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SYMHC Live at NYCC: Rodolphe Töpffer and the First Comic Book

2017-10-16 | 🔗

Before there were superheroes, a Swiss teacher drew entertaining doodles for friends. As he developed his sketches into stories told with multiple captioned images, he inadvertently invented the first sequential art comics in the Western world.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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the man who is often credit as being the creator of the first comic book in the western world and we are definitely to get into all the qualifiers around that in the course of the show so it is a full episodes so let's operate in and hear it hello unwelcome over podcast unholy for nine tracy v wilson tracy humans have always communicated through pics citywide always always it goes back literally to the earliest known cave paintings and we have come to be is a species very acquainted with the idea of pictures in that tell a story sorry i know you are so entranced by my way through international voice but i did so with that that concept not just of pigs
but of pictures one after another telling a story like that started somewhere and one of the people that often lighted is the father of the modern comic book which he uses that pattern is rudolf tougher but before we talk about him actually have to talk about the fact that that title as father of the modern comic book comes many serious qualifiers first i'm tracy dimension when they came of what we are talking today that i did not include in this outlined you sure the by you tapestry very tells a story with a lot of pictures in a particular orders from a very long time ago i mean there's all kinds of pottery that's got stories ridden nodded and pictures and as mentioned earlier even previous podcast subject william hogarth sometimes actually gets a nod as the creek of sequential art elites in the stern world because of his print series it he did like a rakes progress zones on the boots and marriage alamode but while those features
stories that do play out over a series of successive images they re a full size print so it wasn't like a thing you could just looking the whole story at once the viewer to work their way like physically through room where they were hung or in a big huge folio style book where they would have to flip each page today you can scroll down correct co existence of it on the internet with the much smaller but at the time it was a big galleries situation so we don't were actually cited hogarth as an influence in this his writing his visual storytelling human and in particular the series called industry and idle nets which was published in seventeen forty seven and we didn't talk about that specific one in our previous episode about the life of hogarth of businesses of twelve prince i'm a little saddened by the top they were intended to give working children a sense not of how
right get better one day and maybe we would have child labour laws and stuff but of how important the hard work and mindfulness to duty are and then ignoring the importance of ones of those things would invite life of misfortune keeper working kids it's good for you super good for you and it's actually no mistake that tougher singled out that particular series because it other hogarth series it we mentioned are makes progress and marriage alamode had actually both things it has a series of paintings before they were then turned into engravings for mass production but we in was a little bit different in that it had been made with the intent of mass production from the start presumably because so many working children really needed these lessons and it was passed to market to a wide on it so is price not to be great art but to be something consumed by middle and lower classes and as tougher was not
here which will talk about why and he did eventually position his own work in a similar way like i should qualify then say he did some paintings but that wasn't really his vocation as learn but made sense that he would choose industry in idleness something that was purposely intended for what range consumption as the item of william hogarth work that he would write about the first of these is not the only person in all of western art history that had this sort of series of so you could even say that the ceiling of the sistine chapel is a form of sequential art because it's a series of pictures that are telling a story but i mean that obviously not a book he taught turn page the sistine chapel ceiling but there is a narrative its being communicated in the artwork and narrative comical are in asia has been traced as far back as scrolls attributed to priests named toby soldier in the eleventh century and the hokosa among which was first published in the early tea periods are examples of sketches hook aside which can be narrowed
in a similar way but they're kind of group donna on one thing together they dont separate out with frames they had more of this free form wrote to conveying the story so there weren't frames as i said there weren't captions we're going to talk about those kinds of concepts though in this episode and they did though eventually integrate both things into monger of course some more modern examples that sometimes come up as the origin of sequential art and comics include the popular strip the kid which ran at the end of the nineteenth century and newspapers and the united states the yellow kid was influential particularly in popularization of word balloons to convey dialogue so you know comics have a whole visual language to them without being one part of that language i'm just gonna draw word balloons with my hand apparently and tougher work though predated by the yellow kid several decades and combined other comic elements that we would recognise today
