« Stuff You Missed in History Class

Unearthed! in December 2019, Part 2

2020-01-01 | 🔗

It’s part two of our year-end Unearthed! Today, we have some longtime listener favorites, including edibles and potables, Otzi, and exhumations. And some other stuff – beginning with several studies about what exactly caused the Neanderthals to die out.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
let me tell you about people who love talking and always wanted to play in the end a jail pete play since he was three and big mom to let him stay on the ice why some nights he even slept in his happy skates peace practiced in practice to one day when he was born seven feet realized e justice that good so he threw his it's in the trash but then he heard how geico proud partner of a nature could save him money on car insurance so he switched and saved a bunch so it all worked out welcome to stuff you missed in history class production of i hurt radios how stuff works low and welcome to the pod cast i'm tracy meanwhile and i'm holly frank it far too our year end twenty nineteen unearthed thus far we have come a very long time what's your favorite i mean we did last time to but some particular favorite
this time including the edibles and potable some utterly stuff and the explanations there's some other things too and we will kick it off with several different studies that were all looking at exactly what caused the end ass to die out humans and neanderthals coexisted on the european continent for at least five thousand years before the human population started to outstrip the neanderthals and f that of course the neanderthals eventually became extinct over the last few months we heard about a few different papers trying to get to the item of exactly what happened so according to researchers from japan and italy it might be because humans figured out how to use projectile weapons colluding spear throwers and bows and arrows they found evidence that humans might have used these kinds of weapons between forty and forty five thousand years ago which is twenty thousand years earlier than previously thought so they
this could have given humans an edge over neanderthals you hadn't developed that same technology how however we should note that in a previous instalment of unearthed we talked about research that suggested that neanderthals spears could have been used as throwing weapons evaporated their study included replicas of three hundred thousand year old javelins much older than me forty two forty five thousand years in this research and then for a completely different idea maybe the cause was chronic ear infections this hypothesis from a team of head and neck anatomists who published a paper called reconstructing the neanderthal you station to new insights on disease susceptibility fitness cost and extinct they published that in the journal the anatomical record in the world samuel marquez phd quote it may sound far fetched but when we for the first time reconstructed the usurpation tubes of me and our thoughts we discovered that they are
markedly similar to those of human infants middle errand actions are nearly ubiquitous among infants because the flat angle of infancy station tubes is prone to retain the tightest media bacteria that cause these infections the same flat angle he found in the under dolls so most many children literally outgrow with these infections as they get bigger there you station tubes get longer and more sharply angled so that their ears can drain better but mere bartholomew station tubes remained flat into adulthood making it more likely that they might continue to have recurring or chronic infections and apart from the risk of death from a really acute infection this would have just made life harder for neanderthals especially as they were competing with humans for resources because it he's your suddenly now is curious as tracy was well she's doing this research that station tube is named after sixteenth century anathemas bartolomeo you stacy am we're still not done with it
neanderthal question according to a paper by scientists from stanford which was published in the journal nature communications the cause might have been infectious diseases not ear infections using mathematical model they concluded that humans in the intervals didn't interact very much for the first centuries of their mutual existence because they each carried and were resistant to different diseases so they suggested that each population was encircled by a quote invisible disease barrier but at some point humans and neanderthal started interbreeding we know that for sure team behind this research suggests that the children of these bearings may have had immunity to diseases from both groups tipping the prick is balance that had lasted up until then so that led them to the question why i then did humans eventually get the upper hand rather than the end or dolls if their offspring had immunity to both sets of diseases and the answer
might have been that there were more and deadlier diseases and tropical areas where humans originated than there were farther north into europe and asia so it was a lot easier for humans to move north and survive and it was for neanderthals to try to move south intertropical africa and in our last de that we're talking about on these subjects maybe it was inbreeding a team from eindhoven university of technology the netherlands used mathematical modeling to study the effects of inbreeding unhindered all populations their research suggests inbreeding alone was not enough to explain the extinction of the neanderthals but small populations of species are known to experience something called alley effects basically a very small population is just not as genetically fit as a larger one and in reading and alley effects combined could have caused the neanderthals to go extinct over about ten thousand year period so the suggestion here is that the end
