You can burn them, freeze them, shoot them into space – they wouldn’t bat an eyelash, even if they had eyelashes. Go into the microcosmos and learn about the tiny animals that are so astoundingly durable, they can survive conditions not found here on Earth.
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Welcome to stop. You should know from house to fork: Stockholm welcomed the Parker Stone, Josh withdraws the reach of bright jerry.
You should know about
never heard of these little guys grid, and now they have shot into the top five alongside the octopus and jellyfish jellyfish. These little did,
more huggin. I might be hugging them right now. You could well probably not Rowena, but I love em acute and tell him her tiny.
Not hardly anybody knows what they are. I would say there obtain
only nine percent of people listening do not know what this is really
so I was under the impression that they were kind of a big hit on the internet within less couple years. Well, I'm not happen to that stuff. So maybe it might have been part of a meme.
I don't know what political mean yeah. I think I think tat a great had had a moment. Ok, but it turns out that they are they ve been rough.
Much longer than the internet, yeah yeah hundreds of millions of years,
yeah up somewhere around when I six hundred million years here, which would make them pre Cambrian explosion, some really old pc,
so before getting. That was tell you what we're talking about. Yes, a tartar grade
also known as a water bear cute name. This is my favorite MOSS piglet here, pygmy rhinoceros,
Pygmy armadillo. I like
Adele is ever since our leprosy episode outright mover
They are little tiny micro, scalping animals, animals, multi, cellular
animals there on reproduced
actually in all cases that are whether animals do not do so.
They're, not bacteria viruses are not bugs, are very, very small. They get to be about ahead,
to one millimetre incised depending on the species and their also super cute.
Depending on your view of things. Yes,
thing you should do if you're at home,
or if you're, not driving, say, is Fletcher phone. Here are your desktop below you desktop lobby?
And look up short agreed, just look a little picture of it and in us you know we're talking about, but if you ask me people again to a pan to bear an earthquake that, although the views in the picture the one on its back, I don't think I did very acute,
like. You just want scratches labelling here, but it looks to me like if mass caterpillar and
it more rat unholy union. Those awesome, though, is the best analogy of that kind of what looks like to me. I can hardly you they meant to do it somehow tell Adele Dogs
The name. Tar degraded is from Latin
actually mean slow Walker, which is cute in and of itself, and that proposal
was named by on this
italian scientists, name, Lazzaro Spallanzani tell him the name of his book. I love this name. His book was a boy opus, Curly, the Fisher Anemometer events to bill number. My bad.
You didn't razor your fingers, the prostrate, but he named this guy. He found his overheating discovered apparently before
in seventeen. Seventy three german
your name. Your Argos Ephrem gets discovered it, but he
the one spell its army is the one who named it it'll taught the gradual, which means slow
yeah, within the reason he called it. That is because, if you look under a microscope at all the stuff which has all the rage in the late a tenth century, I look at all the stuff. After what was his name and Taiwan leaving hook it, my saying that correctly, I remember I'm pretty sure after he started to invent microscopes in these there. You spread
we started looking at what was in debris in ring guttered, I add a word or two and they found that when you add water to stuff there was just dried up dust and arrange, after all, the suddenly so there's a bunch of things that came to life there.
And most of those things move around really really fast. Starting
like all it's over here with over there. I want to go over there. They have a very short attention span straight toward a grades law
were about air, they kind of falling.
Over a lot climbing over like pieces of dust and other particles, and they move much more slowly and- and I guess deliberately yet compared to their other microscopic
since then that in the ring gutter debris, that's where they got their name yeah, they have eight legs yet little bill short well, stubby, lead
right into the their rear. Legs are inverted rights that are facing forward instead, a backward and they they ve nullifies backward. They face backward step forward, yeah and all their legs have little closet. The end right for climate for climate and the first three pairs of legs are used for swimming. The back are used for climbing. Only
and rudder work threatens that only steer the rear they made. A jury of him
and what are they climbing over will depends. You can find him all over the place, but
mainly if they're on dry land there had been eleven in MOSS.
