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The Lumière Brothers, Part 2

2017-11-29 | 🔗

Despite the huge impact the Lumières made with their multi-function motion picture camera, they didn't stay in the movie business. Louis went back to photography, and Auguste took a very different path.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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further even was motion picture industry care, mostly famous for, but they went on to do some other things, which is largely what we're talking about today. But if you have not listened apart We highly recommend you do so otherwise, you're probably gonna be lost have borders, sometimes that each part can stand on their own, but those that will be harder with this one here. This is definitely a continuation of right where we left off so last time. We ended at the point where the loom years had developed a camera that could capture process in project motion pictures and they had trained agree employees to use the new technologies, so they could travel around Europe showing off this mark. innovation and taking new movies right, sell. It wasn't long before the brothers were sending their trained, cameramen farther and farther afield going outside of Europe, because the cinematograph was relatively compact and light. It was pretty easy to expand
filming and demonstration presents all across the globe. They sent teams to India, Great Britain, Canada and Argentina, and these were not small. birds of cameraman in the United States alone, the loom years had almost two dozen of their men doing what they had been doing in Europe by the late eighty navies. Yes, they were just taken. These movies show one hundred people and some of these staff members were actually sent abroad as part of deals with business men in foreign countries. So, as part of these contracts, the loom years would basically low their camera, but the partner business would have to pay a loom year. Company staff member as a contractor to actually use the cameras, is a human
it come to where you are and take films? But you can't use if only are trained, cameramen can use it and then the partner business could then stage their own screenings of these films that were taken and the revenue from those screenings would be split. Fifty fifty between the the business that was renting the camera and paying for the camera man and the Loom year company, eventually, this whole partnership system became too. and we'll be to manage, said, Leumi ears finally started selling the cameras outright, starting in May eighteen, ninety, seven, the cameras and film or sold first to businesses and then to anyone who wanted them. Bloomiest also began publishing a catalogue of all the films they had to offer for purchase. So anyone could start there. entertainment business by showing these short films. Now you could basically say you had a big space. I would like to get a systematic, whereas an order, the following ten films or whatever, and then you can charge people admission and follow you had your movie theater running.
in some demonstrations abroad in the early days of this, the company actually experimented with presentation style, and so they hired speakers to stand to the side of the screen and explain to audiences. They were seeing, but it was immediately evident that that was too silly and the explain her was extraneous no one really needed to veto at a train is coming at you. A baby is being fed here, especially when you consider how basic their title yard workers leaving a factory. So here the workers that we think the fact just as their fame had spread in Europe in the United States gloomy ears were heralded as genius is the fleets of films that were shown at any given screening were a combination of movies featuring the local and international themes, Menu proved to be the perfect balance to delight and excite viewers, but, as you
Also imagine a french firm stealing. The thunder of someone like Edison in his kinetoscope in Edison's own home country was problematic, and there is also this growing sentiment in the United States that american innovation should be. our ties. As we know from the war of the currents, Edison was not timid. In going after his rivals, he started a campaign to discredit work of the luminaries, while promoting his own motion picture technology as then had bought the rights to the fancy scope, projectors from France's Jenkins and Thomas Armor and was working on his own film screenings is actually a whole patent story between Jenkins, who invented the paint, the fantasy scope and are met who fight it, but that is really a tail for another day as the entire war. If the currents which has been touched on for our previous failures that soup harder in it, I think, of the ardor yeah, but
Lime here is that the loom years agents in the United States started to experience one problem after another. Is they attempted to continue touring because Edison sort of smear campaign was really quite successful? So eventually, customs officials started claiming that the french cameras had been brought into the country without proper documentation and at one point one of the looming ears cameramen was actually jailed on a charge filming without a permanent, as the climate of the United States grew increasingly unwelcoming for the loom ears cameraman, the company finally decided to halt all efforts North America and late eighteen. Ninety seven- and it was to some degree, beginning of that and of the loom ears work in film. They didn't make a few more movies