action of humans to an area might have influenced the neanderthal behaviour just enough to encourage or inbreeding and a population that was already pretty small but they didn't think it was enough say that human activity conclusively caused neanderthals extinction and the words of the papers authors quote did me under those disappear because of us know this study suggests the species demise might have been do merely to a stroke of luck add demographic luck and now we're moving under one of my favorite subjects clothing and accessories excavations under tar about old parish church in the scottish islands have nurse a man's ankle boots complete with buckles amethyst home that he wore with them the find is about sex hundred years old and in the words of sicily small a field work archaeology services quote the man had been put in
often wearing these clothes but the coffin at some point collapsed and everything concertina it i wanted to have this quote in their specifically because the description of everything concertina delighted me that a description i think we use is often in the u s so because this collapse sealed disclosing off from oxygen it's pretty well preserved with visible wear and tear that seems to have come from the garments use and not from the collapse of the coffin or that the composition of the material over time you can even see some of those persons leg hair caught in the hose a metal detect wrist in estonia on earth is seventeen hundred year old sacrificial site that included a gold bracelet crossbow brooches belt plaques and silver plates the brain but in particular is noteworthy it might actually collar and probably dates back to the third century an archaeological team came to the site for further study of this discovery with archeo
just amerika madge i noting that gold is a rare find in sight of this age in estonia and a peace this large and heavy is particularly rare mad i told a news broadcasts quote one can say that this is likely they most valuable single find in the material sense to be unearthed in estonia this fund has been sent to a museum a dutch art detective has recovered a ring connected to oscar wilde that was stolen during burglary at maudlin college in two thousand to the ring
and two metals had been stolen in the same incident and after the culprit even andrews was caught he said that he had sold the ring to scrap dealer so master and was found it was returned to the college which home mercer mark blatchford baker said he had given up hope of ever seeing again like once the culprit said that he had sold the stuff to scrap dealer people were like well that's definitely gone this rings history a bit of it in eighteen seventy six wild and his friend reginald harding had given the ring to their friend william ward all three of these men were friends while taking is that the college and then the ring later became part of the college's collection of wild memorabilia archaeologists in china have used enzyme linked immunity servant essay to confirm the fibers found in burial earns there are silk fabrics making them the world's oldest known silk they date back to between fifty three hundred and fifty five hundred years ago and they suggest this
making and dying techniques for relatively refined by that point meaning that people had four started making silk well before that previously the oldest known silk fibres from between four thousand two hundred and four thousand four hundred years old and to be clear i put this under clothing because it was the most related category but it wasn't actually clothing this silk was part of the material that had been used to wrap add is sort of post mortem clothing you can argue no not exactly clothing or at least not always clothing researchers have studied twelve hundred beads made from ostrich eggshell too spot patterns in how they might reflect social changes that took place on the african continent thousands of years ago these beads came from thirty different sites in styles and shape seem to shift when a new influence comes into an area in the world of lead author jennifer miller quote these beads or so
rules that were made by hunter gatherer from both regions for more than forty thousand year so changes or lack thereof in these symbols tells us how these communities responded to cultural contact and economic change so to expand on that people in africa started making these beads at least fifty thousand years ago and according to previous research the beads tended to get bigger when hurting people moved into a region that had been previously and happy just by foreigners this new research suggests that the pattern isn't that straightforward in some africa new styles of beads followed evidence of the introduction of hurting but previous bead styles didn't go away but eastern africa bead style stayed the same even after hurting was introduced to an area this was the first study of bead patterns specifically in eastern africa and its possible that the bead makers they're just weren't influenced by the newcomers or it's possible
the hurting people who moved into that area already had a similar bead making style so changes weren't as apparent are colleges from the university of copenhagen have published a paper in the journal of archaeological science reports detailing three human teeth it appear too used as jewelry and those teeth were found of cartel you which also came up in our autumn unearthed though the teeth or about eighty five hundred is old and they had been drilled with the same sort of micro drills that were used to make beads out of stones or animal bones they also one in a way that suggest that they had been used is jewelry or something similar for quite some time the teeth chewing surfaces suggested that they had belonged to a mature adults and so the suggestion was that they were probably removed either after someone died or from a skull of a person who had died quite some time before that after we take it
