« Stuff You Should Know

How Gene Editing Works

2016-06-02 | 🔗

With the discovery of a surprising immune response in E coli bacteria, we are facing a new era of freedom from genetic mutations that lead to disease by simply and precisely editing our genes. But there is also a potential dark side to gene editing.

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Welcome to stop. You should know greenhouse gas networks. That are, you hope, into the progress than Josh flirt with Charles W Brian Jerry. Did you see the World W Prime yeah print? A great big banks to Sally Ridge Illustrator draw things who made us what about? We see a lot of fan. Aren't we notice? We don't get that much anymore. We basically, maybe now we get jingles now here we get our chemical step, we disused to get a ton of energy, and this is like one of the more delightful Pisa panel with ever got. We posted it, honour, Instagram, actually and Facebook,
so thank you Sally for that gonna cellarage, dot net, your work and low squirrel, I'm a weasel return or to make of undisguised with its cue. I first saw that to another those like if it was a weasel skunk. If you like to get through the year as a school you have a little beard even to its very keen in his regular such we say. All that to say heresy Jeanne aground Jean make it is he who can you keep up with genes in DNA and all that nucleotides? You remember the stuff a little bit I did. Ambrosch upon a little if a little a primary feel free, like as I have a bit of a primary, probably screwed up royally. While I was going to say and ultra title for this year could be called how the crisper Jean editing works, a what's Chuck Gonna mess up, yeah, it's which can I mean
It's sort of simple, but it also has a little minded. It simple if you Eight geneticist right? It's it's on, like laughably, scarcely simple, but to people like us, it's it's like home. I always go back a little bit about genes for a shrink. We want a squirrel, sir, if you, if you go into one of those squirrels cells you go into the nucleus of the cell. You're gonna find a pair of chromosomes. He's chromosomes are made up of. Dna dna itself, is made up of nucleotides pairs. Our isn t a tc that right at nine goes too. Oh, who is here at nine, goes to timing one goes to cite as right. She got Garriga yes, and when you put these these amino acids together, you have
old, nucleotides base pairs and they make at the end. I now, if you take a strain of dna, this thing from its like a Stanford site for dummies, so really spoke to me by it sets itself there. If you could stretch out your dna, it would be like six feet long. Did you know that? That's all in the nucleus of a cell? I thought you about to say it would be the exact exec height that you are very pretty neatly. Amendment would have been won the other beef Somethin Astor. Well, maybe it is his own, but six feet kiss the possibly your wingspan is fingertip de fingertip is the same as your height. I've heard that before at this, not true that some people have larger wingspan than others than their height, like proportionally I gotta go. This is a dirty lie, I think so. Well, if you take this dna and you look at it, you can see that this different sequence,
yeah and along this, these this very long, six foot strand of dna. These sequences are broken out in what are called genes right and so a gene is really just a string of nucleotides base pairs that create or lead to the production of a specific protein. Yes- and you say, ok or create protein, we eat that its stake dine there, no proteins to weigh more than that. Their evolved in just about every part of your body from like the building blocks of cells to shoeing to blinking. The thinking like proteins are very, very important and your proteins are expressed through your genes, ok, yeah. I think I got that fairly right every once in a while this code, especially when a cell I'm in the dna. Those in the original cell is copied yeah for it to them so they translate
can go a little bit wrong and so all of a sudden allow these billions of base pairs? There's a there is a mistranslation and what you have as a mutation there. For the most part, mutations are not problems as mere effect any one of us has something like an estimated five to ten mutations deadly mutations in our genes. Right now, but we have one copy and there are very few disease is that you only need one copy of a genetic defect for bread right, so we were basically fight. If you get two pairs of mutated, problematic gene, then you can have a disease and there's a lot, as is diseases that are genetic in origin. Everything from cystic fibrosis to cancer is the result of a gene, that's mutated and gone haywire. The whole point of everything I just said: is there we from dawn
Andy even before them ever since we were little amoeba have been subject to the winds and the vagaries of genetic mutations. Sometimes they help us. Sometimes they do nothing. Sometimes, if create disease. Yes, but as of two thousand and twelve, we are technically leaving the thumb of genetic mutations tyranny, potentially through crisper Jean editing. Yeah, it's pretty remarkable! If it really is its very tough- and I say this a lot I think I said it's tough to underestimate the cries of supervisors. Sunday stipulate that is really tough to overstate how much the crisper Jean editing
