In 1816, a volcano eruption in Sumbawa, Indonesia, along with several other factors, created an unusual -- and catastrophic -- series of weather events. Read the show notes here.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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better than sport. I love sports and I love my wife. I will destroy now we haven't even started. You have you the tape, a fan who left to debate Jordan, verses, Leubronn, LAMP overseas soldier field or even the sand lot verses, major league. You will love listening to our podcast, the greatest. We have some of our favour, comedian, friendless liberties, to come and constructively argue everything within the world of sport. With my comedian and sports, frenetic life, Megan gaily and my hilarious writer and comedian husband, see J. Tell it on out to listen for the greatest I heard radio apple pie, curse or wherever you listen to pledge. Continue stuff. You missed in history class from house up, works TAT come well, I'm how we right, though, perhaps you have
Mary Robin ECHO, all maybe you're, listener to see us among other things. A series of novel What are known as the glamorous histories- and these are basically Jane, Austen novels with magic. So if that sounds delightful to you and you have not read them, you will probably be delighted because they're, pretty charming and touching and funny, and the third one was some of my most recent airplane reading. While I was on a light and that Book called without a summer. Its set an eighteen sixteen and, in addition to several running, mentions of past podcast subjects the what I there is ongoing discussion, a better about whether that years, unseasonably cold weather, is caused by magic. Basically, so this
unseasonably cold, like chillier than normal. It's unseasonably cold, like it snowing in July, and all of the crops have frozen in the ground, so out of the similarities and their names. I was so absorbed in his book. Wasn't until the very end that I made the connection that this unseasonably called fictional setting is the same as the real world event the year without a summer, which is also a listener request from listener, Cecile, so Cecile PIG Mary Robinson go, all four were bumping this to the top of the list because after we landed, I was like I want to learn more about that and what really happened? this story actually starts with a volcano Keno, which was TIM Bora on the island of Zimbabwe. Indonesia was problem
not the only factor in eighteen, sixteen bizarre weather and we'll talk about that a little bit more later, but it was definitely a very significant major part of it and it had a media, devastating effects in Asia and the two. Oh go Pacific, and a lot of these are unfortunately really glossed over. When people talk about the year without a summer there were several major volcanic options in the early eighteen teams, one was super air on faintly. an island in the Caribbean in eighteen, twelve Mount may on in the future. being erected in eighteen fourteen and then there were an immense explosion from tempera which started on April fifth, eighteen fifteen and went on for days with the worst of the eruption really getting going on the tenth the memoir of Sir Stamford Raffles, the british lieutenant governor of Java. The time quote the first explosions.
Heard on this island in the evening of the fifth of April, they were noticed in every quarter and continued at intervals until the following day. The noise was, in the first instance, almost universally attributed to distant cannon, so much so that a detachment of troops Large from joke Jakarta in the expectation that a neighbouring post was attacked and along the coast, boats were in two instances dispatched in quest of a supposed ship into. ass. On the following morning, however, a slight fall of ashes removed all doubt as to the cause of the sound, and he goes on say that it sounded so close that they really all believed. It was a volcano that was actually much closer to them than ten Bora. When the erection started eye witnesses on the island of symbolic reported three extremely tall, very distinct columns of flame that came up from the volcanoes crater and then they kind of crashed into one another high up above it before cascading back down.
Stones that were, on average, the size of a Walmart also rained down along with tons and tons of ash. also following in the vicinity of the mountain were trees and even animals that had been on the upper slopes, which were torn apart by the eruption. the eruption of timber. In case you could not surmises from Tracy's description was here which it was much bigger and much deadlier than the far more well known eruption of Krakatoa. That happened almost seventy years later, people reported here as far away as Sumatra, which is more than a thousand miles away from where it was happening there. Without this. So much ass in the air that it was, according to reports, dark worth
days or three hundred miles around the volcano after the eruption. Pete. The volcano itself also got a lot shorter. It lost almost a third of its pre eruption, height dropping from four thousand two hundred to two thousand eight hundred me there's not surprisingly, the island of Zimbabwe was devastated more than ten thousand people I'd in the eruption itself, the entire island was covered in ass, and this ass had an average depth of between fifty and sixty centimetres, so Between twenty and thirty engines of ash. The ash was deeper, the closer you got to the volcano, and so much of it fell that buildings collapsed under its weight. and a two thousand for archaeological expedition found a village that was buried under an ash layer, ten feet thick ash spread to the new. In North West blanketed.
