About 2,400 years ago Aristotle mentions the use of diving bells, apparatuses that convey divers to the bottom of the sea -- or at least below the surface of the water -- and allows them to breathe -- at least until the air runs out. Learn about the physics of this clever and ancient invention and how it's been used to sabotage enemy boats and build the Brooklyn Bridge.
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Chuck here, hope: you're gonna get Saturday.
I selected for these select episode, great went from August Eighth, two thousand twelve
How does a diving bell work and I think if you listen
the show before you know, I love antiquated equipment and steam punchy things.
And all of that together is a diving bell. So they just pick this outcome.
Remember being a good one, so pleased to enjoy
How does a diving bell work right now
Welcome to step. You should now a production of Iheart radios. How stuff works here. You know to move our guests and Josh clerk controls the reach brightens with me, which means-
Instead, we should attract man. I got alchemy
you're about little close for comfort are sure to show ever yes, introductions work!
how you I'm well, Sir Harry I'm good
still warm in here today, and I feel I feel like this tomb, like a room that wherein is always sort of warming of pudding. Brothers like eighteen, IKEA, lamps inherent. I guess it feels like its warmer than usual. They generate some heat, Mattel. They power, Switzerland, Sweden, with heeds Lee with Sweden, Sweden, yeah, yeah, sorry, sweet
people like good Lord Chuck, yeah. You got a map as a desk. They like stepping diamond girl, you ve TAN map them so arm Chuck. Yes, I want to dive into a subject that I believe you know something about. Ok, it's called!
I've been bell, seer sets the subjects, and I know you know about it, because this article that were basing this offer is Chuck Brian JAM. Yeah, I forgot all about this in a that, get about half way through it and as like that, since it
might say our really. You didn't realize that you'd written nope totally forgot, and then it was a halfway through, but it was probably somewhere in the intro. What was it you said that silly clever and trail, which was really not clever
Oh, I don't to know if you like, I used to start all my articles like I was writing a middle school turn paper always at the year.
You're talking about how there's not very many images of our early attempts to Scooby dive because quote?
of the lack of availability of underwater filming techniques of the time here near sounds like filler, very, very, very, very, very dear member in summer school with chain sign Dave either Mark Herman Movie, yet they d rightly get through
where it s a or something like that and somebody they admired. I think it is totally Hooper an area or was the special effects there, but they said like he was
very very, very, very, very remember those days counting the words yeah. That's not what this is now now. This is a great article on diving bells. It's kind of interesting it out the precursor to scuba, diving. If any, you you folks other scuba enthusiast, you have in others a trail that was blazed many years before littered with dead bodies and big iron casks. Yet not just dead bodies, but cripple bodies to like a lot of bad stuff can happen to you in a lot of beds of did happen and people before we really understood the physics of pressure yet mean people still lose their lives. Obviously, in the pursuit of just for
technology, but not like they used to young people. You're like we really owe a debt to the people who ve figured out everything that we have lost their lives during all its spectacularly amazing. To me. Is that not every
died, trying to use dive
bells and we're talking like twenty five hundred years ago, yet was
You know the early nineteen twenty right, apparently by
the twelve hundreds, the concept of diving bells were so, I guess entrenched,
societies around the world civilizations around the world that they were just routinely used for all sorts of different stuff, yeah air salary about it. He had back in the fourth century BC write me a long time ago, so he was, he was the first. I take it to mention diving bells who described them right.
