It was half performance for the British troops, and half actual sham, and it led to an attack on Dover by the Pennacook tribe in 1689.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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were New Hampshire, and this is mostly just to be a little personal adventure that sounded like something funded EU and a chance to look at them. Really amazing autumn leaves, but one of the things that led me to pick Dover specifically for my adventure was the Woodman Institute music So this museum opened the nineteen sixteen and it's mostly dedicated to local and natural history, although it has other exhibit well one of the towns original garrisons is there that building was in sixteen seventy five and then move to the Woodman Institute property later after it was donated to the museum, is actually pretty cool because there is an entire structure built around the garrison to protect it from the elements so all there's a lot of really fascinating stuff in the Woodman and feet: museum, natural history and taxidermy display. Are really arranged in curated, a lot like they were when they museum originally open, but one of the things that really caught. My eye was inside the garrison witches,
Of colonial era artifacts and on the wall was a map that traced the progression of a conflict between british colonists and the native Americans from the area, and the they told me the basic story of what had happened and the part that made me think this needs to be an episode, I'm a sham battle, so today fan basically means trick or hopes, but at the time, and maybe also regional I'm not quite sure. The term sham battle was used to describe a lot of different mark battles, so reenact, hence were fleeing. Battles were back that we're done as part of a ritual were SAM battles, though it wasn't necessarily meant to be deceptive. In this case, however, it was from a couple of different angles, so that is what we are going to talk about today. This sham lets you,
came to be known as the cocoa massacre or the raid on Dover. The rate Andover took place during one of the many times in history which Britain has been at war with France. In this case, wars were happening both in North America and Europe, concurrently with each of the wars having a different. depending on exactly when it happen and which side the historian was on specifically these for the french in indian wars, which North America were between Britain and its native american allies on one side and France and its native american allies. On the other. So each of the french and indian wars ran alongside a related conflict that was happening in Europe and we could easily spend an entire episode outlining all of the various nuances of who is at war with whom and why, if you look at timelines of all of this differ, saurians group them together differently and define them differently in different nations. Give them different names so, for the sake of simplicity,
France and England, where it will, with one another, often on for almost a hundred years with part of the conflict focused on their territories in North America and who should control those territories as part of like that, The later history of Britain, being at war with france- and this part had specifically american component to it, and as far as we are, the theatre of the war was happening and today, subjects of took place in the time that it overlapped a bit with King Williams, war, which ran from sixteen eighty nine to sixteen ninety seven. It was the first to the french and indian wars and in the Europe, the theatre, it was the war of the Grand alliance or the war of the League of Augsburg, along with other names that it sometimes called King Williams. War was named after king, William, the third also known as William of Orange, who ruled Britain and other places at the time. I know this
They sound like a soup of many different wars and one of the things I am Polly as I was working on this with. I find the progression of all of these battles on each side of the Atlantic Ocean to be very confusing, It is because their eyes battle soup. It really becomes that way when you try to sort of all out yet so during King Williams, war battles rains all over. What's now Nova, Scotia, New Hampshire, main and New York, the colonies of New Hampshire, Europe already existed this at this point, but main was founded much later and at the time Nova Scotia acadia- and yes, we have heard your many requests for an episode. Expulsion of the occasions. We will do that at some point. I'm not sure when bit lots of people ask that the phrase also tried and failed to conquer Boston during King Williams WAR, but before we get into this particular event in King Williams were worked
I have to talk a little bit about where it happened before we jump into that it's a little early, but let's go ahead and do a sponsor break now, so that we can keep some continuity later. Progress listeners have you ever wanted to share a love story with someone, but you may be wanted to do it in a really unique in interesting way, or you were struggling to get the exact rate words in place. Will you don't know, to worry about that? You can put it into a book, and that is where love book comes in love books, help customers express their sentiments that there working hard to make their own unique thing and each book is come The customizable most customers use them to list the reasons why they love someone, but you can you kinds of things, can create characters. It look like yourself and the research, re done, outfits and accessories you. personalized, each page as much as you want, but you so you have the option of what they call the express option, which will create a complete book with just a few clicks. love book even offers a membership programme. Now you will save immediately on your purchase today, and then we see
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Generally good relationships with the native american tribes in the area, which were primarily the penny cook and, as was common with many tribes in the area, the petticoat tended to move from place to place seasonably depending on where food was most available and although they hunted gathered and fish, they did also cultivate corn and they taught these skills so the colonists in and around over, while trading with the colonists for tools and supplies, there were, of course, sometimes dispute and, to be quite clear, nearly half of the pinnacle had died of disease after the arrival of Europeans and the Americans. But in general, at this point in history, the pinnacle tried to maintain positive diplomatic relations with their neighbours from Europe, while also defending themselves from the mohawk, which had been their enemies for quite a long time penny.