see and the neighbouring islands. British vessels reported patches ass in the sea. Around Indonesia that was several feet deep and had to be essentially ploughed through two of Zimbabwe's prince stems were completely destroyed and their common languages became extinct. And the influx of volcanic material into the ocean also spawned a soon ami that struck other parts of the island as well as neighbouring islands, so that people who Survive the initial irruption wound are being killed in the Sudan afterward. Most of the crops in the surrounding area were destroyed, and, as is so often the case when there is such a massive natural disaster, famine and disease spread in its wake, including among livestock and wild animals. People became so hung but they resorted to eating their horses with we're working animals that were necessary for transportation and for work, and all of this wasn't limited. Just
island of Zimbabwe. People in neighbouring islands starve to death as volcanic ash killed their rice crops. There was a massive might sure to other islands in some of those islands could not sustain the needs of these newcomers that were causing their economies and their food supplies to collapse, and many of those islands were facing famines. epidemics of their own. In the wake of the volcano, Bali and Lombard were particularly hard hit. Estimates of the total debt, solid enemies are really very
it, forces generally agree that it was at least one hundred seventeen thousand people who died in the irruption and its aftermath. It took more than five years before crops could be harvested again are the most affected parts of soon Bower recovery was extremely slow to government officials wrote that the principles of Zimbabwe and Davos were quote beginning to recover in eighteen, twenty four so work time almost a decade later, other prince stems were in their words still. A desolate heap of rubble. The whole thing had an extremely long, lasting effect on the islands, ecology. You could probably even say that it was permanently changed and places ash made. The groundwork. it all, but it was also drier, so Bali and Lombard Neighbouring Islands wound up with really bountiful rice harvests a few years later, thanks to all the ash in the soil, but
So the volcano in the ash destroyed all the vegetation and the streams and springs that the vegetation had been sheltering. Consequently, dried up, so while the soil was Richard was also allow drier symbolic get quite the same benefit as some of the other outlying islands did once it had started to recover. The dust spread around the world caused brilliant sunsets and it also wreak havoc with the weather over the following months. In the U S, in the year, was reported in the Washington Dc Daily national intelligence. Her on May first of eighteen, sixteen in the Norfolk Virginia American Beacon. On the ninth, the editor of the Boston, Be a sentinel remarked that the sun itself seemed dimmer on July, fifteenth, which he thought was because of sun spots.
While there was a lot of sun spot activity. It was almost certainly because of all of the ash, an atmosphere, so we're gonna talk about exactly what that ash carved in terms of the weather. After a brief word, from a sponsor a paper guess listeners. Have you ever wanted to share a love story with someone, but you may be wanted to do it in a really unique in interesting way, or you were struggling to get the exact rate words in place. Will you not always have to worry about that? You can put it into a book, and that is where love book comes in love, books, help customers express those sentiments that their working hard to make their own unique thing, and each book is completely customizable. Most customers use them to list the reasons why they love someone, but you can you
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Only for our listeners and now, let's get back to be slightly less Pepe discussion of the year without a summer. Third, a return to tamper. Before we talk about how this irruption affected the weather in parts of the world We have a couple of caveats. One is that the measurement and record keeping related to weathered statistics have really improved dramatically in the years to follow. This happened. Most of the places that we're talking about did not have any sort of methodical. pattern of observing the weather in writing it down, which is something we really must take for granted today. So that means a lot of the records that we have our erratic and subjective, but there is a ton of doc,
taken overall in the historical record in the form of newspapers, letters, journals, diaries and other documents. So there's so much of it that we know just from that part that this was a real events and not just somebody over reacting about a call also, we have a lot of documentation about. Eighteen succeeds, whether in North America and Europe and parts of Asia, but while it's pretty logical to me, clearly that the weather was completely we're everywhere. As a consequence of all of this volcanic activity, we have much less in the way of actual records from Africa, South America and Australia solely walks. What we know it is mostly from North american, european and asian points of view and North America. take your literally on the EAST coast, stretching from the Carolinas all the way up: three. What's now Ontario and back the spring of eighteen, sixteen was
we're all cooler and drier than normal. Although there were some big warm spells mixed in temperatures, kind of swung wildly from Balmie to freezing and back again, then the summer had three extreme cold spells. In June July and August, the first huge called wave stretch from June fifth to June, eleventh, temperatures in New England dropped from the eightys to the forties in the wake of a thunderstorm and then actually became the high for the next several days, eighty inches of snow was reported in Cabot Vermont on the eighth and a hard frost that stretched well into the south on the eleventh killed most of the crops that had managed to survive up until that point, people started talk about the real possibility of a famine within weeks. Doing temperature is were really unseasonably hot again breaking one, hundred and parts of Massachusetts doesn't happen all that, often especially not this early of its even another, forty