in eighteen. Ninety eight, they actually have more than fourteen hundred different movies in their catalogue, most of which have been shot by those travelling cameramen that they had trained and for the next two years they did continue to work on developing and refining film technology, but that part of their business was no longer really growing and, in fact, was kind of shrinking. They were shooting fewer and fewer films each year. The last big demonstration, the looming errors made in motion picture, as was at the nineteen hundred exposition universal in Paris, come up pretty frequently on podcast Louvieres were featured as part of the expo, and they had a screening. There
as part of their screening, which pictured a mix of footage shot. They are at the expo in films their team had made travelling through Mexico. They also debuted of new large scale scream. The library of Congress is digitized Master edit of much of this footage. On line and we'll linked to it an hour, so notes heads up their arson, we raise in this group that feature activities that can definitely be consent, animal cruelty, YE, ah there's some cartwrighting in there, and there are some horses being treated sort of poorly. So if that stuff, that is not for you, maybe don't look at these ones, but you can look at their other earlier films and that the which also include lots of spanking as a writer is that all yet, which I will say that Some of the least the waste aggressive spanking I've ever seen so you're worried about seeing someone get hit. It's definitely very much on the mild side. After that, Paris Exe
both Louie in August turned back to photography to some degree to throughout their foray, into motion pictures there. Emily Business had continued to run into thrive. It was still funding. All of these expenditure- is to train people and send them abroad, and also for them to experiment and train you things and, as you recall, the motion picture work that they did was really intended as a way to sell new cameras and film that then turned into this temporary foray into movie production. They never intended to be a film studio, but they were for a brief period of time and by nineteen hundred competition. In the motion picture, space was only getting more intense and the brothers just wanted to move on other things. The looming airs soon began to work on other projects outside of motion pictures of matters. What we'll talk about in a moment, but first we're gonna pause for a quick sponsor Break This episode of stuff, you missed in history glasses, brought to you by Norton three sixty with lifelong, what they you're sure
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percent or more off your first year, go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, DOT, com, slash history for twenty five percent off. So the same year of the Paris Expo, but at the end of the year on December, twenty ninth nineteen hundred Louie filed another patent. This time it was for a device called a photo Roma, and this was a method for taking for three hundred. Sixty degrees still panoramic photos in one long exposure and these panoramic images were empty, to be protected, but again to be static, mean. While there was a long desired achievement, instil photography that the brothers have yet to crack.
So while the loom years had made millions thanks to their blue label plates and they had captured incredible film of real life in motion pictures, one goal that had been kind of on their minds for quite a while had remained elusive, and that was creating a photographic process that could reproduce images of the world as their truly scene with the human just as was true with motion pictures. They were not the only people working on this idea and indeed other innovators were trying their hand color photography. Some are actually successful at creating color images, the processes were really labour intensive and cumbersome, so they weren't really viable Sam, so they weren't really viable but
The first would either have to take three different exposures or use three different cameras and then composite the resulting images, but on December, seventeenth of nineteen o three, the loom years applied for a patent on a color photography system that they called Otto Chrome on May thirtieth. Nineteen o four, they D viewed it at the academy, the ceilings for the next several years. The brothers worked on refining their process before they finally presented it before Harris Photo Club in nineteen o seven to introduce it commercially infernally. Nineteen o seven was also the last year that the Louvieres published their catalogue of films, Surprisingly, perhaps the key to the loom years. Color photos system was potato starch. They died. Fine greens of starch in three color ways: a Red Orange, a green and violet These fine greens were combined and then applied in a fine layer to a glass plate, and I keep saying that word
but they were very, very fine. So there were seven thousand greens per square millimeter in their plate application and then a sticky varnish of lamp Black was used to fill in any spaces between the grains. This plate was compressed with seven tons of pressure. Purse you're centimeter. The play was treated with a silver bromide emulsion. So when a photo was taken, the potato starch grains filtered out all the white, but that which corresponded to the color. Died. This is ingenious. The light then passed through the greens onto the lights that of emotion and created a glass transparency from which prince could be made. This made the otter chrome system, the first commercially successful color photography. Breast this was a massive shift in the world of photography for wine. Obviously, it made color work achievable, but for another it completely changed the way photographers approach, their work.