the yellow kid was also one of the first things it was actually used as a merchandising opportunity there is you can get all the yellow kid everything when it was popular that's a nice things that i actually would love to do is another episode one day but making case forgiving top for his share of the credit in creating this genre we're going to do to the words of a prolific greater when it comes to discussing comics as a medium and that is scott macleod and in his book you're standing comics he wrote the father of the modern in many ways is resolved hopper whose light satirical picture stories starting in the mid eighteen hundreds employed cartooning panel borders and teacher the first in the combination of words and pictures seen in europe and even the term sequential art didn't exist when topper was alive that phrase was actually coined by will eyes and her more than a century later nineteen eighty five publication comics than sequential art so
stably at this point that there really is in just one person that we can give all the credit to you for the genesis of the comic book ending urging that we are definitely focusing on sequential art in the western world we're going to start in on the life of this one may who was and arguably a huge part of creating this genre that we all know today as comic books and thus comecon why we're all here well why some of us are here so its was born on january thirty first seventeen ninety nine in geneva switzerland his father the votes item adam adams and normal word i can say i mean you can see shut up i'm in asia father was volts gang atom tat for me was a german painter who had moves to switzerland and then made that his home the man
here in new york actually has some of his paintings in their collection but they're not currently display you can see them on the internet though yet the mets website has if i'm remembering correctly it's like a painting and sketch maybe a painting into pencil sketches but you can see his dad's work and redoubles was almost a phrase that i mentioned an entry sumida quizzical puppy face he was almost uniquely completely swiss and the reason that i chose that phrasing is because he stayed in geneva pretty much his entire life he didn't even travel very much he just loved being there he went to paris briefly his voice for school in the nineteen nineteen nineteen twenty school year but that was really only time he'll have geneva for any length that all he would occasionally short excursion trips to heighten the alps close to home but that was its view that anybody yet he was not a big world we're not even a europe traveller even though is all very close by
he also had poor eyesight and it was while he was away at school that it was recognised that this poor eyesight was degenerative eye disease so he i've been interested in art and hid wanting to do are from an early age and he thought vision problems meant that he wouldn't be able to follow and his father's professional footsteps so he turned interests to literature although he kept catching and so because this vision was really poor he developed a very fast and casual way of drawing which actually enabled him to capture moments idea and ideas really quickly in a visual form using i mean a very small number of strokes and working a little bit about why he ended up pricing that simplicity in terms of his drawing style later on as he turned it into more of a profession but offers schooling led him to a career in education so he said teaching in eighteen twenty two and heat
in a number of boys schools in geneva over the course of the next couple of years not long into his career as an educator though he struck out on his own and he found his own boarding school in eighteen twenty four he had me married a woman named am friends was i wrote down how to say this had married a woman named an francoise lung yea the previous year and then of them eventually had four children together even though rudolf was invested in his teaching career he never stopped crafting stories either in writing or by sketches and he would take these hiking trips summer with his students caesar his brief little sojourns into the alps from cool and then he would kind of make a diary of them in words pictures with his own story embellishments and these accounts were actually the beginning of the vote story telling that would eventually led to his sequential art and doing this really fill a void in his life he continued to develop visual stories basically as a hobby and offered
creative outlet that being a teacher in an administrator didn't really sometimes team twenty seven you started drawing images in sequence with captions to tell the stories and he's sharing his work with other people which at first was all he really intended to do just gonna handed around to his friends just wanted to amuse himself and his friends and students in a creative way and we're gonna talk about a pretty major figure who actually encourage this educator start publishing his picture stories and kind of creating new career for el but before we do that we're gonna pause for little sponsor break luke episode of stuff you missed in history class is brought to you by w w formerly wait watchers they have a new might be to be programme as their most groundbreaking and customize programme ever i joined debbie w because i was really looking for something that was going to help encourage me to make healthier eating choices they have really done that when you joined them w w program you will take a personal assessment it asking questions
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it in this new style and he is largely credited with encouraging tougher to go to print with these comical store is a risky fur aim to do though i mean this is considered a pretty lowbrow form of entertainment and because he was an educator associating himself with such a low bow thing could damage his career and unfair we we know he did go forward with it but went off first first example of letter to honest dump which translates roughly geographic literature was in eighteen thirty three gerda died of heart failure so you didn't see his is encouraged accomplishment come to fruition but that serious it was published was swell diminishing eligible and publish the year after year to death but it had been created for two years before that in eighteen thirty one this will come over and over the top there was publishing he had been sitting on in some cases for more than a decade at a time and the publication of monsieur a was also plagued with problems