sponsor break we're going to move on to another big favorite edibles and protocols the future is closer than you think and it all starts in the palm of your hand you may have heard the news five g is coming but what does that really mean how an impact me in this new i hot series this time tomorrow presented my team above a business join me as well ocean and my co host car price as we walk you through the true revolution in mobility that will change the way we interact with the world around us from environmental science to law enforcement entertainment healthcare and travel innovation is coming join us as we explore how this revolution could impact your life and here just how close we are getting to a more connected future full of possibility
he's in the age of five g this time tomorrow presented by team above a business is now available on the eye hot radio up or wherever you listen to port costs cake fur animals and potable this time around a team of scientists at the university of bristol has reportedly earliest known evidence of baby feeding bottles are at least their basic equivalent these are small clay vessels dating back to about five thousand b c e their small enough for a baby to hold and they have as little spout at the bottom that a baby could suck milk fruit some of these vessels are shaped like imaginary animals which suggested to the team that they might be meant for children but they also noted that they could have been used to feed adult who were very ill or were otherwise unable to eat solid food the team look at three specific examples that
they found in the graves of children and tested them and they contained residues the milk of domesticated ruminant animals like cows and the words of doktor julie done from the university of bristol who is the lead author of the paper published on this find that was published in the journal feature quote similar vessels although rare do appear and other prehistoric cultures such as room in ancient greece across the world ideally we liked it we had a larger geographic study and investigate whether they serve the same purpose recent sure studying a cave near tel aviv have found evidence that paley illicit people saved animal bones for ten nine weeks so that they can have the marrow as a food source leader on comparing into being opening up a can of soup they had already known that bone marrow was an important source of nutrition and paleo ethic diets diet but they had thought that food was scarce enough that people had to whatever they had as soon as they habits lithium concluded that these bones were prison
rather than immediately broken open for their marrow because of evidence of chopping marks that did not match up with butchering methods that were known to be used with fresh meat and this is the earliest known evidence of people basically using bones for food storage purposes rather than consuming what was inside them immediately demon porter ego has examined twenty kilograms of fossilized clam shells to try determine how the pre airlock population of the island prepared them for eating therein allison of these shall suggest that they were cooked at more than one hundred degrees celsius which is the boiling point of water but less than two hundred degrees concluding that they were cooked over i am rather than boiled the study said babo huge but we know from our recent barbecue live show people have a lot of opinions on whether that would be the correct word in this situation get this team also noted that this fine provide some circumstantial evidence about whether pottery was widely used on the island
you would need some pottery vessels in order to be able to boil clams a newly published book has tailed the finding of an excavation at bury fields in buckinghamshire england the excavation took place between two thousand seven and twenty six team one interesting find a bread basket would with the only intact chickens egg from roman britain so this egg was actually one of four that were founded the site but the other three broke which was still a very stinky experience according to the archaeologists on the scene it's possible that the bread basket and the bread that it presumably contain as well as the eggs might have been thrown into this pit sometime after the late third century that was something that people did for good luck or its part a religious ritual all i can think of his templeton the rat now the book is called bury fields irony
settlement and a roman bridge field system and settlement along aikman street near fleet marston buckinghamshire and it is published by oxford archaeology for the last one isn't exactly edible but the best place to put it researchers at the u the city of copenhagen have managed to sequence and entire ancient genome from a fifty seven hundred year old piece of birch pitch that was used as chewing gum basically i we ve talked about chewing gum fines before they described this as the first time that an entire ancient genome has been extracted from something that was now bone this piece of pitch was found in southern denmark and in addition to the human dna that it contained it also had traces of plant animal dna they were probably part of that person's diet as well as dna from the microbes in their mouse we have a few exam