hold snap hit Eastern North America starting on July. Sixth, in this case, frosts killed the replanted crops though it was not a snowy this time around most of the snow reported in the EU It was in the mountains of Vermont, but further north, Montreal bodies of water completely frozen. With a layer of ice. The snap also reached either farther south, causing cold weather and frost in places that had escaped in the June wave, a cold weather came back again on August. Twenty first causes more snow in the Vermont Mountains, along with frosts as far south as North Carolina and as far West as Kentucky and Ohio. Just as alarming at this point was a drought which had affected
to the southern and eastern. U S and its estimated that up to half of the cotton crop in the south failed because of this dry weather grain prices, skyrocketed and the drought didn't break until September after the cold weather was over only to be about to start again because it was heading into autumn the The flower rose from four dollars a barrel to between eleven and twenty dollars per barrel, the wholesale price of wheat nearly doubled and the price of virtually every food staple shot up. There is also a huge income and migration of farmers from the Eastern United States into the west as people hope that they would find a better growing conditions and because the West really hadn't theme the kind of unseasonable cold that the EAST Coast had about twice. As many people decided to move west that year, as was
at that point in several states, including New York, Virginia Pennsylvania and New Jersey. People called for a ban on distillery because of the green shortage. When people couldn't afford grain to feed their livestock and their working animals, they ate the animals instead, thou with North America is eighteen sixteen summer in Europe this summer, similarly wintery, but it also seems like it got all the rain that North Amerika had been missing. Western Europe was the most affected, but crops failed all over the continent, thanks to the fields being flooded and later frozen crops that are sensitive to having too much water like worried, grapes really suffered in their quality when they managed to survive, plus Albion rain, made things generally wet and mouldy, because horses were the main source of transportation and grain became so much more expensive. The cost of travel in Europe skyrocketed.
Famine spread in Switzerland in Ireland. In Switzerland, the government had to distribute information about how to tell poisonous plants from ones that we're safe to eat, as people try to scavenge what they could from out in the woods or the wilds in Ireland, a typhus epidemic spread in the wake of the famine The story that sticks and a lot of people's minds about how this played out in Europe is that the infamous evening, in which George Gordon Lord Byron proposed that all of his guests at his lakes, Anita Villa right, a story. That's the visit in which Mary Shelly wound up writing Frankenstein that, as happened in the middle of this cold wretched I am also written during this was barons poem darkness and that Poland begins. I the dream, which was not all a dream. The bright son was extinguished and the stars did wandered darkling in the eternal space rayless and pathless, and the icy
earth swung blind and blackmail in the Moonless AIR Morn came and went and came and brought no day and forgot their passions in the dread of this their desolation and all hearts were chilled to a selfish prayer for light in Asia. Moving on to the third big place, we have lots of information about the volcano disrupted. The monsoon cycle in India and Korea, so things were dry when they were supposed to be wet and then way wetter than they were supposed to be once the rain actually arrived. This cause These crops, which really rely on that monsoon cycle to fail all over the change in the weather, also affected, which bacteria can thrive in the Bay of Bengal and, unfortunately, Species the did thrive was a new strain of cholera, which people had less resistance to than previous strains. Bingo colorist,
out of India to the rest of the world. In eighteen, seventeen and the strain killed tens of millions of people. There is actually some debate in the scientific community about just how much of this shift had to do with the volcano and you non province and southwestern. China crops failed in the face of just better bitter cold and a metal, better Caesar than normal, and the book TAT Bora. The eruption that change the world author Gilan Darcy, would connects this at this massive crop. Failure and famine to the rise of opium growth in unit as farmers turned to it and desperation as a way to try to make enough money to survive when the rest of their crops had failed. A huge famine swept through Southwest China and it lasted for years. Neighbouring parts of China had an influx of refugees in much of the nation. Faced as serious social unrest fell before we talk about
the theories at the time for what was going on. I have another pause for word from a sponsor. I'm only Sebastian, Man Escargot p Coralie, and this is the Peat and Sebastian POD catches a show of beaten. I talk about a personal private lives, just two guys. Comedian PETE Coralie, and I really find PETE six years ago on a bus in Toronto eyes terrible. I heart radio is number one for pad cast his animal purpose. Man that you go like this step might have doesn't say anywhere near due in the highest pitch voice. You have fast there's other pod case out there that you probably listening to or watching listen
