same time, reduce the lights reached ninety miles These old generators are still on hand for backup power into The term the Guess, I'm archaeological effort shifted to the lighthouse Road and intent thirteen seven tons of stone were brought to the island via military air, live to be used in the roads, restoration there. And to rescue operations, lots trimmed scowling, Michael to date, on October, twenty eight nineteen. steam, three of its light, housekeepers, helped rescue to boatloads of survivors from the Ss Marina for is a bridge. Cargo ship had been torpedoed by a German you bout, while eighteen and died and the attack more than a hundred were saved. The three key
were awarded one pounds from the Board of Trade and an additional guinea from Ss Marinas owner, but Donaldson line. Yet they each got that a word On February, twenty seventh nineteen, forty four an aircraft exploded in mid air after colliding with the highest peak of the island and falling in pieces into the water and british air. after an the lighthouse keepers of Schelling Michael executed, a search, but neither the wreckage nor any survivors were ever found unfortunately, the use of Schelling, Michael as a filming location, has been the source of some friction. Archaeology, spa, most voiced concerns about the safety of the monastery and Birdwatching Ireland, which is an independent conservation group. Criticized. Ireland's minister of arts for approving the use of the island is location about involving a third party specializing in conservation and bird habitat Assessment
Fortunately, those concerns were brought into sharp focus in twenty fourteen, when a helicopter on a site, scouting Flay caused a number of kittiwake nests to be disturbed. The down draft from the choppers propeller caused some of that six to be swept into the sea and they were killed by seagulls after this in everyone involved reassess the situation. Additional flights were cancelled filming schedulers was reviewed to avoid the primary kittiwake breeding breeding season. Although other birds still nesting on the island, paused continued concern on the part of bird Watch, Ireland, bird Ireland's point of view is that there was a breach in established Eu Protocol by doing it this way the office. of the Minister of arts remained insistent, though, that the European Union Habitats directive was upheld, so there's some disagreement on that point. Nor is there a few instances regarding skilling, Michael outside of this, where there is disagree about how restoration
has been handled or whether you know everything has been exe You did in the proper way into the letter of the law, and it usually everything I found just turns out to be a very similar back and forth of you. Did it wrong? No, we didn't. We did everything like this one, I agree with you. We think you're lying like that. Just goes on, and on and on so it's a little hard to pass out. Sir Michael Unbeknownst, to me the sight of much disagreement, but to end all of this on a more poetic note, it seems to mention the island as it was seen through the eyes of one of Ireland's most famous creative minds the night seem ten writer, George Bernard Shaw visited Schelling Michael, and it made a very strong impression. He later wrote the following quote, but for magic. That takes you out far out of this type In this world there is Schelling Michael ten miles off, carry toast shooting straight up, seven hundred feet, sheer out of the Atlantic. Whoever has stood in the graveyard and their beehive oratory. Does
no Ireland, through and through its lovely. It is very lovely thanks. George Bernard shall I much for joining us on this Saturday, since this episode is out of the archive? If you heard of email address or facebook url or something similar over the course, the show that could be obsolete now current email address is history. Podcast at I heart, radio dot com are old, helstone, firstly, email address no longer works. You can find us out for social media at missed in history, and you can submit to our shadow on Apple podcast, Google Podcast, the Iheart Radio APP, and wherever else you listen, the fog casts
Stop EMS than history class in the production of Iheart Radio, for more broadcasts from my heart radio visit by her radio abbot broadcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite, shows Did you hear people have parka. Michel laws exist, I'm Janine, Rubinstein host of peace every day a new Kathryn. My heart, radio and people these people magazine this act, like your visit join me every week day for a look at the stories driving the people newsroom their name sound, really good together, so that an important first step right, wild and styles we'll have the latest from Hollywood Gluesome interviews, I dream like, my name. Now, we're may prove allow and walk round naked and introduce you to people who are making a difference in their communities
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Transcript generated on 2021-03-14.