humphreys relationship with this printer had soured while they were working on it there was a lot of bickering between of them about both money and art yeah tougher had ordered and paid for it run of several hundred copies of this comic but initially he only one to go out to friends but words isolated that a wide release into bookstores was coming and top fur blamed the printer for spilling the beans about this the artist had held back the majority of copies for two reasons its first he wanted to wait until his professorship was tenured so that even if his reputation suffered his income was still gonna be secure again he wanted seem like his verve work was kind of rare before and into a wider publication to try to drive up the price and public now
that are released was on the way was gonna ruin that effort to create a false scarcity as a marketing tactic at the same time though topper made ten times the cost of ten times the cost of heaven print run on that first run of monsieur jabez yeah lake at this things i'm always reluctant to ever tell a comic book creator because nobody just out of the gate makes ten times what they put into something but he just took off like a rocket right out of the gate the cure monsieur szabo is a social upstart and a climber so he was already starting with his satire immediately a puts on heirs to try to imitate the manners of a man in high society but in the end he just comes offers a buffoon became really really popular is a character and even top for himself sort of loved him so he actually makes appearances in other comic books by top for his kind of like cameo so
strange wage elbows buffoonery did in fact gave him entry into society this highly alluded to you both forms jabez adventurers were made public tougher had all of other projects that were already in the works he was a prolific creator not just of these sketched out stories but also of more traditional fiction and essays by aid thirty his writing was regularly featured in the monthly journal i mean go ahead and start with the french are fighting in the english words his work regularly featured in the monthly journal la bibliotech in you oversell vision ev and that is simply universal library of geneva yes so that couple years before he started printing his little comics but this year he wrote for the journal which was called reflex young a menu proper dump interior and it was was review of paintings in geneva was essay working critiques and these rights
were later republished in collected form across two volumes after top further deaths in eighteen ready to his story la bibliotech them an uncle or my uncle's library was published that is a tale about young love and tragedy in the main character falls but the young woman who dies it was generally it was generally well received and was called charming by its critics i'm i'd chuckled because it's like the young woman dies but it was very charming between us medical essays inspection and lose sketched out stories from that point on he was pretty much continually publishing stuff you're that same year he also published another piece of fiction called laplace detail and he became the proof of rhetoric at the academy of geneva and it was actually tenure for that particular position that he was to secure before that wide release of monsieur jumbo in the late teams warnings he had been working on art in the text for a series which would come to be known as history monsieur vaubois and also
way eyes at ensures did doktor fists and is are they in mr cryptogams but he didn't police any of these for a number of years after he started working on them he was just a busy bee all the time and hence of always in the works so his twelve monsieur le baron was top for next album of sketch base storytelling and this was actually drawn and published all in eighteen thirty seven so it's kind of outlier in his work because it was all done in the same year and this particular comic satirizes education which of course is something that there was a big part of his life through story of monsieur le pen's hiring of one problematic tutor after another for his many children like the character had heard in the comic it's just loads of children in every frame and it
a critique against the really rigid systems of education that were being favoured and like how people would get obsessed with one approach to educating children and just be really stuck in that right because top for himself disliked this sort of rigid approach to education because he thought it really just came lot bureaucracy and was a pain in the but less moors the monsieur vaubois which was created in aid twenty seven was also published in eighteen thirty seven so ten years later and one thing the main character whose name translates to old would it's kind of a buffoon and then centres around a young woman that he falls in love with although much like tapirs other work narrative the meanders into other topics yeah he really would you no kind of invention meanwhile back at the hall of justice kind of approach where he would kind of dark away from the story until tell some other backstory things periodically but this
