Practice babies were live human babies, cared for by college seniors who were temporarily living in home ec practice houses. The babies mostly came from orphanages or child welfare agencies, and were usually adopted after their time in the program.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Welcome to stuff you, Minister, three glass, a production of I heart radio hello and welcome to the podcast cast, I'm Tracy Wilson and I'm Holly fry before we start today's episode proper. We have kind of us. I think special thing coming up. It's unlikely at this point that we are going to do any touring the the year that we have some things on the calendar that had been scheduled that were in a one off appearances and places, those of cancelled. I think the only one that we actually on the show was we are planning a July fifth show at the atoms National historical Park in Quincy Massachusetts that has been cancelled. One of my favorite things about these appearances, is getting to talk to people who listened to the show and
questions about the show, so we were thinking since we're not getting to do any kind of turning this year. And that we would have a q- and I emphasise with with questions submitted by listeners. So we are going to be taking questions specifically for a q and a episode up until June twelve. And then we will record an episode based on those questions. Shortly after that and put it out. As an episode of the show up. questions for us about episodes that you ve heard or about how we do the show or just random things that your curious bout send them along where history podcast at I hurt radioed outcome. We, of course, will still be having questions for Mr Male up a part of this episode and stuff like that this week, a special thing that will put out as an episode of the show. So can we excited by that and now we want to today's actual episode about these practice. Babies when researching the episode that we just had
home economics and my responses like what the practice babies when I was in school, whom at classes had parenting lessons that I'm putting in quotation marks but we're about looking after a decorated egg or a sack of flour, my school. This was not really about parenting, though it was more about trying to discourage team pregnancy by trying to stimulate the snow. of having an infant using an egg with a face drawn on it practice. Babies, though we're not eggs, they were living breathing babies cared for by college. Seniors. Who temporarily living in homer practice houses and in most cases the baby's came from orphanages or child welfare agencies, and then, after their time, is a practice. Baby was over. In most cases, they were usually Bob did. The whole idea tends to elicit pretty strong
snow reactions, especially from folks who are part of the adoption, triad or people who have some experience with foster care or institutions for children and the reasons why most of these babies were in institutions in the first place are definitely troubling. But as with the incubator, sideshow, that we talked about on the show late last year. This is a case where something that seems just clearly unethical and bizarre by today's standards at the time was actually probably doing more help than harm, and so, We should note before we get started in talking about this. The history adoption in North Amerika includes a long devilish pattern of placing native american First Nations and other indigenous children with families as a tool for assimilation and cultural eradication, and it is possible that this happened in practice baby programmes. At some point.
wait, but that is also not really documented. If that was part of this story, at least not in the material that we had access to another import. Thing to note is that, throughout the decades that we're talking about today, children of coal were removed from their families and place in institutions. More often than white children were, and there were definitely huh. Economics, programmes that had practice houses at schools for black students, as well as Huemac programmes that were raised, fully integrated overwhelmingly the documentation that available to us is centred on programmes where the babies and their caregivers were or appeared to be white. So since are going to be talking about some social issues related to adoption, we would be remiss to not mention all this and kind of pretend that it didn't best, but based on the information that we have issues that are specific to indigenous communities into trans racial adoption seem to be outside the scope of today's episode, the train
of practice, babies as part of a home economics practical ran alongside the development of home economics as a field was something we just covered in earlier episode in the Bureau of whom economics but it also ran alongside changes to orphanages and to adoption and foster care in the United States. Most of the nation's orphanages were built in the nineteenth century, as immigration an urban as asian and other social and economic factors lead to a huge increase in how many children were experiencing homelessness orphanages, where attempts to move these children out of poor houses and prisons and other facilities that were really designed for adults. Many of these children did at least one living parent, but for a variety of reasons, the family couldn't or didn't care for them at home. Poverty was also seen as a valid reason to remove children from their pair.