the exposure that was needed for an otter, chrome image was a bit longer than a black and white image would require was longer than a second, I think so most photographers primarily worked with still subjects initially and also sometimes a yellow filter had to be used on the cameras lands when they were shooting outside in daylight, because otherwise the blue sky was overwhelming, and had the balance that, out with a little bit of yellow the new level of depth offered by Otter Chrome, also meant that photographers had to re learn their craft. Part of this learning curve was understanding and predicting what Colored would actually be captured in the photographic process, because this really wasn't a system that faithfully captured true to life. Color. If you look at autocrat images, they have a pretty distinctive and recognisable color palate.
But the images that resulted from photographers experimenting with this new medium were so uniquely beautiful that they caused concerns. That painting would soon fall out of favor yeah. We include one is part of our show art, but if you go looking around for ETA Chrome images online, they are spectacularly beautiful and you can see why there might have been a little bit of concern and our world the third jobs are in jeopardy, but part of that concern for painters in their job security. It's interesting actually came from the way that errors looked on auto chrome photographs, so in instances where the subjects moved slightly during that slightly prolonged exposure, pure did it actually produce this really lush. Looking painterly effect, oughta Chrome became the standard and photography and remain so for more than two decades in nineteen fourteen National Geographic printed, its first color photo of
pardon of blooming flowers taken in Belgium, and it was made using autocrat com, and it actually was not until the nineteen thirties that other processes such as Kodaks Coda, Chrome, supplanted, oughta chrome. So, just as the loom years motion picture, cameras had offered a more portable option for creating films, Coda Chrome was able to, For a more portable way for color photos to be made, so without a crown, even though it had been a huge advancements, photographers still had to carry cases of glass plates which could be a little bit cumbersome. But all if a tiger for needed to shoot Coda Chrome was a small camera and their film. So it really was again another big step towards portability and the nineteen thirties. New color photography options were heading. The market Louie once again turned to the cinema this time to try to find a way to marry, color with motion pictures. He exhibited this work,
Harris exposition of nineteen thirty seven, but it was never developed into a commercial product. While the exact reason loom years, color motion picture process never went into production is not entirely known. World war two probably played a part. Yet there is some speculation that had he been able to put this in production and take it around the globe. Is they hand with their cinematograph that he probably could have given technicolor run for its money, but in nineteen thirty, nine Louie was tap to participate in what would have been the first common film festival as its president. But once again we were too was a problem,
in late August. As the festival September first date approached, Europe was in the grip of conflict. People had already begun arriving in calm on August twenty third, when the german Soviet non aggression pact was signed, and that made it immediately clear that things were getting very unstable and that the event really could not proceed as planned and by the time the festival was officially cancelled. On August, twenty seventh pretty much every one that had come in the continent, dissipating the festival had already left during the occupation of France by german troops, Lui Leumi AIR moved firmly onto Bandar under Philly pattern. He was marshal of France at the time Louie served as the science representative on Patents Advisory Council. He did not stay this council for very long though be resigned and returned to bandeau than it is
later years, Louie was given a multitude of honours for his contribution to photography and motion pictures. He was a member of the Institute of Optics, the National Office of Inventions and the national conservatory of arts and trades. He was made the honorary president of the french Chamber of Cinema and the President of the french society of physics, Llewelyn the air died in vandal on June six nineteen. Forty eight next step. We will talk about what Louise Brother August and worked on after the boy There's transitioned away from US cinematic graph, but not, and so we have one more quick word from sponsor Luke representative Steffy, missed in history class is brought to you by W W, formerly wait. Watchers they have launched a new might be to be programme as their most groundbreaking and customize programme. Ever I joined Debbie W because I was really looking for something that was going to help encourage means. You make healthier eating choices. They have really done that when you joined them W W program, you will take a personal assessment. It asked