higher story is really pretty dark humor a lot of the jokes about monsieur view was failed suicide are about has failed suicide attempts when he said did from his love or he is imprisoned both of which have been awful lot most of the story and at one point mr view bois actually thinks he is dead for a full today said he lies very still and then he sits he's getting it may be doesn't have a full grasp of how lake actual metabolic things happen that there are also in the story a lot of monks who worked very hard to keep these levers apart but ultimately the story does end with the pair being happily married give you the dark sense of humour today than that the jokes may be funny maybe not other some more about some jokes i just don't feel terribly hello this so by the end of it thirties tapirs work had become
famous and that fame had also become problematic he had this market model of to maintain a scarcity of his work to drive up the price but pirated versions were coming which were being so it all over europe though due to a lack international copyright law at the time this was not illegal to try to combat the problem tougher released a new edition of the popular he swore that monsieur the black with lower price that match the impostors price of the counterfeit copies of his work we continue to have problems with knock off so that it really fix it near that could pretty much persisted through his career in eighteen forty top for publish the fourth of seven comics he produced in his lifetime this one title a pencil and it was initially created in eighteen thirty one again that's nine years prior to publication and it's this really listing tail as many of his start small and then they kind of spiral out of control it begins with an art
that loses a sketch when the wind blows it away but this runaway in catalyzing this series of crazier in crazier events that nearly two world war crisis is narrowly averted he was continuing to publish other more traditional work a collection of tougher short stories as published in france in eighteen forty one this collection was titled well zena was or new geneva its it was well received critically and it gave his fiction another a layer of credibility politically things really shifted in geneva in their early eighteen fortys and then actually impacted top first work as well read offers very conservative and the radical party of left as liberals were kind of elected into power he used voices a writer to speak out for the conservative agenda friends actually found him to be rather fanatical about this like they kind of thought he had maybe going a little too far but he started up regularly electricity
our vision of which was a conservative paper that he actually help launch it had a very short run because this is not popular opinion and neighbourly couldn't get a foothold in it only ran from eighteen forty two to eighteen forty three so we're about to get to the part where finally tapirs are comes to north america and before we do that we're gonna take one more pause for a little sponsor break this episode of stuff you missed in history classes brought to you by norton three sixty with lifelong what they yours shopping online with your smartphone its super feels like ear personal information is just right there in your hand but that's not always the case because as soon as you hit submit your personal information could start going other this is in fact whenever you shop bank or browse online your personal invoking it out of your control and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals more threats demand more protection that's why norton and lifelong are now part of one company norton three
stay with lifelike is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security identity theft protection and a vp end for online privacy no one can prevent all cyber crime and identity theft but nor in three sixty with lifelike as your ally in today's connected world because your information is out there sign up for norton three sixty with lifelike today and save twenty five percent or more off your first year go to norton dot com slash history that's norton dot com slash history for twenty five percent off so in eighteen forty two top first work made its way across the atlantic come what is regarded as the first comic book published in the united states title was the adventures of obadiah old book that was the name that the
eighteen thirty seven publication has to outdo monsieur view blah was given when it got you and that was considered the first comic book in europe but for where's american audience in english obadiah old buck and it was not offered as a solo title for purchase it was actually a supplement to a newspaper i love the name obadiah old book it's pretty green apparently can't say a very well but i love that his next book vote eyes zigzag which was published in eighteen forty three was based largely on accounts he had written as a young teacher on hiking trips students and there are some illustrations in this book but it's really like a novel with illustrations and not a comic book yeah most illustrations are not in his sort of silly style there a little bit more formalised lying here is a scenery we came across i'm imagining it it's like stardust europe so entirely off the mark you can actually find that
my most of these are archive there's archived dot org some of the original stuff is a little tricky to read because the the captions are not only in french but he had very curly key writing sets a little daisy reed but you can find a my mine in eighteen forty two top republished essay dato plus eve so he was aware that what he was doing by pairing captions with frame story beats was unique and here the level of fame for it at this point so he wrote about his style of crafting narrative in this book and then he rode another book about his work three years later called say the physiognomy pony and that second on his visual storytelling speaks a lot about creating character and identity through drawing is also something of a defence of his work it has a little bit of it adapting angle where he's trying to teach readers how to approach and appreciate this new medium essays