custody conditions in nineteenth century orphanages often were not much better than the prisons and work houses that they were replacing at best. They tended you offer very little in the way of care, education, entertainment and stimulation by the early twin century. The United States was trying to move away from orphanages and to focus more on placing children with foster families. The nation Started to move away from using poverty alone as a reason to institutionalize children, wasn't until the nineteen forties that the number of children living in orphanages really started to drop in terms of changes to the foster care and adoption systems really all of human history. There have been babies and children who were raised by somebody other than their birth parents. So fostering and adoption have always been part of the human experience but
in terms of formal laws and processes. These didn't really start to develop in the United States until the middle of the nineteenth century, the first Modern adoption law in the United States was passed in Massachusetts in eighteen. Fifty one other states followed with the details of these laws really varying from state date, research into outcomes for children who had been fostered or adopted, didn't really start until after the first practice, baby programmes were established. The first major outcome, steady titled, foster children turn out was published in nineteen twenty four, and it wasn't really until the nineteen sixties, that people started doing major research into connections between adoption and foster, care and mental, an emotional health, and by the time that work was being done. The last practice baby programmes were already ending. There was some research into how being a practice baby affected children's emotional and mental health and development, and we'll talk about the specifics of that research later
in the show, but especially in the later years of these programmes, those kinds of studies became a lot harder to carry out in part because of an increasing focus on keeping adoption records completely sealed. So a lot of practice, baby programmes didn't follow up on children's later lives, not because they just didn't care about the children's future well being, but because that information about the families they had been placed with and where they now that was field a lot of this has to do a stigma, especially within the White middle class. Becoming pregnant out of wedlock was increasingly stigmatized from the nineteen thirty's through the nineteen fifties and sixtys by the middle of the twentieth century. If someone was pregnant and unmarried, they were likely to spend their last months of pregnancy, somewhere out of Sight Lake Intimate Kennedy Home or living with a relative from out of town and then to be pressured coerced or outright forced into an adoption.
Infertility was also stigmatized, so sealed adoption records, which were often inaccessible even to the children, involved, allow everyone involved in the whole process, to keep all of this secret. Of course, This is not at all how its recommended handle adoptions today, and this practice made an incredibly hard for people who were adopted as babies. Get any information at all about their birth family are their health history, so them These, who were part of these home economics programmes, generally had some kind of trauma in their backgrounds before becoming a practice. Baby, maybe their parents had died and they were placed in an orphanage or their parents were alive, but just financially could not care for them, Many were born to unmarried parents, who had little to no say in the adoption decision in an eye
in fifty nine article in the journal of whom Economics Catherine H, red head of the Department of Family life in the school of home economics, it Oregon State College stressed that baby should be placed in practice houses only if these kinds of circumstances suggested that it would be in their best interests. College programmes generally kept these babies, identity, The confidential students generally knew them by first names only, although they often gave them temporary last names that varied from school to school. So, for example, These that Cornell University were giving the last named Domey com, which was short for domestic economy Stern Illinois, state teachers, college had to teaching houses and babies were given last names for which house they were living in north or south. Since everything was confidential, students didn't JANET We meet the baby's families or follow up with them later on in their life and we're going,
talk more about these practice houses and the babies in them after we first have a sponsor break, Broadly speaking, home economics programmes and the United States had two types of houses that were part of their instruction and practice. At the high school level, there were cottages where students could learn in practice, but where they did not generally live full time. These were everything from converted classroom spaces inside the school building which had been made to look like this homes or a stand alone, cottage that the school either owned or rented colleges, on the other hand, had houses or apartments were upper level. Students actually lived for a time in the words of Doktor, We Stanley Chief of the Bureau of Home Economics quote. It is ahead. In which groups of students organised as a family group, live forever?
in periods and apply their home economic training to the solution of the different housekeeping and homesick. Problems as they arise. Stanley recommended that Each state college have at least to practise houses one outfit. like a home in a city or town, and the other locating a house in a rural district. The first documented practice, houses were built in one thousand nine hundred and four. When was it stout Institute in Wisconsin and the other was at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama by one thousand nine hundred and twenty there were, can be seven practice, houses that colleges and universities around the United States, as well as some number of apartments that serve the same purpose. Some schools bought or rented and existing property and others had a practice house custom built. For example, at the Hampton Institute, the funding for the house came from a gift for the school, and the structure itself was bill.