Yes, we read that quote, I think, is a good one, but you have to read it and Aristotle s voice Aristotelian, but I really have no idea what ancient Greek sounded like
Well, the key is that no one does so you can make it up. They enable divers tourists behind
equally well by letting down a cauldron, for this does not filled with water but retains the air, for it is forced straight down into the water at is added a german young and met the end. As can see, there is an eighty four
percent chance, that the Greeks we're gonna selling Shankar out are you? There was some kind of it was clauses. So yes, Aristotle's talking about this in the very fact that he's talking about diving bells proves at least that the idea was in
so the time others some legends there, dumb Alexander the great who is actually student of Aristotle's, used, diving bow the others. There's pictures, drawings,
of you, know, Alexander the great like laying down or sitting down beneath the water in some sort of a you know: Diving Beller, Erlich a barrel or magic bubbles. Sums were here, but we don't know that,
means he just talked about it. A lot and like draw pictures of me doing this or if it the actually tried it we're done
sure so supposedly he used to one when he was eleven, but then again as an older man during the siege of tyre in a three thirty two b c, and let that up in it looked like it seems pretty reasonable, like apparently, there is some underwater obstructions
around tyre and he had some underwater divers removing I'm. So he used a diving bell. They go check on their work, not the most fantastical tail. Anyone could tell affair it is making stuff up about amusing, Diving Bell Yester, so I can buy that one. I could buy it and, of course, to venture sketch them out because he invented everything. Even if he didn't properly invented Healy, sketched out ideas right in a failure. He had a lot of great ideas that have come to life. Now, that's true! The star trek phaser really
but Aristotle. He kind hints at the the basic physics behind a diving valley says that you have a capsule that you're forcing street
down into a water near the water and the air bubble whatever air was inside is press upward so long as the vessel is key
hey right, yeah and so long as it is straight down. Like you said, you don't want this anchors, you know if you ve ever played in the bathtub, and I know you do you. You know if you take a cup in inverted
in just push it straight down, there's gonna be water and then, if you want to make make it poop, you tilted on its side in the air comes out and little bubbles. That's true. Disapprove pursued a duck itchy today, but I think every kid has done stuff like that and that's essentially what our diving bell is: yeah, it's just really heavy yet because when you have a cup above water upside down as air and when it contacts the water, the air can escape any longer because of the water surface, tension
and then, when you push up the water compresses, the air, that's right! So that's all you have, like you said at the top of it. I'm well inside his compressed air and human beings can breathe that you didn't have to be Kincaid, though, does it I
I think so, but I remain them square later. I think, but I think there needs to be some sort of point out that the air can be pressed up into, but maybe not
somewhere wooden, many were iron. There were, they bore, trying all sorts of things basically just to see but work try and they figured out like
but I mean many were shaped like bells somewhere barrels like whisky, barrels somewhere wooden, many were iron. There were, they bore, trying all sorts of
this basically just to see but work dry and they figured out like the heavier the better, because this thing had to be able to go down to get to the bottom of the Sea war, whatever depth that was not Tipp over, yet it couldn't Tipp over and had to be balance to so
You had to have ballasts if you're using an iron, diving, diving yet put weights on it and they had to be balanced, or else it would Tipp overuse of a big deal, and I think the key here is this is breathable air right like it depends on how deep you are and how big your bell is. Obviously, but I think one example I gave in here was: if you have a ten foot tall Bell down: three:
twenty five feet. That's only about eleven inches of air raid, the son of now I don't think they're gone that deep back then. No, thirdly, say we're not smart to do so now those are the ones that died. That's right! So one of the other problems that these people face aside from dying because they went to deepen, ended up with just eleven
inches of air. No, we should point out that before we go any further physically speaking, that that's a letter by volume, that's eleven inches of air yeah, but that still the same amount of air that filled up the diving bell above her water cell disk, impressive riots compressed of compressed air. So all his oxygen molecules are still there. There diskin compressed form to point. The poem is, if you're in there you're compressed to write and when you're in that state of compression the oxygen in the nitrogen in your bloodstream, get compressed as well that right and they dissolve, which is a problem with the oxygen because the tissues surrounding tissues absorbed that action. They love it's like the army to them, but the nitrogen remains dissolved in the blood until you decompress
ever now. It's good point yeah, that's what the bans is in that cannot when that, when the nitrogen tries to escape it forms little bubbles, yeah that block blood vessels, and that's why you can like have a stroke or a heart attack if you send too quickly
and is in that. Can when that, when the nitrogen tries to escape, it forms little bubbles yeah that block blood vessels, and that's why you can. I have a stroke or a heart attack if you ascend to quickly and it can go to your joints in cause excruciating pain. I imagine crippling reimbursement
being crippled before yeah you suffered the bends. No, no earlier I thought I'd like you said the letter with their bodies, innocent incredible bodies, I feel like we do.