telegraphy is widely considered to be one of the first if not the first analytical studies of the comic swarm so not was he basically the person who developed this farm he was also the first person that route critic an analysis about that form as medium which is pretty incredible in it he discussed not only how stories can be told in the visual media but he also talks about possible future analyses and advancements that might sift the inn results such as the addition of color and not surprisingly since we have already told you that he was had figured out a way to do these really rough quicker doodle sketches tougher makes clear his opinion that you do not need to be a great artist to make what he called literature in prince but you have to be able to quote invent some kind of and he also takes that opportunity to address critics who would demean the simplicity of the art in this style for not seeing its value and he wrote quote is only the one or two critics who it
the feelings of these little books or who tease their stylistic follies would instead emphasised a useful way of thinking it is not true that they would well have reached those who would not go searching for their sermons as well as those who are rarely founded novels what was that noise monster argument reminds me of a conversation that that we actually had earlier today about right historians and how a lot of the history pod casts that are really popular or not by real historians meaning like people that have a phd in tenure track position and and we want a times my responses or maybe if you re like academics historian looking at once being successful about these pakistan applying that to your academic i guess you see how it works
narrative usually which is what the sorry on tv sickly what he's saying right there maybe don't fuss over the technique of my may actually take a moment to appreciate the story i'm telling do something useful with your time see that are really say that is to say that he was more like luck it's really cool additionally the autocracy that was used in top tapirs work is somewhat describes in these these works this method let artists draw on the paper with especial lit the graphic ink which would then be used to print the image onto a stone than that gonna be used to repress the original and one of the benefits of this technique was at the artists have to like do everything backwards onto the stone to get it to print correctly they could just but their idea on paper as
more and then go from there so there's a series of plates in essays data graffiti showing examples of landscapes and comic sketches to show how these methods could be for a variety of different images so it had deserve a technical how to aspect yeah and so just to go into a little bit more detail on helstone lithography work so you kind of grasp this because it took me a little while to really get the mental picture what he's talking about the stone in lithography is either a slow of actual stone brick normally limestone or the more modern version has a metal plate and so special ink there was used is the oily or greasy like it has a sticking to it and so when the ink goes onto the stone it adheres really really well because of those oils and then this forms the print image which connection used over and over because the stone gets a water treatment of the parts of it without this oily print on it nor about water because you don't have the ink
and then another ink is rolled on the stone and this does not stick to the worst part of the stone but it does stick to those parts that have been treated with the greasy so then bat can have paper applied to it and the stone is pressed and the images transfer to the paper like magic being a crafty person the second i read this aspect i gotta do this yeah but it's going to happen and rest assured so one of the downfall this method was sometimes the transfer wouldn't be quite perfect and pieces a line might drop off of an image through my meal gap in their so for tougher this actually fuelled his passion to draw in such a way that everything would be really simple so his in his cereal eyes narratives line was broke in the concept should still remain and be really obvious and here's something here about it the graphic line the very reason of what meanings that makes clear even
the imitation being complete admittedly demands enormous emissions of properties and details with the result that whereas in a finished pain the slightest discontinuity in the image simultaneously marks and i saw a gap in the graphic line by contrast stress discontinuity are neither stains nor gaps even when they are not as often happens desired by the author and merely the happy of a brevity method i like me stress discontinuity that's my new content in forty five was a really busy year for it off tougher in addition to as a decision he also publish the comic his dell bear and the plot of this common about a young man with no life experience and no marketable skills who searches in vain for a career so think back to the fact that not long before this he had a conservative political paper that failed because
how this plays out is that when this young man shows him does have shows himself to have no talent and be suited for nothing else he becomes a go left his political journalists is made somewhat biographical coming is monsieur clip i am also went interpret in eighteen forty five later unauthorized english language reprint translated the title to the veritable history of mr bachelor butterfly story is about an informal adjusts you specializes in butterflies on a quest to escape his jealous and zealous fiance and to find it match for himself there are a lot of really fun movement panels in this particular story including a segment we're progressively wider assortment of people and animals are drawn in was circular chase on a boat that all begin