By the schools, trade school students, the exact details of his students, time in practice, house could vary, but general attended, to involve six to eight seniors, who usually lived in the house for six to ten weeks, faculty or Sometimes graduate students were on hand to instruct supervised. and evaluate the students who were expected to cook clean, serve meals, make but it's just generally manage the household in an Words of Elba Bates headed the school of whom economics it. North Dakota Agricultural College quote the big thing which we expect of the students and upon which we check them. their family relationships such as the Spirit of cooperation, helpfulness, generosity, kindness and tolerance of the mistakes of others, at some schools, these family relationships practice in the house, involved caring for a baby. This infant care was usually described as mother, craft and mother craft as specialization with something
It was introduced into american Home Economics programmes following the establishment of the first mother craft schools in England that happened in nineteen fourteen as been the case with homemaking in general, the home Economics Movement sitter child rearing to be a worthy vocation. The deserved study and refinement home economics approached making through science and mother craft did the same with parenting, the mother craft, It was very precise and regulated with parents trying to establish set schedules for babies with regular tie aims for meals, bass play and sleep, and a diet that was carefully measured and managed by the late nineteenth teams. That was generally agreed that practical study of mother craft was critical to a home economics degree. Raising children was a huge part of a typical
Homemakers work so home economics programmes that had no hands on experience with childcare. We're just incomplete. This wasn't just about completeness for its own sake, though a nineteen twenty article journal of home Economics noted that, under the Smith Hughes ACT, vocational contact was required for people who were going to teach home economics. So if you were going to teach mother craft, you had to have some vocational contact in childcare in your own edge in order to be able to do so. Schools approach this hands on component in several ways. Somehow day care centres and pre schools on or near campus, which were staffed partly or entirely by whom economic students others brought fence and older children from the community to camp is for supervised play in workshops or they arranged for groups of students. Observe and interact with babies and children.
emerald homes out in the community, as we said, brought babies to live full time in their practice houses the same one thousand nine hundred and twenty article outlines the first documented practice baby program in the United States, which took place at the University of Minnesota in nineteen eighteen and one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, the university's to home management houses each had one child in residence in the spring and summer quarters, and although it became common to place, children and practice houses as young as possible. And this pilot programme, the babies, were Russell mates. Thirteen months, an Earl aged twenty one months, both of whom had been living in baby homes since they were born in this programme. Student in practice, houses acted as a so called baby manager for one week She was on duty with the baby's care between six and eight each morning and for thirty two six, each night
The baby manager was generally in charge and was responsible for the baby's laundry and for keeping up with documentation, including recording all the days tasks and monitoring the baby's progress, the other three or four students row. hated through the rest of the day is child care tasks depending on how their own class schedules and commitments worked out. There was one brief window week day when all of the students were in the same class, at which point a faculty member or a home ex student who wasn't living in the house would come and fill in both so an earl arrived at the university with some health issues that were associated with their time in the baby home. Both of them were described as listless and under way with a media and Rickets Russell also had eczema, but at the end of their two quarters and the practice houses they had gained way. They were showing fewer signs of nervousness and distress
students reported that the baby's became more active and more engaged their rickets had been resolved in Brussels. Eczema was also under control. The doktor who examined both babies at the end of their time at the university noted Quote Lee Improvement and the condition of these children speaks highly for your cooperative mother head other programme followed from their pretty quickly a nineteen twenty survey found that of the seventy seven practice houses operating in the. U S, sixteen had child in residence. By the time these programmes we're phased out about fifty colleges had brought babies into their practice houses, although Some pursued amber earlier one on the department of whom economics have focused on the United States. There were practice houses with practice, baby, elsewhere as well for will the University of Manitoba had thirty three practice: babies in its home economics houses between the years, one thousand, nine hundred and thirty, and one thousand nine hundred and fifty, but the tales of exactly how these programs worked varied from school. To,
for example, by the mid nineties, Fifties Iowa State College had six practice houses for home economic students. Babies stayed in one of the houses for a quarter in each group of eight students lived in the practice house for half of one slash. Four. Each student had primary care of the baby for about four to five consecutive days. So, by the end of each quarter, each baby had been cared for by sixteen women in sequence from the beginning, there was some debate within the home economics field about whether this was an effective way to teach mother craft and whether having so many caregivers could harm the babies in some way. But in the nineteen fifties, public he started to shift as well in nineteen. Fifty four,