About my my lifelong crippling. Well momentarily thought. You meant had been thought remembered many months ago. You mentioning scuba
something about the bans. Accelerate I've never had the bad. Your poor, scuba cat begun the bends, wonder scuba
whose can all already wasn't he remember, but that was a winner,
So when you're in ancient Bell diver, I guess what you call a bell: Diver year seems right and you were down for very long too deep- came to quickly you're in launching a train and they men and it even understood the benefit that point. Imagine they didn't write their like. He has got the diving bell sickness right again, yeah. It was because he cinder something like that had to be upset Zeus, so things one hour when on like this for quite a while
you're? Like you just got the diving bell sickness right again: yeah. It was because he cinder something like a he upset Zeus, so things
when on like this, for quite a while through the renaissance in the sixteenth century, are using these diving bells. It was all well and good
having a blast down there having parties and then at some point, people were like you know it. I bet we could make this better.
Then, what's the point which is magnificent, but the ship that we need to get to a hundred feet
They run on air and they have to come up to Quicken they get the bends. So how can we improve this or their only fourteen feet down
sitting in a bell and what's the point which is magnificent but the ship that we need to get to a hundred feet down yet exactly like they needed this. They they wanted to have applications. They could use like two buildings or repair things or get. You know, pirates booty exactly in speaking of pirates, Jack Sparrow. Does this with a canoe in the first
parts of the Caribbean? Yes, Israel yeah. He turns a canoe upside down and they walked along the ocean bottom
I don't remember how he pulls the canoe down, technically speaking, it's possible if he pulled it straight down, I think the magic of Disney, but I don't think it's it's physically possible
He did just just want to make sure that anybody who really like that part, I poohpooh it
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So in the late sixteen hundred Zuzu Frenchmen name Dennis popping and he was one of the first deeds etc. You know what I think weaken
get some fresh air into their and very smartly, and simply he used hoses and bellows that you know the bellows were outside. Obviously upon. You know that
and they had deeds manning the Bellows and pumping pressure in their yet and it wasn't even like difficult. You didn't even have to navigate
like where to put the hole in the top of the dying
literally just goes under
The bottom end up inside here and in the air. Just press is a super easy yeah, so you ve got.
Sure now, yet I state on their longer throughout all that's all basically, but it still not pressurized
the air there pumping innocent pressurize this true, so they can go any deeper, yet they could do stayed on their into with her the heck they were doing sitting in these cast iron bells right
We we invent diving bells in at least the fifth century BC. We have to wait until this seventeenth century
de there before we make a real innovation to him now
whole other obstacle pressurizing these things. How long do we have to wait to overcome now and the year stew,
and it took an Englishman to do so. Edmund Howie, he basically attached these wooden barrels he's waited wooden barrels to die.
Belle and they can be brought up and down and vague
Jane Eyre at the bottom of each other.
As a whole
I did a lot of water to come in force in the air up and at the top was a hose that ran from that barrel to
the bottom of the diving bell and there was a false. So basically, whenever it was, is sort of like having
tanks down there whenever they wanted more pressure. You know they're trying to equalize things. They were just turn their little Fawcett and allow Aaron yet and once a barrel was empty, they would pull the barrels up. I guess refill them
air, which probably meant just opening the top and then closing it again
and then lower it back down there and all of a sudden, you could control the pressure
that was the same Halley, who name the common after himself was really. There was no way way back. I was all over the place Renaissance man here s where that word companies a poster innocence, renaissance in it
Esther! So yes or no, we have pressurized the bells rang yeah and basically it the equal
that of the surrounding water. So that means you can go deeper,
down. Longer you can you you run out like if the water search a creep up, it is ever more pressurized air. Then it pushes the water back down like a it keeps the water they because he said the same pressure to the water
whatever is inside the diary well might as well
be more water yeah. It doesnt have this crazy urge
to fill the diving bell up any longer because there's something there does. Canada goes long
happy weight of the merry on the track. Try- and I bet those some seventeenth century David blaine- that very shortly afterwards was like. I can stay down here for two months right and people like who cares, while the horrible thing was when you added pressurized air again your precious metals,
about, but the people said it become pressurized to go down, and even though it was a pretty horrific thing endure in and of itself Agatha do when they build the Brooklyn Bridge to
you know the two towers that that I guess that forward. Yeah those are down
almost to the bedrock they were going to go in the bedrock. No, they found out like there's some pretty stable aggregate thirty feet above bedrock. Today,
planet among those there, but to construct those they had to drop these huge caissons, which are based
like giant structure, all diving bells and they pressurized them, and it kept
water of the river out so clearly the river
just flowing around. This does weird but there's more
working in these things and they have to pressure
before going in him, and it was just like this there, your dream
burst once in awhile, as they are being pressure because it wasn't like gentle
It was I I you know. I guess it was better than just walking right into the case on, but it was still pretty rough
go and work in there for a couple of hours and then run out.