bulls of items being returned or repatriated to their place our culture of origin next the united states department of homeland security returned the head of a marble statue to libya in october and twenty eighteen the you in libya had signed an agreement that imposed restrictions on the import of lobbying cultural property to united states and in this head had been smuggled into the u s and violation of that agreement as has returned to the libyan embassy in washington dc and living authority said it would be returned to it historical location cambridge university college is returning a statute that was looted from nigeria the bronze statue cockerel was removed from nigeria then the kingdom of beneath in eighteen ninety seven and then it was given to the college by students father this is one of many bronzes they were taken from beneath and are now in british museums and universities that there is a whole effort that i just
saw an article about after sending out like this outlined was done was done it was sent finished about a whole effort in britain to try to track down other artifacts that should be returned to nigeria and then in similar news france has returned a nineteenth century sabre to senegal the french had seized this sword and eighty ninety three and then placed it in the collection of paris is army museum the sabre initially belongs to omar said tal and was confiscated from his son this was part an effort announced last year in which france would return items of african cultural heritage within five years with free president a manual mccrone saying quote i cannot accept that a large part of cultural heritage from several african countries is in france there are historical explanations for that but there are no valid justifications that are durable and unconditional african heritage
just be in european private collections and museums but progress on actually fulfil we must hope lamb has actually been slow as french law makers have tried to shout the legal and logistical details of an expert isn't exactly a repatriation but it has some of the same themes we talked a lot in our unearth episodes and other times about discoveries that have come from d a analysis on aim should human remains and their rights eyes of these kinds of studies has brought up some ethical questions research that involves the dna of living people is supposed to be caught dead following ethical rules and guidelines based on the idea that people should have a right to privacy when it comes to their own health information in their own dna but ancient dna can be kind of a grey area and to be equally this is not just a theoretical question of what rights long dead ancient people should have over their own dna these results
these studies can have huge cultural and political implications for people living today especially in indifferent people and other ethnic minorities so the national science found she has awarded a three hundred fifty thousand eight hundred eighty two dollar collaborative grant to the university of connecticut the and were museum of nature and science and partners across the united states canada and europe to study this question this team that's being assembled plans to involve indigenous leaders in these conversations and to try to establish standards for this research that are respectful of india the communities and that encourage collaboration among the researchers doing the work with the people who that work might affect in july we talked about greece's demand for the parthenon marbles to be returned from the british museum and there been a lot more back and forth about that since then so stay tuned for a future episode of the poor
as on that when we hope it's in the works i think at this point it's it's moves from we hope to be likely over the family or our we have the botsey news hours have almost always various researchers have been studying the human intestinal micro biome and how that micro by might be connected to various diseases and conditions so several studies have connected things like processed foods and an increased use of antibiotics various hygiene practices and other behaviors all grouped under the idea of a western lifestyle so studies have connect that western lifestyle to changes in the micro biome and these changes in the micro biome have been correlated with a rise in things like auto immune disorders allergies and gastro intestinal diseases a paper
published in the journal cell host and microbe examined the got microbes of sixty five hundred people across multiple continents they specifically looked at the private tela copra complex which includes four different glades and is associated with a number of health concerns he found that these bacteria was present in about thirty percent of people with more western lifestyles and about ninety six percent of people described as having non western lifestyles getting incredibly basic idea it has been a lot of cases there seems to be a correlation not necessarily causation between a lack of these bacteria and various health conditions so then these results were appeared to aim shit micro biomes including both fossilized human poop add up these micro biome etsy of course did not have a western lifestyle at all and his microbe i am showed evidence of three of the four claims
of this bacterium in other etsy news researchers at the university of glasgow and the university of innsbruck have been trying to identify i all the and liver words that were found around nazis remains these plants are classified as briar fights and there are thousands of four vince o brien fight in the ice there was around it these body although only twenty three species are briar fights live in the area today their release seventy five species from immediately around us he's remains and from his clothing gear and his gut and we are gonna take one more quick sponsor break before we get to the rest of our unearthed from the new this time tomorrow podcast available now on the eye heart radio up or wherever you get your podcast join us as we explore a future full of possibilities in the age of five g my dream will be that as it