Eastern Illinois State Teachers College became the focus of a huge national controversy surrounding a practice baby known as David North, who was only the second baby brought to the school doktor. Ruth smile housing had been hired at the college's home Economics Department and nineteen fifty and the schools. First practice houses came into use and nineteen fifty two they had actually been authorized before world were too, but because of the war they were delayed when the school started. Looking for practice, babies, small house and went to Doktor Roman, her Ramsgate of the Illinois State Child Welfare division for help. However, her empty had some concerns about this programmes. Potential impact on the children than he referred used to be involved in this social housing work directly with families in the community Eastern Illinois, state teachers colleges. First practice baby was Margaret in north, whose mother had been right to the school by the Salvation Army home in Chicago Margaret,
Since time is a practice. Baby seem to have passed that raising any eyebrows. But in nineteen fifty four, the college brought David North who had been born pre term and whose mother was unmarried. She had arranged for the school to take care of him temporarily so that she can return to work also arise Jim for visitation rights and regular updates about his progress. However, after an article about the programme ran in a local newspaper. Her risky was livid both because of his concerns about it and because the school had done all this without his involvement. He was also concerned that there was no father figure involved in Baby David's life. He ordered child Their services to investigate. During all this David's, pediatrician doktor, William K, Height, commented quote, the Inn boy is an excellent physical condition. He has received physical care, which far superior to that, given in the best foundling homes and in most american homes. Furthermore,
he is loved, which is the basic factor in the healthy developmental environment. This child, has benefited tremendously from a good start. He is receiving and we'll show for years to come, January 12th. One thousand nine hundred and fifty four. This became a national news story with most of the coverage about it being pretty negative reporting focused on the evolving fields of psychiatry and mental health. Concerns that women were abandoning their so called natural role as wives and mothers in order to join the workforce. Time magazine, ran an article about this with a photo of to students, feeding David together with the caption quote, David North and mothers knows how many neuroses ultimate Child welfare services found that, since this had been arranged privately between David's mother in the school- and there was no option involved. It was within their jurisdiction to intervene. Events,
play the furore died down and David finishes. Time is up. This baby and then a new practice. Baby Amy North arrived in the fall of nineteen. Fifty four, with no public outcry. The few of over David North was tied to an evolving understanding of how, in infants early life affected their later mental and emotional health and development. Just one part of why this practice ended, we will get more into that research after a sponsor break. as we know,
did earlier. Opinions were divided about how best to teach practical, mother, craft and american Home economic schools. I mean that bad debate when all the way back to win this subject was first introduced. People questioned whether bringing babies into practice houses was the most practical or effective way to teach and they questioned whether it was harmful or exploitive, along with things like budgets and logistics and other practical issues. These concerns were some of the reasons why every home economic programme sought out babies for its practice. Homes. Articles in primary source documents from these programmes are full of anecdotes about the experience from the students and teachers points of view, and not. Of them are positive. Some students talks about feeling overwhelmed or even terrified when they were expected to care for a baby. in articles about her novel, the irresistible Henry House authorised
A grin while mentioned getting an email from one whom economics graduate who quit her programme. Saying quote you can't treat children this way about. Other anecdotes are more positive and documents from the time students described the programmes as beneficial to their education. Everything from giving them cried, Pickle mothering experience to strengthening their connection to their own mothers, to the baby's presence in the practice house, transforming other domestic work from a drudgery to enjoy a nineteen twenty article in successful farming courts. An instructor the University of Minnesota as observing that the programme allowed students that kind of a trial run of the often frazzled first few weeks of parenthood, in a more controlled setting with some experience, supervision anecdotally, the programme could be beneficial for the baby's as well. Archival documents from programmes all over North America described. Babies brought into the programmes from institutions where they had been deprived. Babies who were met
arranged with conditions like anemia rickets, as we mentioned earlier, who just work very active or express and who seem disconnected from the people around them and then, after their time in the practice House, the baby's replaced with adopted families. Now, apparently happy and healthy. There are numerous reports of former practice babies being particularly sought after by families who wanted to adopt because they were considered to have been treated with the most up to date and sophisticated care. Then their nineteen fifties, though the general concerns that babies might be harmed by all this started, to be reflected in some psychological research, most notably psychologist Henry Harlow, that a serious experiments with baby rhesus monkeys than the late nineteen fifty ease these separated the monkeys from their mothers and then placed them in enclosures with sort of surrogate mothers. One of them made wire and the other covered in a soft Terry cloth.