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Leumi AIR made a rather drastic career change in the early nineteen hundred's. He had always been interested in chemistry, and he was undoubtedly incredibly influential in the family business in that regard figuring out color of targets, if he almost certainly involved a lot of work on his part as well as his brothers, but what he was truly interested in was actually biochemistry so. He started to study medicine, one of his f. so the medical field that brought him a claim was his interest in the healing process and developing new ways to treat wounds during row, where one he examined the wounds of hundreds of injured ban, and he also studied scarring and healing and dogs to further his research. We dont personally know the details of how these dogs were wounded. Then I do not want to
no well and medical experiments involving dogs were not uncommon at the time, but he didn't use that that research to really get a lot of information about how tissues would heal themselves in a nineteen fifteen, he applied his wound, research to the development of abandoned color, to which translates to oil. We gauze, and this sterile bandage was impregnated with vaseline and balsam peruse, wouldn't stick to wounds, though it was, of course not absorbent. So if you also needed in absorbent bandage you needed have to, but to grant, dressings are actually still used today, an August also devoted a great deal of his time in medical research. Two coils
nations to disinfect will so he really actually did have quite an impact on wound management. From nineteen fourteen to nineteen, fifty three August gloomier wrote more than a dozen books based on his medical research, covering not only wounds and how to treat them, but also tuberculosis and cancer, among others. A goose Louvieres died six years after his younger brother on April tenth, nineteen fifty four at his home in legal you'll, often see a lot of comments in biographies or article but the two of them that, by the end of his wife, people knew August gloomier for his medical work, and they had often not made the connection that he was one of the loom years that had worked in film because he was so completely in the medical community by that point, and even though the loom years abandoned motion pictures. They also inspired one of the first motion picture, storytellers George million aim and when the loom years had demons
Their films in Paris very early on meal yea, who is a magician in a theater manager had seem more shockingly in eighteen, ninety five period, and he was compelled Lee blown away by the possibilities that this new technology offered and while the loom years films were pretty basic and generally more on the documentary side, milieu began to immediately dream of crafting fantastical tales that could be projected on screens. He. Bagged argues gloomier to sell him cinematic graph, but there was no convincing the man to do it. Me air, told Millay. You should be grateful since, although my invention of not for sale, it would undoubtedly ruin you can be exploited for a certain time is a scientific curiosity, but from that. It has no commercial future whatsoever, o goose, I want this is like that moment. You know
Often people will ask us like if we do live shows we do cure day. If you could travel everywhere in time. Where would you go? I think going forward? My answer has to change. is, I would go and I would scoop a goose louvieres up and I would take him to twenty seventeen and, I would say ro. One made a billion dollars and then just watch him go what's the year. Of course, this happened before they had started, offering the mass produced in a matter graph for sale, but it is interesting that initially he was just like no, no don't go into filberts it as a dead end it offers some inside this interaction as to why the loom years were not especially concerned with an ongoing business venture in motion pictures. They really thought they were gonna get in make a bunch of money. Gets eels. While this idea was still a novelty and then get out, which is what they did, but they abandon a really lucrative business but, of course Milly. I did get his hands on a camera, though not an loom year camera he started.
making films that really broke open the world, a fictional narratives, while fictional stories had been told on film before through animated CARE Nurse million was really the first one to tell fictional stories by filming actors. He made his first film playing cards in eighteen, ninety six, but its millions. Ninety note You film Lovejoy Eyes Della Loon or a trip to the moon that remains one of the most famous pieces of early cinema. That's the one where the spaceship crashes them to the eye of the moon, yeah! That's one of them pieces, and sometimes you actually see, I have a couple of times seem a trip to the moon, Miss. Credited to the loom years and not merely a sometimes that's been confused. I think most people that anything about Cinema. Will.