with monsieur cryptogram there's an hour in their monsieur krypton running from the very possessive fiance culminates in this sort of cyclical of movement around on a ship stick yet quite fun if you're into that sort of psychiatric thing there's an interesting piece of historical context here because this comic involves a boat trip is suspension to algiers or algeria and this originally written in eighteen thirty which is an interesting time because france invaded and good that country in eighteen thirty but topics make any mention at all of any of the political stuff there just going to visit it's almost as though he included it to be current and topical but he didn't want to really get especially political in this particular instance monsieur cryptogams was printed in a series of eleven installments and the periodical loose structural i feel like i said that in terror my french is terrible
literally we always language have studied resides english and i say it so badly eleven insomuch from january to april of eighteen forty five tat first illustration style needed to be refined for this pretty much comic strip style printing in a wide circulation periodical so his original art was re created with a style that was more in line with magazine illustrations using would block and of course he still had the same problem so he couldn't do it the french without refer and character artists charles i'm a date in no way who worked under the pseudonym sham was the person who created those new would blocks with top for supervising and instructing the work and as it is one of the things he told him to do is go look at all of william hogarth work the cryptogram comic was really popular so much so that joshua soon ran another comic strip style story by another artist so basically a new type
feature any print publication had been born from top first yeah this is things it when i was reading it because we work in a company that has done internet content for a long time it remain those times when like thing works and you just want to do it over and over to get you know the successful engagement since like quit great let's make a million it's kind of the same thing everybody loves comic who else draws a comic and they put it right in that magazine i feel it grew also with this we're on the way to having funny papers yes and so in cryptogram story was printed officially this time as the strange adventures of bachelor butterfly in new york in eighteen forty six it consequently became these second sequential art comic printed in the united states two fists was created in eighteen thirty one but not published until eighteen forty six so fifteen years later the narrative one is that their titular doktor wants to go see the world and he sets out a series of travels that leave nothing but chaos
and his awake but he is willie oblivious to all the chaos he is causing almost all the time and this one like others we mentioned definitely has some human you got easier quotes that does not come off his funny at all to modern audience for example after festus creates an appropriate a mill that results in a great deal of confusion there are three panels in sequence in the first one is a miller beating his wife she in the next panel beats there some and then another the sun beats their donkey because area there is this whole case of misplaced blame there are blaming other because he is left this mess in his wake so it's like there's pardon me that tries to imagine the people in eighteen forty six very that's it is but i like you monsters reading that part of that and reminded me of when i was a kid my mom and i went to the other local community the productions of every musical they ever did
and one year they did south pacific and there is a joke in south pacific that is literally about assaulting someone and i was remember sitting there surrounded by grown ups because i was fourteen or something who were all this hilarious and i've like we this is a funny joke i dont understand yeah there's dark humor and there's the people be each other so funny so even ass he was writing as is the physiognomy and arranging for the publication of several of his sketch stories in the mid eighteen forty supper was not doing well in terms of his health he had started having health problems as early as eighteen forty three he had an enlarged spleen although it's not really clear exactly what had cause to that end here traveled in the years eighteen forty three to eighteen forty five to the springs at both levey switzerland and vichy front france for treatment of this problem but unfortunately he did
any relief in the so called water cure his condition only got worse and it made the pain much worse when i'd on june eighth of eighteen forty six topper was still working and he had several projects in process at the time and he was allegedly observing the doctors at the baths that you would go to at the accomplishment of a cousin to see if he could find some restoring in it but is failing health really left him week to do a whole lot creative that was new and he was only forty seven when he died was really a lot more he could have created that last part is both charming and sad what a good idea that he was watching doctors going is there a funny story here touching so tat their mackay incredibly famous in his own lifetime for graphic stories but he was not universally praised for them a critical s a written by german novelist friedrich theodore bisher begins quote what sort
school is this is this what gerda praised i can hardly believe my eyes is this how our child our own childish scribbles looked when we turned boyish fantasies into silly characters but in truth vision actually bought that was doing something really interesting though opening lines and let us say we're in effort to men the criticisms that had already been lobbed at top for work and fisher actually found these seeming city of this art and stories to be pretty complex when you actually looked at it more thoughtfully and as i say continues quote but closer inspection these capricious lawless networks of lines coalesce into them decided characterisation this quite cravens avonlea drawing becomes a well considered and systematic instrument in the hands of a man who makes sense of nonsense is wise delirium and steers his mad steed to its certain destination following the rule