chief path: Conaway formed a confederation among other neighbouring tribes to this end of having positive relations with the colonists from Europe, as well as defending themselves from them His son want a lamp that also maintained this confederation and the ties to the colony at Dover. After he succeeded, his father is becoming the chief, the first industry, and Bird came via saw mill, which was founded by Richard Waldron in sixteen forty two independent our records you're looking out, you're gonna see different spelling. Sometimes it comes up as Wall Dern D are in IE or while driven the are. Why any in the various records that by sixty sixty for more than forty families, had settled near the saw mill today. That's actually downtown Dover, but at this point people called Cohiba after the saw Mill-
Waldron himself was putting commander the militia and, given the rank of major the colonists and the Dover area also constructed garrisons that could be used for both defence of the town and to shelter people in case there was an attack, so families would gather up there viewed in their bedding, and they would go to the garrison which could be defended thanks to being constructed out of immensely thick logs, and we may are enormous, having stood in one of these things, they are almost incomprehensibly huge logs and there would be little within them for firearms to be able to shoot through, and the protection of the garrison was not just for European colonists native peoples in the area also frequently asked for an were granted shelter in the garrisons for the night, the population, in this area really increase significantly in sixteen. Seventy six, when native Americans from Massachusetts fled to Dover and other settlements in the wake of King Philips, war
So, in spite of the similarity in the name to King Williams, war came King Philips. War was not one of the french and indian wars, an early sixteen hundred colonists and what's now, Massachusetts had gradually become independent from needing native american help for their own survival and as the colonists began, moving farther and farther into territory that native peoples were already living on. The tribes started to resist this encroachment relationships between the native peoples in the colonists and the areas pretty quickly soured medical com. On his king, Philip, had become the leader of the want, but no eggs after the death of his father and in sixteen seventy five medical led most of the native american tribes in the area. In an uprising against the British, it went on for more than a year, the native peoples were generally holding their own in these battles or even winning until the spring of sixteen seventy six. When they face starvation due to the destruction of their crops. The uprising also lost its leader when medic
was beheaded. King Phillips war ended not long after this is an extremely bloody, extremely destructive war, especially considering the population of the area. At the time it wound up killing almost three thousand of them. People and six hundred Europeans and it destroyed settlement all over the New England Frontier area around over had been less affected, largely because the petticoat had retreated some more remote areas to try to avoid the fighting in the wake of King Philips, Whore native american refugees fled both north and west about four hundred wound up at the cohesive settlement at Dover. So that's where we get to the sham battle that led me to want to do this episode at sixteen seventy six. So King Williams WAR has not
and yet that's gonna play a part in the next chapter of this. The area around over New Hampshire at this point is home to us some ill, some garrisons fewer than fifty families of colonists from Europe, its local native american population and also about four hundred native american refugees who had fled the terror and destruction of King Philips, war, and we will go on to talk about how this turned into a problem after another week word from a sponsor this episode of stuff. You missed in history, glasses brought. You buy Norton three sixty with lifelong, let's just say, Shopping online with your smartphone. I do it all the time they sure feels like your personal info is right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, as soon as you hit submit your personal information could start going other places. In fact, when you shot,
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Boston actually sent to companies of soldiers to capture them and bring them back by force. Now major Waldron thought it might be possible to make this problem go away without bloodshed. He did think that the Boston area native Americans should be returned back to Boston, but he didn't want the native peoples from around over to be harmed. I mean, after all, as the especially from the colonists point of view. Relations with the Seneca had been pretty good. They didn't really want to mess that up. There is a productive traders, ship going on there with cooperation between the peoples and my overall a lot of fighting at that point. So he propose that they have a sham battle. He would arm the native Americans with muskets and they would have a mark fight against the Dover Militia to make a good show for the Boston troops. The Boston troops would see. This battle be satisfied that things were being taken here.