He made a lot of observations from this set up like if a monkey was in an enclosure with both types of quote mothers and hard put a scary, windup toy and there the monkey would go to the soft mother for comfort. Not the weary one- this was true. Even if the wire mother dispensed, milk and the soft mother didn in the monkey It had no soft mother in their enclosure behave differently than the ones who did they would screen More throw themselves on the floor if something scary happened while monkeys with Terry oh mother, seemed more resilient, enable to soothe themselves Carlos work folded
into a body of research that increasingly suggested that a person's experience and infancy, including love, comfort, security and stability affected them later on. Some of this research involve children who had been raised an institutional settings where they were truly deprived of care and affection, and quickly became accepted that an infant whose early months were severely deprived would show signs like listlessness, poor sleep and failure to maintain wait even with a diet that seemed like it would be sufficient. So just a general failure to thrive and older, chilled and issues included an inability to make close friendships or other strong relationships, a lack of concentration and a range of mood and behavioral disorders that came to be called attachment disorder. Naturally, people started to wonder whether these conclusions could also apply to practise baby programmes. In general practice, babies got plenty of care, but
that was from multiple people, rather than one primary care giver with whom the baby could develop a strong attachment. The first formal studies into this question actually started before Harlow Research with monkeys and December of nineteen thirty. Three, a paper was published in the Journal of experimental education detailing the welfare of practice, babies that the Irish State College of Agriculture and mechanic arts, home management houses critics have questioned whether the children there could quote develop the necessary feeling of security. Under such circumstances and the American Vocational Association had appointed a committee to investigate this committee carried out an eight months study of the three children who had been practised. Babies at the mileage between one thousand nine hundred and twenty eight and one thousand nine hundred and twenty nine, and then the children who were there in nineteen, twenty nine to nineteen thirty. They compared them too. children who were within two weeks of the same age and the same sex and had-
living in a boarding home or an orphanage. They also paired all of these children to control groups. These were children. Same age and sex who had been raised with their birth families in professional and non professional households. They are messrs conducted a range of physical, mental and psychological assessments and had parents in caregivers fill out questionnaires. They concluded that the practice babies as a group Excel in intelligence, motor development, language development, adaptive behaviour and personal social behaviour. They performed slightly better than both control. groups in their motor development and slightly better than the children from non professional homes. In their personal social behaviour. They were slightly behind the control groups and language development and adaptive behavior, but they quote compared favourably and physical
health and emotional stability. The researchers only had seven children to evaluate, and some of the measurements involved were really pretty subjective, but overall An analysis of the investigators notes gave no evidence that the home management House children suffered emotionally because of their apparently complex social situation. They compared very favourably the control groups in emotional stability. They were less made in the presence of strangers, they cry ass during the medical examinations, there was less thumbs. king and nail biting among them, the home management children were noticeably superior in physical health, Oh ailments of any kind were registered against them, while the investigations were in progress, more research was conducted, starting in the nineteen fifties, Tully possible. There was other research in the interim, but the nineteen fifties. Research was what I found
doing this in nineteen fifty five- I was state college and the eye with children's homes. Society got a grant from the Elizabeth Mccormick Memorial Fun to conduct a longitudinal study into how quote non continuous mothering and home management houses affected. Babies, personalities they studied about forty babies, who had lived in the home economics houses following up with babies, who had already been through the programme and also doing baseline, assess length of new babies as they came in the practice, babies were group a and it lived in the home management house for about twelve weeks during their first six months of life group of beware, infants of the same age and sex who has spent a comfortable amount of time in foster care. Before being a, Ed Group see were also the same age sex and had lived with their birth families since being born and because they,
wanted to study. Only the effects of non continuous monitoring and they didn't want it to be influenced by other possible contributing factors. This team excluded children who had congenital disabilities or who had been born premature and then they did a battery of test when the babies were six months, nine months, twelve months, eighteen months and twenty four months old in nineteen Sixty one the team published non continuous mothering in infancy and development in later childhood in the journal, child development led author De Bruce guy no reference the ongoing longitudinal study, as well as efforts to track down older children who had been previously living in these management homes of sixty two children. between the ages of nine and seventeen who had been through the programme. Twenty, nine were still living in Iowa. That was group aim. They compared those nine children to children living in the same communities who were of the same age and sex, but had been raised. in their birth family group, be they also