Techniques could change humanity, yeah, don't worry if everything goes well clearly within the next decade will see real human trials for some of these applications, the soap yeah, and it may happen because this is one of the most heavily funded. Arms of scientific health met medicinal research out there It is also one of the newest too, and it's already one of the most heavily funded Keziah did showing them which promise, like everybody, keeps looking into more and more and more in their like every every time. They look at him, whether like it's like, we just unlocked secret of life yeah. We just figured it. And we can make so much money on it here. So, let's start a company
and invest a lot of money in its research are its crisper c r. I s p r, o capitalize stands for clustered regularly. Interspaces short pandemic repeats why they called it crisper yet, because that is a mouthful and unless your geneticists, like you, said that probably the string of words together, probably just make your heads been right, but if you, if you take him in separate my watch, this video, I can remember who did it but I'll posted on the pike has paid? Was it a TED talk now was a TED talk euros by a dude? Oh, oh, what's Bozeman science is opposing. Science, videos, really good, Bozeman, Montana Disbursement Science. Now there's a Bozeman Montana and Bozeman Science, but anyway the guy on the video said just gonna. Take it separately in that actually to two parts. You ve got the
short Pelon drone agree. Peace are the thing and they clustered regularly inner space the kind of describes. What that thing is right, yeah. So the short pound John MC repeats is what you need to focus on Start church, but looked back up a little bit of such a little bit about genetics modifying things we ve been doing this for a while. Everyone knows about Dolly the sheep in cloning in genetically a fruits and vegetables. Even active breeding is, it is a type of genetic modification sure. So it's nothing new. Gone on for a while, but in the early two thousands there was a discovery
of an enzyme. Won't I discovered means I'm but a discovery of how to use an enzyme college zinc finger Nuclear is and what that would do, as is replace it with delete in replace, very specific bad genes. That would make you get a disease. Let's say right and it was a huge fan. In, but really expensive, yeah about five thousand dollars apiece and they didn't work every time for sure now and unfair. It is difficult to manufacture, difficult to understand, difficult to implement, but Did I do something pretty amazing, which was they went in remove gene from a strip of dna and could replace it with another gene that you wanted. The thing is, it was just tough to use basically, so he was a big breakthrough, but it wasn't a sweeping breakthrough, because his is fragile and difficult
expensive? That's right. Password too, I guess go back in time, rather than nineteen. Eighty seven suffering high school George bread was the man. The jury was junkies ex certain say anything in eighty seven. Maybe something around, I think, was eighty nine wish now singles is like eighty nine ninety singles deftly in the nineties, because everything is like ninety goad. Ninety one please concerning our: I, why you look that up so nineteen, eighty seven when it that the word crisper first appears in a journal article, because the scientists, We found this thing
equally, I these short repeats. What you're was. Eighty nine. Are these short repeating the eco? I backed area of DNA and that's weird: there should not be repeats of dna and this factory, and so it is noteworthy yells like what is that so little weird, so he took note and against us. And came out make decided at Watch Karen grow movies for the next decade as of ninety ninety two, so they get bad. They started watching singles and dumb into Twelve is when crisper- and this is just a few short years ago- is when Christmas. Really came on the scene. That's what all this money started pouring into the research and it's like advance white years in the last four years. Right in the big big differ between what happened and ninety seven. What happened to those twelve is if they figured out what these short Palin drama repeats. What right here. You have these little strips of dna in
Cole, I and then they found out later on. You can find it in most back to if not all the sure, little strips seem to be separating out these these words, like random strings of dna. But these trade amount in regular interspersed manner right now, so they looked at. Little bits of random dna and they realised that it matched viral dna and with a totally weird here, because they like. What way? Does the bacteria? What is viral dna doing in here and someone, I'm not exactly sure who drives us. Eugene Coonan Coonan was a dying, changing giant. There is the unsung hero. In this case You know what I think is going on. I think what we are seeing here is essentially a database. That objective houses in its own dna where, when it, invaded by a virus. Yet it captures that
is DNA or RNA snips up some of it in stores it in its duty in this genetic data so that when it sees them again, it will recognise the virus and can attack it. Yet it's urgent adaptation present in is not bacteria, but in many bacteria cells to help it survive, because a bacteria has like a few minutes once it starts to get attacked by virus to live right. Ok, so it's part of its immune system right this database, of what called crisper yeah then there's another thing that the they figured out about theory that associated with the crisper database in any given bacteria and a bacteria that has called cast nine yeah Chris, Associated enzymes. I think he s nine. It's a bit of protein: it's an rna, guided enzymes and protein right, Has this really neat function? It goes.