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We are getting to a more connected future full of poverty. Wherever you get your broadcasts, this time tomorrow, presented by team above a business is now the on the eye heart radio app wherever you listen to port costs and now back to the year without a summer, though, unsurprisingly, there were many many explanation that the time for what was going on and what is causing this bizarre weather. These actually start with a story about why the volcano erupted. In the first place, the population of Zimbabwe was largely muslim and there was a folk tail explaining the event, and that was that a prince had fed a devout Muslim, a dog and then killed him, and the volcano eruption was an act of divine Rep retribution for that act. A range of explanations for the weather cropped up in North America and Europe is
Now a primary theory was sunspots, as we mention briefly earlier. There were a number of extremely large sunspots that year, some of which were visible to the unaided aim, and people thought these darker areas of the sun were colder, which is true, and a cold or sun meant colder weather everyone was on board with this idea, though, since the timing of the sun spots did not always match up with the coldest whether there is actually a lot of continued study and discussion about exactly how much sun spots can affect the earth, the weather and climate and its partly because this all happens on such a huge scale and the sun spot cycle itself is so long. It is almost impossible to isolate just sun spots from all of the other stuff in the world. That's going on wild
sun spot cycle is speaking here. You can't really turn off the Sunday get a control group. Without it yeah you get turned off the volcanoes dilatory and ass. The sun, though I really tried to find a definitive answer of good sunspots. I've been in that there's not a definitive answer. another theory at this time is that it had something to do with ice in North Amerika. I see to persist in the great lakes for longer than normal in a number of ships reported huge ice floes floating in the North Atlantic. People thought that all of this ice was actually sucking the heat out of the atmosphere so thoroughly more of a cause and effect situations. There is more ice on the great lakes because it was color
There is a formal, but then there was more ice floating in the northern Atlantic, because this whole time actually caused a warming trend over the poles, and so a lot of polar ice broke up and floated away so that it was more of a cause and effect situation. Then the ice sucking the heat out of the air. Also a series of pretty large earthquakes had struck various points on the earth in the eighteen teams, and people also blamed the weather on this. The The idea was that the earth's motion had somehow caused some kind of fluid equilibrium between the surface of the earth in the atmosphere and that until something broke that equilibrium that there would not be enough warmth available for crops to grow other scapegoats. There were named as the cause of all of these problems.
Benjamin Franklin, lightning, rides the hooker, stealing electricity and disrupting the weather, because you know he invented them in the MID seventeen hundreds and they become more commonplace since then, so Clearly, since that happened before the weather, it must have caused this terrible weather. There's somebody. they said that logic is a sound yeah. There anyway still see this today. Would people don't totally understand something and they'll be like that, because one thing happened before another thing: that the first thing caused the second thing, and often not at all right. It's that, like chronological causality, attribution, that's not not always valid fell. The prevailing theory today is that the law Kanak activity include that from ten Bora and the other irruptions that were mentioned at the top, the shoe was at least one of the primary contributors, and this was actually something that people did discuss a little bit at the time. It was certainly not a widespread
you bet there were people who were like you know. Maybe all this ash and the atmosphere which is from a volcano is making a colder. People are pretty smart. That way, however, eight Sixteen was not the only year in that time. Period had weird, whether in general, with colder than normal in a lot of places from eighteen, twelve to eighteen. Seventeen to that point, that people take notice and by studying things like ice cores and tree rings in that kind of long term, documentation that the earth leaves of itself scientists there This was not really just a little five year window of a cold snap. The eighteen hundred spell the end of a relative call snap at last, at around the world for almost five hundred years, starting in fourteen hundred and ending and around eighteen. Sixty.
at least in the. U S the year without a summer prompted people to start making more routine observances and recordings of weather conditions, the commissioners the role of the land office desire, Meigs, sent out a memo to all of his registered at twenty differently. About offices instructed them to make him record a number of observations about everything from the there, too, animal migrations, the military also started making recording whether observations at the direction of Joseph Level, the surgeon general of the army and the patent office and the Smithsonian institution got it on the action as well, and consequently, the first published weather forecasts came out in the? U S in eighteen, forty, nine. So when I started researching this episode, I kind of expected it to be a little bit like the long winter. Part too, though, we talked about the long winter, which Laura Ingalls Wilder wrote about last time about this time of year, then that was the weather was really called. Things are really hard. Things were tough
overall everything worked out. Ok for the most part- and I sort of thought this is gonna, be similar to that. I was not expecting all of the famines and deaths and the extreme scale of how deadly the volcano was a lot of Like a lot of people who have written to suggest the topic or other things that I've seen about it kind of go, this was the year that terrible weather a volcano caused it and the best sort of all that said about them. Cato as though the volcano was on an island that was totally uninhabited rates, and that is not the case at all. This episode gives me a flash back to when I was a kid amounting hellenes erupted.