of a secret calculation you think it leaps forward on its own but no there is a coachman on the back seat you just can't see so it's interesting to look at how people have considered tapir and his work over the years why word that comes up a lot when describing his work and his worldview is naivete topper biographer david and dissected this whole idea to two thousand and seven book about artist so in it comes makes the case that simply by virtue of not featuring themes of overt sexuality and his work which is very common in french writing and are at the time and this characterisation in the nineteenth century of switzerland's people being inherently sort of innocent tougher zone wit and morality stories have sometimes been characterized into this naive image
considering that hogarth he was known for these morality narratives is the one influence that top proclaimed its pretty logical to conclude that the lack of adult themes and has was a lot more about his moral compass and his desire to appeal to a broad audience and not indicator that he just had a wide eyed innocence about the world itself noting that even from the beginning he was sharing his work with his students so all along he was showing us the children as well as adults yes so that might explain why he wasn't going for the super it all themes and after his death in eighteen forty six almost immediately top works were published in an imbalance his two hours on a stump one of them the eu is working on before he died and was a story called brutus kaliko and this on this manuscript for the story is part of the university library in geneva is permanent collection and today there
actually a monument to resolve tougher with a bust of the artist atop a marble pillar that sits in geneva spiegel men who created the ground novel mouse witches incredible said this topic interview where he was talking about tapirs writings new genre that he'd created in this is his quote he had to do understanding of what comics were he understood that comics existed some placed between writing and drawing and was its own language so as you wander through comecon if you're one of the people that came for that look at all that sequential are and think about rodolfo hopper and that's all we got on him that was our show we definitely want to take a moment and think everyone it near comecon presents predicted we met was ascii collapse oliver m andrew esposito who took amazing care of us we were
as always so honoured to be part of their programming and it was a superfund night and thank you also everybody who came out to sea ass we know the show was a little later in the evening we ended physically at my bed time and and traffickers terrible that might though thanks so much everybody came out who came out i had a lot of folks stay behind afterwards to say hello to us thank you thank you thank you all our gracious and wonderful listener seaward there that night yet the you mean it this is incredible evening and i feel that we should give a special thank you to our younger listener nathaniel who brought us amazing gifts and was charming and delightful yes thank you so much nothing oh yeah i have a little bit of lister meal i wanna keep it short among to read her whole her whole letter because our absurd is a little lengthy it is from our listener
who writes hello and well wishers from washington dc i love the show and discover the archive episodes this past summer if they were a great way to learn a little something while i delved into my mind hobby of embroidery you to make an excellent team the way you approach subjects and the integrity of your research is such a credit to you both and the respect you hold for history she goes on she's lovely and she mentions that one of the things she sent us in this partial was a little batch of vintage postcards particularly those with addresses a few of the first ladies oh yeah is such a good little parcel it's like it's like one of those things that i'm gonna keep on my desk at women credit able to pull one out at a time so like a slow unpack for me where i go oh delight because cuba is a very the organised woman she sent us a huge list of episode suggestions but she can
your eyes them which is amazing by people events general histories and miscellany and its lovely and farmer organised than i would have so i know how much i appreciate it give thank you for all the beautiful postcards like you said they are gonna brightened my days when them haven't i wonder just one little smile for no good reason again thank you thank you thank you to new york comecon presents and everyone who came to the wife show if you would like to write ass you can do so at history pie cast a house of works dot com you can also find us at missed history dot com which is our website and from there it's your launching point to all of our social media but just in case you want to go direct we're missed in history pretty much we were you go if you would like to check out past episodes you can do that and our website as we said that mr history that
we have a full archive of every episode that has ever existed over the show long before tracy and i were ever involved ably have our current episodes in any that tracy and i have worked on a show notes so come and visit us and missed in history that come out history together for more on this and thousands of other topics visit has to work sarka the future is closer than you think and it all starts in the palm of your hand you may have heard the news five g is coming in this new i hot series this time tomorrow presented by team above a bit this join me as will ocean am i cursed care price as we walk you through the true revolution in mobility that will choose
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-26.