You a virus or viral dna or viral irony, and it captures it a unzip which Not everything can do that now and then it also precisely snips it and then delivers. Snip to the bacterium. Crisper database first story yeah. So what you have as its in its an edit, as opposed to like women, work working with genetic edition in transfer for years like treating people with transferring into bone marrow rosy, but this is an actual edit likely they like in it in this article, even our own article, never mention Caslon witches like I can't believe, do you can really have always Heather below it was weird, but this mine is literally they like in it to an assassin like that comes in very surgically. Businesses are very specifically removes, ideally just that part. Yet the bad part,
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you you're, calling that casts the crisper cast nine system, which is basically what it is yeah an assassin for bacteria right because after the viruses cut him up Somebody figured out along the line that you can take this natural bacterial immune response and sick. It I'm not just viruses but other stuff. Let somebody cow Berkeley. Scientists, Jennifer, Duna, yeah, she's, gonna, win she's. Gonna Nobel Prize one day, she's totally up, for she will then- and I would advise if anyone is indeed TED talks to watch her TED talk on this yet thrilling and so on. She is a gardener down ass, well ass. I do now but will go down. Ok, one of the farm. She she was the first to suggest that you can use this natural system too,
genes and other things, and I think they started out in very simple organisms. But what they found over time is that this seems to be universal, that long as something has dna, you can use the crisper cast nine system on to edit genes yeah too, She likened to fixing a typo, or she said it was like a genetic vaccination card that yourself can have yeah. So it goes on its nips out the bad part, and sometimes it is joins from there and just repairs it, but other times it sticks something else in everyone's right? So armed bands yeah it depends on the system that you're using like you. Can you can just sick? Crisper cares nine thing, so you you give it a. You basically give this bacterial immune response. A little piece of the gene that you want edited
in eight says, examines a just like it would if it, if I were in a bacteria in it, were being invaded by a virus, so it examined this genes as ok. This is what I need to go find and it goes and finds it. A stranger dna in this thing. Doesn't care What dna is looking at is just doing its thing right. So, if you wicked on any the dna. It's going to go, find that sequence, that genetic sequence I'm, whatever dna its exposed to get the bad guy, and then it's going and if it is going to cut it out and then one thing you can do to save time and time again. The dna is gonna repair itself here, but what you ve just time is removed that whole sequel. Of nucleotide base pairs. It makes up a gene and so when it fuses back Other it's gonna be missing that gene, so you can do Gene is what that's called, or you can add, a third component to incite here's what you're looking
here's, the here's, the guide RNA that you wanna go find yet use the cast nine system to go cut. Unshipping cut it out and then replaced it with this. Here's some blue it's for what you should install in that in the place of the gene AEGIS edited out. Yes, you can delete and then add whatever Jeanne you want and what they found it incredibly mind. Boggling chuck is that you can take a gene, fervid different organism and put it into another organism yeah. You can basically just copy and paste in cut and paste DNA and that's what system is, is allowing people to do so. What does all this mean? It means you can potentially remove a gene for blindness. You could remove a gene for cystic fibrosis and repair.