I lived in Washington state at the time, so I am very familiar with being covered with ash. I've never live near an active volcanoes, though I have not had that experience. Those are wild times. I remember my biggest concern and again I was a child I'm, so my biggest concern was at all. The animals have been killed. I was really upset about the animals that may have lost their lives, even though probably most of them fled before the activity actually started. I'm sure some still also lies, but that was my big focus as a child. I did not care that there was crap all over everything. We owe did Levick half inch of ash sitting everywhere as like what about the dear? I was really as the focus. So I had some listener mail, but its cheerier than this episode actually actually have to pieces. We are recording this episode as really one of the last things before for the holidays.
And it's gonna be a while before it's my turn for a listener, males whom doubling up today, fear they things don't get overlooked later on, you're both about our episode about the gnome serum run in the first them is a front Karen parents, as I listened to your pod, casts the hundreds of hours literally that I spend The trail straining my long distance dog team, I'm not making that up, and I love that may do demanded by delight today to queue up your when say podcast and find it on a subject near and dear to my heart. the theorem run, see I have completed in the I'd better I'd trail web dog race. Eleven times I have run dogs through Nevada up the UK. However, through New Lotto across the very intimidating Norton sounded into NOME, each of my pure bred siberian Huskies can trace theory. It's back to dogs, arms, the pile of fear, Enron, team, which was Togo, who we talked about an episode
This wanted to let you know that I thought you did a very excellent job of covering the subject the pronunciations. You were worried about we're spot on did a more accurate job with the subject than about anyone. I've heard well then, oh- and I wanted to that you are right. Minus fifty is ridiculously cold and fled dogs are indeed amazing, the most amazing creatures on the planet. If you ask me, I've been running dogs for over twenty years and they still amaze me every day since really Karen and then I'm going to read another one. This one is from Marie Anne Marie says: it was positively delightful to seize them, alaskan history pop up in my pod cast this morning. Even if it isn't of an event I missed in history class, it was still in an interesting. Listen, I won't lie. Part of the fund was listening to you. Both try really hard to say incredibly bill. Difficult alaskan words correct
I'm not surprised you could not find any pronunciation guys online. I am a lifelong Alaska and my father was born and Anchorage before Alaska became a state and wonder sometimes at the difficult names are purposeful to point out who the point out, those who have not lived here, I wanted to say thank you for talking about how important dogs and dogs flooding or to the history of Alaska and its current culture. So many outside the state. It is difficult to comprehend the vastness and sheer.
Stability of a lot of the terrain, particularly north of the bricks range. To give you an idea of the distances involved. Nome is just over five hundred air miles from Anchorage that is roughly the same distance from as from Atlanta Georgia to Pittsburgh, Washington DC and Chicago. I say air miles, because that is the most common way to get to know. It is not connected to the alaskan highway system and does not have a fairy service. The identified race which he reference in the Pied cast, is about a thousand miles, give or take a few dozen depending on checkpoint locations, who, even if this were an actual highway, would be the equivalent of driving from Montreal Canada to Atlanta Georgia. That's about twenty one hours of driving.
according to travel, math dot com. I do want to say a word of caution that I hope Gazetteer listeners sled dogs are amazing creatures and incredible athletes. They are ready to work hard in cold weather, have remarkable endurance and the ability to persevere in circumstances that most animals would baulk at these same qualities me that they are not always suited to be pets, while many breeds do make good pets is important with any working rate of dog to consider the traits that make them special also make them challenging a dyed. Bread for cold weather is not as well suited to a hot climate dogs. Bread to run long distances can become hyperactive when combined to a yard, as amazing as his animals are please consider carefully before bringing one into your home. Not every house or family is suited to an
All that is the case I equivalent of a an olympic Atley thanks for knowledge and keep up the good work Marie. Thank you so much Karen and Marie I love both of those emails are much. I love them both so much, and I do want to have credible full disclosure bay. They both said that we did a good job on saying things. Other people have said that we did not do a good job. I pronounced donata as donata again, because we ve gotten three different pronunciations but there are doctrine I kill each other yeah yeah, I think not in the show, and we heard the man I mean I am the man I don't tell- which is not the case with many things that we try to fight correctly myself, though
done. If you would like to write to us about their hurrying in her mind and where it is very important for us to take the case, but the blacksmith in history had on Twitter are Tumblr is miss them. Instead, tumblr com and run the risk that Flash Mr Purvis Bradford Store of sharp another goody, but is a distant history that spread for that If you would like to learn more about what we talked about, then you can come to our companies website, which is therefore you can put the word more search bar finally, article how the EU can also pollute our website, but listen history where we have archival every single episode he had ever done so notes for all the episodes. Folliot, I'm burnt the blog posts, past ghosts of the past, all kinds of cool stuff. So you could do all that
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