Alan leaves stuff that you would find in the gutter liken yeah yeah things are typically have moisture and and because water bears thirty grades survive. When there
surrounded by moisture right whenever amid moisture, freshwater, saltwater, dead matter
doesn't invents on the kind of course right, so there
apparently originated in the sea because the the species of tar degrades that are
marine based are the least evolved. I guess you'd put it. There
you ve got freshwater once and
you ve got ones. There are terrestrial that you can find on land and those are the ones that living lichens and moss and stuff like that
all of them again are part of this branch of the family tree, that's it
phylum tardy, greater, is phylum near, and this article makes the point that if you look at humans, we
Were we sheriff Phylum Cordoba with like snakes and
every other vertebrate on earth right these guys have their own file.
They're on their own club. They really are. So this is to think that there are very ancient line and that there is a ton of them a lot of them here and there are theirs. Waterbirds
yeah, we mention that their animals and if you look at a picture, it's probably from all, not probably its deftly from a microscope, and so you know you think that again, like it's as some sort of bacteria or somethin
but it is not. It is an animal. Has a brain has a nervous system
as a little stomach and little tiny intestines as a tiny, anus, tiny assault,
yes, and they don't have heart
things or veins now, because, as you say, open source
open him. A coil as the lady on the internet said yeah, which means that gas exchange Nutrient exchange happens.
Because every cell in the tardy great body is touching them bought the interior body cavity. So
food and air
goes through the mouth another. His tiny anus right. Those nutrients in those gases gets a get passed into the cells that get past that that it passes by here take a studio apartment
shall extremely efficient, ter, so they're about a thousand species or more of tartar grades.
Six hundred or so on land about three hundred marine,
about a hundred and fresh water
they lay eggs. Some of them have sex some of em, doubt some of em self fertilize, it's pretty interesting stuff. What else they eat the fluids of plants or they some of them are carnivore. Here. The fluids of animal sprite re always gotta, be fluid yeah. They have like a piercing mouth part. I believe that compeers, so, while in the sector, fluids and proteins and stuff out of a cell and depending on species that sell maybe plant based her, maybe an
by including other tar degrades, which is decidedly less cute, cannibalism, you're. So if you're sitting there right now, you're thinking, I dont see how this rivals and octopus. These are just tiny little
may become acute, but tiny little animals. What's the big. What right after this break will tell you what
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with the big worth about tar degrades despite the size
Things how big worthy again, if you,
get a magazine article there about half the size of a period of a sentence that it was a magazine. Nevertheless, a shoe, you say there, but it's true, Sir Sir. That's a good way to put it
change so star wars there that tiny and they are one of the toughest most resilient creatures on the Planet- earth period there, probably the most resilient animal or organism honour amazing, I will talk about. It- must talk about.
Temperature yeah they like that, like seventy five degrees and nothing I'll try. So all. What's weird is there's this long standing tradition in biology of trying to kill, tarred a grades under really yet not so condition? Yet, let's see what these little guys could very easily, not quite sure how it started, but somebody figured out
early fairly early on that they could withstand.
May singly called temperatures right,
the acting like down to basically absolute zero competency coupled with degrees above absolute zero and two
and how crazy that anything could survive an absolute zero. That's where, like Atomic Movement Basis,
the absolute zero there's. No movement of atoms are molecules any longer because that's what he does he'd energies, the movement of atoms molecules so called by contrast, is the cessation, where the lesser movement of ad absurdum,
we're talking negative to seventy two celsius, negative for fifty nine Fahrenheit, so tardy Greece have been kept at that temperature for twenty hours and then thought out, and they said yes, but you got
gonna Tiktok great figure fell the fly on myself
seemingly unharmed, they put him on ice
negative two hundred celsius and not absolute zero, but they vice them down for years in a row, thought him out. There were right back to normal
amazing, then, on the other side, they expose them. Do extra,
nearly hot temperatures like a hundred and fifty degrees celsius here, and we should say so the fact that their surviving that's like, while a hundred fifty degrees celsius, that's hot, absolutely
that's cool. The reason why it is so incredibly just
I'm boggling, that targets can survive this and still be animals. Is that theory
here to be the only like that can survive these conditions. The reason why, as if you freeze and your multi cellular
yourselves, are liable to freeze themselves and there's gonna, be all sorts of sir.