Well we'll talk about HIV a little bit more in a minute. You can create more disease resistant crops. You could create a buyer weapon that could wipe out a species. I mean they're about applications as well. The people have talked about their member was Zika virus yeah like people are saying, oh, what's his thumb get mosquitoes said to stop reproducing and then that will stop the spread of Zagreb virus. What you're talking about is using gene yeah and if you watch that TED talk from a margin for she says slope, we need to down and she and her no. She was partnered, she said she co invented Elvis Coonan or not, but whoever her partner and crime here is out of French, a french research? there was an annual something I can realise thing so she said they were the call for a more it
for now and said everyone just stop for a minute. Yonner visit well how much money! It is a lot of money at stake. There will see where that goes, but she did call for a pause is what she called it. So they did, set up some guidelines on how to use and not misuse. This technology. Reason. Why am I mean salute her. For that. That's a big deal, I guess, but that's a big problem there were facing in this world that our technology is starting out pace Understanding of all of the things we can do here and then, in addition to that, its becoming much more democratized to wear People can get their hands on incredibly advanced technology in the car. Of their own home, and this is a really good example of that yeah he's the crisper system you can send off for on the internet for anywhere from, like thirty bucks to seventy five back there
You will have a bacteria, they, u can introduce your guide, our and eighty or your host are and eighty and in basically air supplies it can expose it to a mouse and Bacteria will go in and added that Mouses genes, and you can do this if you know what you're doing with a relatively calm. He sat up here in your home, there is an enemy, scary, yeah. So, like the that we need to stop in and talk about what direction we should go with this or what restrictions we should place on it. I think that's a fantastic idea. Why? Because we ought, we did a show and designer children she's. Was it before two thousand twelve? I don't know, Yes, it came out of this that I remember like over there. I remember talking about the crisper gene in their episode, but that's potentially when the applications is, I don't want. My child have Huntington's disease and it's in there. So let's take it out right
oh, so what makes you to be tall and a blue eyes like it's all dicey, it does for sure designer humans well just go back. Also that absurdity brought with complications disorder run into the idea like genetic eugenics we have have not is obviously not everyone could afford to do something like that sure. So, then you have. You know that the wealthy embraces even taller and blunder than ever right exactly They have also decided that tall and blind, as is the ideal. So then they start like editing people's genes. You aren't tall en bloc. And then I was then you have no more time bomb people gotta right, like you, said, I've never seen a movie rule. What's a good when Israel, Yemen and avert like her, you never thinking persons reindeer gained. Cipher you bring that movie up with. You
the thinking persons sigh five future movie. I have you seen equilibrium with the christian bail. No, I haven't either it's killing. Bree stars are Netflix, and it's not enough for me to pull the trigger on I've. Never heard of that which is a bad sign, it seems like it's from about the same. I've got a camel ilo earlier that the older, but its christian bail good. If a little crazy. Good we're done you and me he's never with what a great tirade Alzheimer's, He didn't right before we shot or tv show too so, like we walked round uncertainly saying that all year running joke knows what you're thinking obray I'll take a break in water bout can aware we are right now and in what some people think about its future. The
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official sleep and wellness partner of the NFL, Are you sure obviously we're on the verge of great designer children like family next week, right, maybe I'll take effect.
No, but I did read this article- is the sound it too good to be true what I was reading. It submitted the crisper jean that's going to solve everything from food shortage to every disease known to man, allocates her right cancer cancers. Basically the result of a sum: the Gaza peace. If you three protein not being expressed by a gene and peacefully three protein goes into says: hey, I think you're a tumor. You stop multiplying anything. If that protein sat there to tell the cell to stop multiply, it keeps multiplying and also you gotta tumor, a cancer right, so you can go in and in just added that gene and make sure the peace after three protein
Express family, just cure cancer and the genetic level. Yet so, yes, it could improve the world correct, sir, so I read this article as all excited and you should still be excited this. Is it a complete poohpooh, but this is just like this week. The gene editor crisper won't fully thick sick people anytime soon and years. Why? So? This lady jostling Keyser sort of throws a bit of a wet blanket on it, but not completely. There she's, a sort of like there's still a ways to go. So here's one of the things most diseases only like cystic fibrosis must muscular dystrophy, where Jean correction is already kind of a thing where they require urgent correction
Basically, what you say is, as we done in a living person, but you can't extract the cells and do it and then put the cells back end like they currently do with gene transfer. Oh really because that not enough for the cells will survive. Apparently, ok, that's what the roadblocks right now. You need to treat the cells inside the body One thing I would challenge one thing: I wonder: maybe this this lady talked about it, but how do you get? How do you direct the arm? The crisper cast nine system to the right, so she decided I mean in her TED talk. She didn't get super specific. She says it's an hour, an egg added protein yeah. That's what I ran across to you. I didn't really. I think I said all of this is how I looked for that too. I think it will discover them the magic of science me