factored in things like socio economic status, parents, education and the children's intelligence. When making these comparisons, then the researchers admit stirred a number of tests, including the California test of personnel, and the Iowa every pupil test of basic skills to these two groups of children, and they found little to no difference between the two groups. The difference between their quote personal adjustment scores was close enough to the threshold of significant. That it was noted is something that should not be overlooked, but it also was something that they couldn't say was conclusive. They also had a separate psychologists conduct a study to evaluate whether the children's responses to frustrations were healthy or mature in twenty nine, older children, the response from the child in group, a was considered healthier twelve times and in group be seventeen times, so there was a
light difference in favour of the children who had been raised in their birth families, but again not one them. At the threshold of significance, the over conclusion quote enough these variables could differences be attributed to the factor of discontinuity of mothering in early childhood tracking down there, the results of that longitude, no study to prove to be a well trickier. I spent a lot Sorry, I'm going through old journals. Looking for like that, a final, comprehensive result in nineteen sixty four physical status and non continuous mothering was published in the Journal of home economics and that discussed only the children's physical measurements. That particular paper found no differences between the two groups that could be attributed to their their time and in practice, program but other papers summarizing the word characterized. It is showing no meaningful differences. That would suggest that the non continue
Mothering was harmful to the baby's so again are small studies. Looking only at children who lived it Iowa State College, usually for twelve weeks. You we in their first six months of life, so you can't necessarily apply these findings to other programmes which may have captured for longer or shorter periods or earlier or later in their life. At the same time, all this research and the general concerns about whether he's. Babies would have been better off in a home with just one mother were in armed by perceptions of how families and motherhood should work, and specifically what women should be. The idea that children live in a small family unit with one parent being their primary caregiver and that parents specifically being their mother was seen the normal standard that families should aspire to, but that is definitely not universal, for example, research into society.
there are more communal or more likely to have large, extended families with many family members, all contributing to a baby's care. That research doesn't suggest that those other types of families cause attachment disorders as this research was happening, the same societal changes that were shifting the field of whom economics were also leading to the end of practice, houses and practice. Babies in listen to changing expectations related to gender and work, Ideas around parenting were also changing. There were, move away from the strictly measured scheduled, very scientific idea of mother craft to a more rely axed an intuitive model illustrated by Benjamin Spock's, the common sense book of baby and child care, which was first published in nineteen. Forty eight is first which is called trust yourself, starts off quote you know more than you think you do so. We know very little about the adult lives of people who spent part of their infancy and practice house
makers of confidentiality, rules and field adoption records and attitudes about adoption in previous decades, it's possible that there are people living today who were in these does maybe programmes and don't actually know about it however, in the nineteen nineties, the stories of two different former practice babies made headlines, one was Donald, all Dinger, whose reunion with at least for home Ex students at Cedar Crest, College and Allentown Pennsylvania covered in the morning. Call in ninety ninety three Aldinger had been declared abandoned shortly after his nineteen forty six birth because his mother was incarcerated for vagrancy. At the time he was, his Donnie at the cedar, Crest Practice House Ollinger was placed with foster family at the age of thirteen months and raised on a dairy farm with many many other foster children who came in when all day was there until the age of seventeen after meeting some of Practice, mothers he was quoted as saying for the four
time in my life, I feel like everybody else who had a family articles about his experience frame. This is like having reconnected with somebody in a generally positive experience, Shirley Kirk, bins, story published in Oregon and ninety. Ninety nine is almost the opposite. Kirkland had been a practice baby in the nineteen thirty that Oregon State College before being adopted, she described this home as a lonely, one with her mother quote Chile and her father addicted to alcohol and terms of her time in the practice house. She was quoted as saying quote: I'm sure I got excellent care. That's not the hurtful part! It's that I was used Turkmen, had thirty four students involved in her care and she described her experiences as an infant as leaving her unable to love and quote dead inside in addition to the book, the irresistible Henry House, which we mentioned earlier, there's another work of fiction about this. That's related.