Or damage when the ice crystals form in yourselves, yeah they're, gonna, rupture yourselves, because ice expands when it freezes way
I think we also have the various too. Yes, we did. We asked by yet frostbite, so the fact that they can come back to life after being exposed to these really cold temperatures means that they ve got something going on that keeping their cells from ropeyarn. Science has no idea why, on the other hand, with heat tremendous heat, when you you exposed the cell to a hundred
you re Celsius, which is above the boiling point of water right here, you are you're proteins are going to unfold in Peru.
Inquired Julie and be totally useless. So you can't come back to life because all the processes in the building blocks of light
are useless in your body, and you would have to start from scratch. We just have to catch up to when you're trying to come back alive for me exposed a high temperatures Tartu grades. Do it right
flash freedom, the freedom for years. They boil them, they try and smash them to the tune of fifty eight hundred pounds per square inch of pressure and the charter greater psych bring it
no problem and we're talking about pressures that are six times greater than the greatest pressures found anywhere on earth and they withstand
blasted them. They try to suffocate them. They friend tiny little hands, regular throat
they put a tiny black gloves. Firstly, they didn't leave any now they dreaded
the kitten with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen,
they shot him with gamma rays without
x rays. Yeah they found there is,
and study that found that it took five hundred and seventy
thousand wrote Djinns. I think that's easy to kill fifty percent of the targets and a sample. The other fifty percent still lived
and that's five hundred and seventy thousand it takes five hundred to kill a human, but it took five hundred and seventy thousand to kill. Half just
the targets in the sample year. They shot him up into space and I think about half of those lived right, so
literally think he said their training
ensuring more creative ways to kill these things in the tar degrades. Take all comers,
basically and the young there. They have a couple of mechanisms again size of trying to figure out one, how their cells keep from freezing in a way that they would rupture yeah or how their proteins keep from unfolding. But like that kind of radiation exposure should do all sorts of horrible things is jealous nor radiation sickness up. So that was a good one year, but its due also to horrible things like break
the nay, but apparently they have some sort of mechanism to prevent this from happening right. While they have a mechanism to stitch back together an apparently they also produce a protein called these up that acts as a shield.
Itself, around dna and and basically shields the dna from radiation exposure to begin with rising. So they have all these these natural processes, but they also passive processes as well that that
include basically like going into a state of suspended animation, depending on the conditions
other two things called an oxy biases and crypto biases there. Those are two of the three states where these things live. The other one is just an act of state which is just a regular living normal vertebrate. Whether due
their daily life, basically which I think we mention you know, does not a lot to that part knowing apparently
Searches like we have no idea what role they play in any case as yet that's kind of what I was wondering
like their indestructible they're going to joining left, maybe after an hour
global warming has wiped off the face of the earth, but why nobody knows who knows? Maybe they're gonna grow up and be big boys Wendy. Well, though, that's really
the question of because it, if you think about you like why, with these things, be able to withstand the pressure six times greater than what president
earth or radiation like you would never find on earth or temper gas like you would never find reason doesn't make any sense until you stop and think like there doesn't have to be raised
could just be that they have things her energies there. They used to defend themselves against certain conditions on earth better, just just
totally unrelated Lee? You also happened to cover these other conditions that we humans try to watch him into. That target would never we'd never evolve to take on, but they can still with
and you, like you, ass, a tartar great and there like we're just trying to survive. Dude right like Y S, delay a purpose on with your hang ups, so
the first one image in the end, oxy biases, that's when, if you'd like starve them of oxygen, they will pop up
and a little ball and stay that way? Basically yeah, I guess they lose their ability to regulate fluid transmission in and out of their cells, yeah and Fluid Russia's in and they puffed up yes, and they can stay that way, think for a few days and then, after that, they die, but not bad
two days of being completely saturated with one another and there the other one is really amazing: those crypto biases. So
so that they do need this water, if they'd
Then you have to live in the water, but they need water. But if this water eventually goes away new dry them up, they pull in their feet, they pull in their head and they basically,