Hopefully not get decompression sickness events, but actually the the project manager, the son of the designer of the Brooklyn Bridge, Washington, Robles, the sun. He suffered a lifelong crippling from de compressing sickness after going in inspecting some of the work,
the guidelines in coming out to quickly. I know a lot of people died and, like I enjoy walking across the Brooklyn bridges. Many new Yorkers do, and you should think about that. Next time you doing so, yeah did like people gave up their lives to so you could like
smokey things and instagram photos of yourself right now, all the other things that you do come, there's a really great Kimberly documentary on the construction of Brooklyn Bridge. Do I haven't seen that one skip straight up: PBS, one, no frills, while he's not about frills right, he dismissed pictures like around and yes, pans in and out. This may be is least really get here
I'm not knocking KEN burn, so I could get skin burns so probably like this one, so a hundred years after being able to control the pressure with bellows in that the barrels, I'm sorry.
English. Another Englishmen. Scientists named John Smeaton, invented and
your diving air pump in seventeen eighty eight and it was on the service
obviously and took it like for guys to operate it. Then it was basically like Dennis Poppins original plan, but it was just mechanized, so they re will to build like big ones like people, but many like twelve people could go down and resting in like have a party if they wanted to. They made windows eventually, yet they put electricity
Yeah, that's the little scary for that time period. Oh you went out and about trusted that the I wouldn't
seventeen early eighteen, hundreds right and we discovered electricity. Now, it's put it in a war and they use them for, like you, said, building bridges and repairing docks and early saboteurs. We dumb sneak up underwater to cut the anchor lines of enemy ships, really does the very handy, use and dying out. So you dug up a cool story about
was that this year again here just this may may twenty sixth yeah Ganem Harrison. Ok at twenty nine year old nigerian boat cook was on a tugboat boat Sharon. Tugboat
in the Atlantic and capsized
He was eventually through. All this mean ok,
rising and in tumbling, around water flowing in and sinking a hundred feet and sinking of course ended
in a bathroom trapped with air yeah sort of like the same concept of a diving bill in people wondered he survived after sixty Sixtyth hours, a citizen see hours, but physicist really
well. How did this happen? Yelling? You probably should have been able to live that long down there right they were. The press reported that he had something like forth.
Of air, something like that
and on the other, the chain,
that he was in was only about four feet. High, so of sixty hours of air shouldn't have worked. It shouldn't kept him alive because the about it, like your breathing, even
it is pressurize there, your breathing air, you also exhaling carbon dioxide and when the with the ratio of carbon dioxide or the percentage of it, gets above five percent things sturdy
horribly awry new die shortly after that yeah. I didn't realize that lack of oxygen isn't what kills people it's too much co2 yeah
interesting via, can happen when you're on a venture. Later, that's apparently a big risk when you innovate somebody's there, the ox seo to build up loud and kill him so anyway widen this guy dyke. Well, it turns out there with pressurized air, especially when its pressurized against cos,
water c too, is readily absorbed by that water around it. So when he was exhaling, the
surgeon was remaining, but this year, too, is basically being wiped away right and since that sea or two or the other,
bubble that he was in was pressurized, use a hundred feet under water which actually help them.
Right. He had a lot of oxygen here. A bunch of oxygen was just pushed into this little area, but the ceo too
is being locked away in. That's how we managed to survive. Yes, said for every ten metre
She descend one atmospheres, pressure of pressures added
it makes it more dense, according to some lawmaker name boil according to Boils law,
and so since he was thirty metres below it became my
dense via times for, and so that meant that he didn't need as much air as you would think for someone that's under underwater and Vienna right
whence it any like. You need technically viable meters a day of air, so he only needed six cubic metres in the end because of the temperature of the water and how the
was right and in also aiming to remember this, a lot of air compressed into the same amount area. Always molecules are still present,
yeah they're, just in a smaller amount of area. They also think, though, that the EU is connected to another airport, which probably help
still, the guy survived in an impromptu inadvertent, diving Bell, a hundred feet below the surface for sixty hours stood in the dark here under the ocean with his head next to a toilet, and they
that he could hear the sea life scavenging on his dead crew mates, while, let's horrific they happened. This may not unlike eighteen, twelve in May, so they go by. The way will insert this right now because it's a good place for it. You were you you're out of town. Did you hear about the whole shark? Nato thing yet you predicted shortly
I invented it yeah, that's pretty impressive check for those of you. Dont know. Shark. Nato was a very cheesy movie on a network that aired couple weeks ago and blew up blue
up didn't get as many viewers from the blow up, as I would have hoped, but am I watched it? It was very funny and fund was dumb. I else terrible, but you know
that way wasn't gonna get your name or to an open. Your eyes was in terror freed who oh yeah she's a rough.