knowledge is better with five g and beyond in the future is to actually transmit what they asked miss are looking through their helmets and they will be following an astronaut ass they step in to the surface of the moon so imagine what it will be a mean just think of it for a minute we be there wouldn't it time tomorrow is presented by t mobile for business today team who is leaving the five g charge thirty billion dollars invested in an advanced network designed to deliver the breadth of mobility we need business is changing learn more a t mobile for business dot com
ok we have already talked in these two episodes about various findings that came from burial sites or the grave goods in them in some way for our next few finds the connection to burials is the thing that they have in common first a team studying a four thousand year old burial site off the coast of the u s state of georgia have said that it shows evidence of really long ranging relationships among hunter gatherer people's during north america's woodland period what they found of ancient shell pit was a burial site that had a lot in common with funeral practices of people living in the great lakes area at about the same time in the words of matthew sanger who led the research team quote are excellent hence revealed remarkable parallels between the shell ring in the coastal southeast and in broadly contemporaneous sites in the great lakes including the use of cremation to handle the dead creamy
the dead in an area separate from where the bones were eventually buried the use of copper as a burial item the burial of multiple people at the same time and the use of ochre in the burial not only are these this is very similar our analyses clearly show that the copper founded the shell ring educated in the great lakes and was therefore traded between the two regions note we all of these practices are rare or entirely absent from the regions between the great lakes and the south east which suggests that was not some sort of general diffusion of traditions but rather a direct transplants basically the suggested that people living in eastern north america four thousand years ago were necessarily sticking to relatively isolated pockets of territory they may traveled very long distances and had interactions that stretched across much of the eastern half of the continent the paper that they published on this was called great lakes copper and shared work where he practices on the atlantic coast implicate
for long distance exchange during the late archaic they was public in the journal american antiquity and other news a roman catholic church and said let czech republic is nicknamed the bone church because it houses the bones of somewhere between forty thousand and seventy thousand people in an arbitrary some of these bones are still act and others are arranged into formations and these are the remains of people who died of plague in the mid fourteenth century as well as in the huh site wars that followed an ongoing restoration project at the church has also invites excavation in the area and during that time researchers have found to mass graves one from a thirteen eighteen famine and one from a thirteen forty eight plague together this represents another five hundred skeletons moving on the acquitaine museum in bordeaux france is on the site of what was once a convent and in november they announced that a too
in the museum's basement might contain the remains of 16th century renaissance philosopher michel de montaigne who died in one thousand five hundred and ninety two and whose body location hasn't been totally clear because it was moved several times after death although there is still work to be done the wooden coffin in the tomb does have montana written on it in large brown letters does seem like a clue maybe i mean it could be some other montanans or somebody who loved montana or someone who refer wanted to confuse us all in the future in october a team in norway found an unusual boat burial now boat bearing as on their own are not unheard of there have been several of them found over the last couple of years that i've heard about that in this case the same grave site contained
the remains of two people who died and were buried about a hundred years apart the grave site is viking age farm the or burial is described as a man buried with weapons in a boat between nine and ten metres long in the eighth century then in the ninth century a woman was buried in a dress fashioned with shell shaped breaches along with a crucifix shaped brooch a pearl necklace scissors people will ever cows head she was also placed in a boat this one sector eight metres long for herbert real the older grave was excavated and she and her boat were placed into the boat there was already there along with the body that was already in it so this is not the only bull boat burial that was ever found the rare enough occurrence that archaeologist raymond salvage shoe is the project manager for this excavation said that he had never heard of the practice before he did leader learn of other examples that had been found in another part of norway though although the team says it's unlikely
the two people were related somehow there is still a lot to learn from this find now we will move on to the exclamations after a link these series of proposals and challenges that we have been talking about on the show since december of twenty eight team francisco franco's remains were examined and moved on over twenty fourth they were moved to a cemetery near madrid by helicopter reinterred next to his late wife in on earth in october we talked about plans to examine the remains of john dillinger and have them tested to confirm whether maybe the f b i naturally killed them else in nineteen thirty four and then buried that person and villagers place the whole thing was meant to be covered on a tv documentary but instead every one wound up in court after crown hill cemetery objected to this whole plan