Right. Yeah I'd die have definitely seem listed incorrectly before I don't think I've seen it listed incorrectly, but I have heard I have heard people miss, say it incorrectly job in, of course, even though filmmaking technology has evolved significantly and the loom years inventions were replaced by others that improved on their capabilities. I love that we still unconsciously pay homage to the brothers in their father, linguistically all the time, so the word cinema and cinematography for it bulk harking back to that. First, cinematic graph, created in Lyon in nineteen. Eighty two, the looming, our family, home and Leon, became the looming institute focused on research, study of film density, is that a massive celebration and ninety ninety five to commemorate the centennial of the luminous first film, the first prototype of the cinema
wrap is kept there and the second prototype was donated to the national conservatory of arts and crafts and nineteen forty two by Louie, LINEAR. Incidentally, the looming institute is now my list of places. I won a visit because they have amazing programming all the time, also in nineteen eighty to the same year that that home was made into the mere institute, the linear company, which was still going at that point, was purchased by the UK. Phil manufacture, ill furred and it was renamed offered France, although you will sometimes still see it listed in efforts business listings as the loom year, I forget other they reference it. the name limb year is still attach sometimes and ninety. Ninety eight, a new theatre named the looming air in honour of the brothers, was built on the site of the original Leumi are factory and today there are. mere archives of film and Photograph
all over the world, but one of the most impressive belongs to National Geographic. They have an archive that contains almost fifteen thousand glass plates of Otto Chrome images, but eleven thousand of those have never been published. So there's all this amazing photography that does not really get scene, but it is being carefully preserved because, as you can imagine, glass play photography if delicate there. A lot of photography away, photography made with pity start out of a lot of food graphic media are incredibly delicate. I got to go on a tour of the special collections at Harvard. Business school library earlier this year, and they had acquired the entire collection of. I think Polaroid, and they ve got stuff. That is just like this is remaining in the refrigerator forever
If it is ever to be removed and examined, we are going to remove it and examined it and immediately put it back on her fine, remove it too, refrigerated room, one, They have all the things words like this is the safe place that we can open this and look at this so yeah there's there's definitely step it is like. If we don't preserve this continually, it will just degrade and not be visible anymore. Yeah me, that's ok with a lot of millionaires films as well, he made more than four hundred films, but a lot of those are completely gone, never to be seen again. Thankfully, some of them have been preserved, which is why we all know about the trip to the moon is. That is one that made it through the ravages of time. I have some listener mail that I almost feel guilty and taking pleasure m. Ok, but that is from our listener. John. It's
Our Carl Taylor emphasis he red Deer Tracy and how we first off of a huge fan of your programme, and I listen to it during most of my longer jogs. I am currently training for my first marathon. Congratulations, John you're, amazing and I'm slowly increasing my miles, which way they get to listen to more of your histories. As I run, I did hit a snag, though thanks the curled handlers corpse bright episode. I remember being very cavalier during your warning that there was gonna be some very gross material coming at listener. Discretion should be advised thinking that I'm pretty desensitize to hearing gory details. I continued listening huge mistake. The overall awful actions by Karl Chancellor made me angry, which forced me to run faster than I probably should have in this cause me to be more exhausted the normal by the time.
We're describing MR cancers process of removing mould from poor Maria. I was nearing the end of my run. Hearing the gruesome details, coupled with my exhaustion, made it almost too much to bear. Not wanting to stop, I tried to focus on my run, but that super focusing meant. I was also super focused on the horrible nature of Templars deeds. Miraculously I managed to keep my stomach and check and I did finish the rent successfully, but I'm sure I freaked out a few other runners with my occasion. River and the increasingly painted disgusted look on my face from here on. I will pay attention to any warnings that covers each your pockets may hold off and listening to them or less success less stressful times. Thank you again, oh John, I'm so sorry, but that did make me laugh mostly because your storyteller yeah yeah, that's Templar. Witnesses superposed, but I also want to say: yea John Training for Marathon is so much work and I applaud anyway,
does it I've gotten progressively more lazier with my own running, barely do it any more work is the work and life, or just all too busy right now to put in long term training time. But if you like to write to us, got any episodes major secure stomach for anything else. You dont have to have been six years, stomach directors to say hi. You could do so in history. Protest at Helstone works dot com. You can also thus, on social media, pretty much everywhere as missed in history. You can also come to our website, which is missing history, dot, com, recombine, every episode of the show that has ever existed and for the ones that Tracy I worked on. We include our sources and shown its on occasion. Are you can also find all kinds of other goodies at our website? So come in
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