You mean I were out of the country, and we heard about this about short media so
fully one of our listeners alerted me to the fact that I invented shark NATO because in the desert, can it really rain frogs episode.
I say this now I mean I think, they're light because as a whole point, even a updraft from a waterspout it
hundred miles an hour is an enemy pick picking up in a great white sharks. That's that's a movie, for you
raining sharks. So thanks to Fan Todd waters for bringing that my intention, that's impressive. You very clearly aims at a movie
yeah? You invented shark NATO, and this thing was released a good year ago. Right, it was, I think, may of two thousand twelve, so that was almost a year before Harrison are keenly survives and diving. Well, all sorts of common together doing the bold ants feel in the floor tat enough. I can soon be body, but I'm looking into it have you I see you should always ask before you soon
see I like, as yeah sure say, gimme some gimme, some cabbage about bread will shorten energies. Luckily, we should bring back bread for money can bring a little bread yeah, so they sent me bread, though
liquid would with it. You know that this is why, while shaped like a shark may, we should bring back
into the regular vernacular, and then you ask them: ok, ok, that's our plan! I it's a sorry about that. I borrowed just want to give myself credit had sticky, and you should be very proud of that. Thanks, hey. I know it when a good
The idea comes long, I'm all over her tell you, and I am
If you are more about diving bows, you should type those two words into the search bar. How stuff works, tat, calm and
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and now it's time for this mere male check, whether you like it or not. I hope you ready,
from another teacher. We like to really he guys. The reason I'm writing is to tell you how much of you should now has helped me during my first year teaching I'm twenty four just finished my first years of high school,
Social studies teacher this year, I taught law and justice in a peace, ecology on justice centres and a peace. I called you around it.
Since I listen to a huge bulk of your shows when I was preparing various lessons. Are you
The information that I had on different podcast I'd heard on different plot guest. Then I thought you know it. I should have
I'll get I'll get even lazier display the show the podcast or a big hit with the kids. They got a break from hearing my voice, and I got a break from talking. If he should know, is also great for teachers because articles you guys use for the pot
Chester well researched and written. Thank you. Thank you. Don't have to worry that you guys are just making up information and if you don't tell me
Students said the winner of their all time. Favorite and class was how Barbie works that that's probably my favorite to get one disco. I created a pretty awesome powerpoint to accompany it attached it, and I look at is really
Naturally we discussed how Barbie and other toys can influence gender identity and body image and developing children overall, some of the project of stream, japanese interment camps in human right to privacy. When you die in psychology I hit on concussions monk.
Since syndrome, Rome hypnosis about amusing piteously? Really bottom is now one of the often best we should call it libitum heart
we love mile above me unimpaired. Do you remember that dude guy ears are here Howard, some hours
just tell you guys again thanks a lot for making my job easier, because you use classroom appropriate language and report factual research based on evidence in information you're, an amazing classroom, resorts resorts: did you see? The team is still keep him come and hardly brown
where's my curly brown. We appreciate the norm is round as your students, partly guy that's right. Thank you. Miss Brown for letting us know that we like to know that were helping shape young minds for the better try with these classroom appropriate language tat we had never termed at that.
Well see checkers, why should we say anything you want to hear about
You have invented. Something is out
then the to remember
No, I have a grey Andrew
from one sixth of the scoreboard,
and the guy going down a ski slope on a little skateboard skeezer wealth so even been achieved.
The sharknado, NATO and the snowboard? Yet so, if you haven't inadvertently invented something, that's a great one and we love to hear about it. Yeah you can tweet that to a set Sysk podcast, you can post posted on our Facebook page at Facebook that complex that we should not. You can send an email chuck, and I were both.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-01.