st channel then announced it would not do the documentary after all one of dillinger descendants michael thomson wanted to go ahead with his exclamation though saying he wanted some clarity about his ancestors but in december a judge in indiana found in the cemeteries favour ruling that the exclamation could not go ahead without the cemeteries consent this still is necessarily over though the law gives thompsons attorney ten days to file an amended complain and thirty days to appeal to a higher court so that could still be on seeing as we are recording this or in that window between when we recorded and when this episode comes out yet hardly possible that in ten minutes when we're done rodya headline with a new update about that i would even say price about allowing averages for us and other news to dublin councillors have proposed that the remains of james joyce be examined from zurich and reinterred in dublin
some time before the one hundredth anniversary of the publication of his work ulysses that anniversary is happening and twenty twenty two this has led to debate about what joyce and his nor barnacle wanted for there remains after their debts as well as to some resistance to that whole idea from the james joyce foundation in switzerland at this point this is emotion filed by two city councillors and it's not a concrete plan for an exclamation to take place so we might very well be coming back to this when at some point in the future also sparking intense debate this fall at about the same time it was a plan to turn joyce's former home in dublin into a hostile that debate seems to still be ongoing as of one recording this prior last item south australian attorney general vicki chapman granted a conditional approval to examine the unidentified remains of the purse at noon the somber tin man something she reportedly started considering last year this is probably australia
most famous and enduring unsolved mystery the body was found beach in the summer of nineteen forty eight nicely dressed with an unspoken cigarette on his chest and with a p paper reading tom and should in a hidden pocket i think the josh and chuck did an episode on it i am now the day i think this is a topic that people have asked us to cover i can't remember if either of us have ever kind of circle bid at some point and then moved away from it i have many i'm so maybe that can be a whole other thing from this unearth that you may hear an episode about later like there are two things we have mentioned that are actively in the works for a future episodes maybe that'll be a third one and stuff you should know did cover it in september of twenty seventeen okay so valeo say that's that's our unearthed for the year end of twenty nineteen which i think is actually coming out
the very start of twenty twenty so happy new year every one and i do have a little bit list or male takes out families i this is from katy katy writes about our alfred ventnor episode and says firstly thank you so much for your wonderful show it makes my time spent washing dishes unfolding lottery so much more enjoyable i was tabled by the description of alfred wagner's experiments on the formation of moon craters because i asked so we re created them with fourth graters several years ago the experiment was part of a lunar science unit of study created by one of the major hands on science curriculum companies so i see one of their touted educators must have known about bangers methods instead of cement powder we used flower with a light dusting of coca powder on top and then we dropped marbles and small rocks into the flower and measured and observed the resulting craters i'm sure my students who have been thrilled to know they were replicating an experiment done by a real scientists when i hope you are thrills know that beggars
after legacy lives on an elementary classrooms across amerika sincerely katy i am actually delighted to know my nieces are definitely old enough to be dropping marbles see you flower or coca powder or whatever they are maybe not quite old enough to make the connection between that and the moon i might just save this for some kind of future visit with me says i also wish to mention shadow tearless nor cathy who i really two while i was in disneyworld world recently and she introduced me to her grandson who specifically loved the offered regular up and it came coincided with the tectonic and their shifting and all of that information being introduced in his coursework at schools it was kind of perfect timing and he had a much broader sense of the whole subject
so that was really really lovely well again happy new year everyone i think this is our first episode of the new year and i hope that everybody knew celebrates holidays and late december early january has had great ones if you would like to write about this or any other progress where history thought gas but i heard radio dot com and then we're all we're social media at missed in history that is where you will find our facebook pinterest twitter and israel and you can also subscribe to our show on apple pie ghastly i hurt radio out and anywhere else your vodka stuffy missed history glass of the production of iheart radios housetop works apart from her radio visit her radio apple pie gas or wherever you listen to your favorite shows welcome one welcome all how come you do yours and marchers to the beat of any drum at starbucks we
oh that wellness has a lot more to do with finding your unique journey then following the latest trends that's why we have something for every taste every craving every mood and every you like our new coconut milk latte an almond milk honey flat white because who to journeys are the same and what makes it right is that it's yours
Transcript generated on 2020-01-09.