And go back home Waldron reportedly arm them, although with only amount for the armed men to fire, one single shot and not reload, so the part about putting on a good show for them, then troops that making them go away seems to have been how he sold the refugees on the whole plant. But here's what he did not tell them it actually arranged for the Dover area militia to be present and what's the native fighters had all fired there. One thought from their muskets surround them
we'd out the ones who are from Dover from the ones who were from Boston and then send the Boston grew back with the Massachusetts soldiers. The Massachusetts soldiers took more than two hundred native Americans back to Boston, where some of them were executed and others were sold into slavery. So this whole sham battle had done what it was supposed to do from Walden Point of view. It it had gotten the Boston area native population back to Boston it and it had left the Dover Native Population unharmed. However, unsurprisingly, this was not good for the relationship between the Dover Colonists and the native Americans from the area. There's productive trading relations
and diplomatic ties, quickly, sort of trouble things remains tense were more than a decade during which Dover added to its collection of garrisons than the newer garrisons had a second floor. That was larger than the first floor, which created an overhang that can be used to poor hot oil on people who were trying to set the structure on fire or break their way into it. Each neighbourhood had its own garrison and five houses, those that were at the highest vantage points around over were converted into garrisons at public expense and surrounded by a palisade. Some accounts actually say we're a total of six heavily fortified garrison. So there's a little bit of lack of clarity around those specifics fell Major Waldron Thirdly, at an effort trying to keep things under control also started putting a number of restrictions on a native people around over. He started restricting their like their rights to travel in the words and he started quote trading with them for land, but these
Craves always happened under duress and they always worked strongly in the colonists favour. So things were going south pretty quickly. Eventually, chief Wanna Lancet died and he was succeeded by Conquer Magus while want awaits it had followed his father's example in maintaining cooperative relationships with the Dover colonies. Conquer Magus had no intention of doing any such thing, while his father and his grandfather had tried to maintain these diplomatic ties with colonists. He had seen one justice after another, following in the wake of the sham battle. Also running concurrently with all of this escalation was, as we mention at the top the pad cast. King Williams were so things are becoming increasingly tense. All over the area, the small scale, attacks against colonial homes and settlements were happening. Allah renewing
and it was clear to the colonists at Dover that more serious hostility with eminent people started taking refuge in the garrisons. Every single night, Governor Edward Cranfield decided to enlist the aid of the mohawk, who remember had long been enemies of the petty cook for support, so conquer Magus at first moved as many of his people as he could into a more remote area to try to keep them safe and he sent a series of lead to Governor Cranfield to try to reach some kind of agreement. The governor apparently didn't enter into serious negotiations with Congo. Make us at any point, so conquer Magus eventually started planning a more coordinated attack against the colonists and over
although major Waldron insisted that everyone's fears were overblown. Some of the petticoat who were loyal to the colonists tried to warn them that there was an incoming attack. Word made it to the governor who wrote to Waldron warning him of a large gathering of native Americans in the area who seem to have hostile intentions. He sent a letter on the twenty seventh in sixteen eighty nine, unfortunately, that same night before the letter reached its destination. Two or native american women asked for shelter at the garrisons around Dover and were laughed aloud in it all, but one of them, while everyone was asleep women unbarred the doors and opened the gate. Sympathy,
warriors who are waiting outside had come in at Major Waldron garrison. The major himself was tied to a chair and slashed with his own sword. With his attacker reportedly saying quote, I cross out my account. He was dismembered and killed and his family was killed or taken captive before his house was burned down. Similar scenes played out at Dover as other garrisons. The colonists within were killed and captured before the garrison itself was set on fire. Some of the garrisons were ultimately left standing, but their contents were looted and their inhabitants killed. Her captured before the raiders moved on. The only garrison that was left untouched was one where a barking dog has alerted the family. Who were there most
the more actually away and someone who was there had woken up, close the gate and mounted a defence. Twenty three people were killed and twenty nine were taken captive, and this was about a quarter of diverse population. Some of the captives reportedly also sold into slavery, as had happened after the sham battle. Conquer Magus, and the penny retreated quickly before the militia could be raised were before any kind of real resistance could be mounted and cut. Him make eventually relocated the penny cook and then joined his people with the avenue Aki people. We are closely related tribe that was native to the area. Many of Congo make us with family, was killed or captured, and arrayed later on by Captain Benjamin shirts that took place in sixteen ninety. He and put a cook continued to attack