which is Kyril shields, the Republic of Love and if you're still in stood in more. There is also a play which is called borrowed: babies and that was written by Jennifer Blackmore Anna weird twist of googling I learned about this play by trying to figure out whether my grandmother's Homec program programme had a practice house which it did. I dont know if it did. While she was in school there, because the article that I found talking about the practice out, there was from the forties and she graduated in nineteen thirty nine and that college had put on a performance of the show in my back was how I wound up finding it meant by about them by coincidence, doing it of the performance of the show. So does the practice. Babies, aye, aye alot of articles like just popular articles,
necessarily academic particles have been written about it in the last ten years, have just a horrified tone and describe it worth words like distribution and there's a lot of a reason to be upset out conditions during a lot of this period. Like so many of these children were living in experiences that that were truly deprives and that there are so many stories of people being forced into adoption because they were not married and all of that to me as a lot more troubling, then that the Practice house component of it
anyway, I also have listener male mammy. Less lunar rail is grim Jes, just as high Holly and Tracy. Thank you for doing an episode about bees and beekeeping. I'm headed into my second season of beekeeping and I'm up to four hives this year, all of which are the length struck type. I am working with a couple of local farmers to place hives as the years go onto better help their crops out, I'm anticipating getting upwards of a hundred pounds of honey this year. Once we all have offices to go to again I'll have to send you some honey. I did have one possible correction in relation to the use of smokers and hives. While they
have been intended to disburse the bees. Initially thought that effective in doing so, primarily using smokin hives interrupt their ability to communicate if they use pheromones to do that. Basically, if one b is anxious about a keeper being in the hive, it prevents that from spreading through the hive, keeping the bees com and easy to work with and around, I laughed about the privacy wall the bees made, but it is, if possible, that they may have done that bees create a product called propolis which is basically be glue. It is a sticky water resistant residue that bees can and do coat the inside of their hive with to help prevent water from
and thanks again for keeping me entertained, I've attach some pictures and a video of dropping a new high this year after a split which is the manual version of a swarm thanks. Just thank you so much for sending this note Jes one of the things that I did not go into detail about in that episode, why's that, while today, most of the things that are used in smokers are not considered to be harmful to bees than it does have a pacifying effect earlier in history, Some of the things that people have burned when dealing with bees have been things that were a lot more harmful and in some cases where were things that, when burned with like really irritate or even kill the bees, which is, of course not done today and as far as I was
like marrow down, be an immense history of beekeeping. That was one of the things that I did not really I get into as much. I could not specifically say whether, when I was talking about using smoke to drive the bees out, I'm whether that was correct or not, because I rented that text book and it has gone back, it is no longer something I can go back to a check as they affect the fifth without regret thing it again. If physical libraries were open, I could have got to physical copy from from a fancy university library, but could not anyway, so that is a little TED bit about smoking and the bees. If you like to us, whether it's just spur basic listener mail or if, if you're interested in having a question and in a q and a episode that were planning in the relatively near future service, where history podcast that I heart media dot com and then we're off,
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