but I mean it's very precise though you know it's not like they distort in their ensued, happens right, so that there is something guiding it. It's a safety risk right now, because when this this crisper, it off with the scissors. It is in a very specific location, but they dont know yet if it could potentially, because once you ve created these Z, deliberate, throw viral vector it's in there and this casts nine is gonna, keep replicating itself right, so they don't know of fifteen years down. The line of the thing starts: cleaving causing cancer, basically right, but what they think now is they haven't seen that yet. So it's just like, let's keep an eye out for this year. Two thousand The worst is ever, but so far these mice are doing well and has not happened. While this like a very hot topic in bio ethics as well, and one of the things that people I'm sure like I'm do nor are pressing for is figure. How to reverse engineer the stir reversed the effects of it,
engineer it. So it stop there for a while here, so that if it like, if you didn't you said in your while population, for he wouldn't just white that population off the face of the earth. It would eventually slow. Well, that's exactly. What are hoping to do is that Caslon will eventually that thing, there's, u can hope in one hand and then figure it out scientifically and one other trying to figure it out. So, ok, yeah. I thought your thing like getting They know that an issue and that one of the like roadblocks or try to overcome captain One of the other things is the coastline. It's a process that can only be active when the silver white dividing actively dividing very an apparently that's. Just not you know the liver, your stem cells, your eyes, your blood, it's not always actively dividing so there
to work around that, basically every limitation they found so far. There saying it's not an ideal break out a deal. Breaker regained change here. We think we can figure something out the work around. I'm sure they were so that's the Good NEWS is too. It seems to be working too well, and it is too easy to do that. There's this this there's not disconnect leave it table our know how I can get around the liver cells not replicating.
And then you know image and HIV earlier. This article needs updating in our on our side because it said that it cannot overcame HIV, but that's not true. Now, apparently, HIV defeated the efforts, the regime right now, but again they said that this is it this as a mean it's over. We think we can overcome this as well and that eventually could be a cure for HIV. So right now and they said they weren't, you surprise because HIV you go back and listen to our upstart on that. It is a tough, tough, cookie, cookie and dumb has a knack for mutating and replicating in the face of all kinds of
drugs, but they think of these as drugs. Along with this, maybe that could be an alternative yeah I mean the futures bright. I think this is so early in the game is the deal, but it that's why I think a pause, a good idea. I don't have forgotten that across that I feel like a the good idea here, there's one thing I ran across in researching so the collar dna drive. You can take this crisper Jean Crisper cast nine system, and you can add this other component colleague dna dry right, and so this dna drivers basically like com. It has the ability to during reproduction too not only take the added a gene- bert, not only the editor gene in Say, a mosquito yeah. That mosquito reproduces the chromosomes that have contributed with the added a gene yeah. Basically,
take the corresponding spot on the other parents, chromosomes and then, when it repairs itself inserts a blueprint so that the edited gene is copy So then the offspring has both to pare one pair of the editor gene, which means when they reproduce and they reproduce somebody else that has both pairs of the same Jean de their offspring has a one hundred percent chance of inheriting that gene, while and so it can spread through a population of mosquitos, so faint I was and fix it for your family fixes a or keeps you from reproducing, or whatever the gene yes and in a large population say like a big mosquito population. That means you can spread the editor gene and like a single growing season
but this one reason my provider like we need to figure out how to enable its rice off, because maybe we need mosquitoes it turns out. We haven't is wiped off the face of the earth, although member within a show, and that in some scientific now we don't need him yeah. I remember that I anything else I got nothing else. We can do a follow up on this. If we want to have you any more about a crisper, Jean editing sweet, you can type that word into these reach far. Has the virtue of commerce insisted search bar stymphalus, we call this lsd the great emails from nursery this for people to use it like it here you guys are the showbiz. It's learn so much about a variety of topics to topics to in framework. Everything listened lsd.
Story? Three years ago, my father died unexpectedly the stroke and took my whole family by surprise and became very depressed for months and felt like I was diving into. On autopilot, wasn't finding any enjoyment, my data they live on one other thing. It was offered some LSD taken, years ago and had a wonderful experience with it. So I thought maybe this could be helpful turn out to be the best decision. I ever made RO, powerful revelations about life and developed a deeper appreciation for my in family and for the love that binds us all together also gained a fresh perspective on how much beauty there is in the world and how I am a part of it. This experience, Help set me back on the right path and a moment in my life back and point to you is like changing. I believe the drug is a lot of essential for psychiatric use can be immensely beneficial with having people work, do serious, psychological and emotional issues. I truly hope that it is reclassified fronts
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-11.