their settlements in the area after the raid on Eco and stopped only when he learned that the British were holding his surviving family members hostage because such a large proportion of the population of Dover had been lost, it took quite a while for the town to recover. It continued to be the target of similar attacks and raids, but there was never anything on the scale of this massacre. When you look into information about the panic and Ivan today, a lot of times their written about as one tribe or as like different parts of the same tribe are the same people, so there are still members of their stripes who are alive today. They are not a group that has disappeared so That is what I learned when I sell more deeply into something that I had heard the very brief museum, doesnt version of while on a weekend trip, museums or variants by
places. They are. I turn even when I am deliberately like. Ok, I'm on vacation, and I am not going to think about the podcast because we like to work, I'm a progress, but it is still our jobs. It is work and we sometimes we need a break from work. You know what I am conscientiously like. I am at this museum for myself and my own edification still wind up writing down things that you every episode about later on. We too do you, however, at the moment have some listener meal I view this is another, that is about our episode about the history of special education in the United States, and it is from Amy and she starts by gushing a bit and understand us get that part and she's. While I have probably fifty favorite episode, but as the most recent pike ass, you did on the special education movement that finally got me to email. You
my father taught special education for thirty seven years, starting in the early nineties. Seventy. So he lived all of its history, its amazing. How times have changed when he first started teaching his students were completely self contained in the room was in the farthest part of a school away from all the other students and next to the boiler room. By the time he retired schools started doing coat eating where he would go with his students to their core classes, where they would be included with the quote regular students, and he would offer support its amazing. How times have changed the pie cast really hit home. For another reason, my daughter was born this passage, gene and was diagnosed at birth with down syndrome as a teacher unfortunate enough to know about legislation and what her legal rights are to integration and, though the system and how to get it. The how to get the ball,
for my daughter, I ached for parents who don't know how the system works. Your podcast really shows how the lives of so many children have been changed for the better I'm lucky. My sweet girl was born in twenty fourteen and that we are able to get her the various therapies at three months old, I'm lucky to live in a country that provides resources and opportunities to children. Like her the day she was born. We had no idea she had down's syndrome. All I could think about with what a limited she was going to have, and that should be bullied. However, I now realise how amazing she is and how their college programmes all over the country for people like her her life is already inspired me to follow my own dreams. I want to be an example for her. I have always wanted to write and publish books. I've started writing a series of children's books in which the main character is a girl with special needs. There are no books out there for these children that really celebrate them. The books dont focus on limitations. They show amazing funny brave individual kids. You happen to have differences
I'd like to have it eventually published and start a company that has books dolls in a magazine, and it has ended up being a really long message. Thank you so much for teaching me about things. I've never heard of and for having such an often podcast, sincerely Amy, and then she suggests some Peter things. One of the reasons that I wanted to read this letter is that I almost wonder if Amy's, if Amy Father taught special education at one of the elementary but I went through because literally that is exactly the situation. The special education classroom was literally in the basement, separated completely from all the other children, and I didn't really talk about it in that episode bet I vividly remember going through school. I started a public school and nineteen eighty not long at all. After the passage of all, this legislation was still debate going on forever
least a decade, probably more about the idea of quote mainstreaming, which is putting children who had special needs and you're a classroom were quote regular students. And now that seems to be am sure there are definitely school systems where this is not so much the case. But that seems to be more like the goal and not some giant controversy or people who talk about about whether children should be mainstreamed. Answer seems to be yes if it is possible, filter and should be in a classroom with peers of our ability types though it's written here from observed. First person perspective on all of that. If you would like to write to us where history podcast, that house upwards DOT com Ross Facebook is based, but that calm flash Miss than history and on squid, or at least in history. Our tumblr is Mr History, tumblr dot com and we were on Pinterest at Paris, dot com, Flash missed in history. We have a red shirts
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