stop metabolizing. They go into this weird state of suspended animation where they say
an basis you think I'm dead by all accounts. I look like I would be dead, but I'm not. It's called a ton state to you in yeah or tune. I think it might be
soon, because it was its short for tune conform, it's got. It isn't
and were within a lot over the oh. So in the b a too well, it's like turn trenchant form teach inform yeah, but I call it a ton state. Ok, so this this tonnes stay tuned state authority in this area,
Their metabolism sustainably point zero. Five percent of its normal rate right here, and there was a recent-
you're in the forties in ITALY who said that she
revived a sample of tar degrades from a sample of Dr Moss that had been collected like a hundred and twenty years before, yet
Frankie were apparently no one's ever recreated that one, but they have found that a tardy, great can survive in this team state
for at least thirty two years yet some japanese researchers took master was collected from an article in nineteen eighty three and in two
thousand fifteen. They opened up the sample and were they re hydrated it, and they found that some tartar grades came alive. It's almost like it frees dries itself in just needs
as you know, Atwater and there like all right, but what happened of his less thirty years right exactly president. The thing
those if something dries out. It loses ninety seven percent of its of its water. It's moisture from its body, I think
Ok, it's ugly dress! I like that, like your dna needs, water to jerk, DNA stays dry. It starts to deteriorate pretty quickly. So again, nothing is supposed to be able to survive thirty years of that state right, that's right! So this is a scam. Researchers puzzle is valid,
Are they doing this kind of thing? Apparently they have proteins their help, stitch DNA back together now, so I guess they start to come out of the tune state in one of the first things they do stitch back this that their dna
that little soul, machine yeah- well, there's just one due tomorrow, we'll take a break and talk about his seeming obsession with his old fellows writer.
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If you want to know everything you want need to know about a tartar grade, you should sit down and have coffee with you and see Chapel Hill Qatar deals with this proof. Was he a professor he's, a piss off his across Thomas Booth B.
This dude seems like Vigo too, like every article I read featured him as the main interviewee La Beale. Isoud talk tarred a great. He does
has a button, nay, whereas our times it asked me about target people at work,
yeah, I'm sure no obsession, but he is stricken with them.
As I am.
And he's trying to fix
How and why they are able to do all these amazing things. Sure-
probably more on the. How than the why these go with that? Why he seems to do a lot of he leaves it to the philosophy of professor. He exactly so wit,
Thomas Booth, be made his name not in the way that he would necessarily like when he was leading a team, I think, into doesnt fourteen, maybe maybe two dozen fifteen, that that data genetic scan of a species of war,
bears and found. Some really surprising results here. They found that something like seventeen percent in change of genes in the water bears were associated with other things like fungi
bacteria viruses that they had all these dna stitched up with theirs and that the assumption was it. That was how the
the grades were able to do all these amazing things and survive on all these ways, because they were borrowing, talents and tracing characteristics
of units, cellular life and non living life like viruses, yeah, and that that's how they were able to to survive these extreme conditions here, but it sir the kind of
Could it be in a watch liking? I really excited and thought. Oh, my gosh. They got the stuff
turns out. They were just contaminated through point experimentation right there,
I assume that there was lateral gene transfer that was going on in their turn,
the year they headed contaminated sample and heads of Thomas Booth, because he's not
come and go hide for the next decade. I Keith tea was like a happens in science, man with guns, increasingly sophisticated machines and the increasingly sophisticated machines found that are samples contaminated. Let's get back to work, so this japanese researchers are followed and a different type of
The great one of the hardest around Erasmus tourists assessment Asthma red is basically I was hoping that's what
but it was a grammar Zaire. Yes,
Very you notice comes up again
that's one of the hardest of volatile land species, the lander
more hardier. I think we already said that right.
Well. There's your. Why check that you one of the reasons
Are these: the land on species have have evolved is because they have to. They don't have these sites
Or conditions that the Marine Aquatic once they re so they tests
Rather, the Roma is obvious.
Very in Addis species.
Found that they had about one percent of foreign genes involved in them, which is about normal right, because lateral gene transfer can happen at that rate, is the sort of average right so, like you said he held his head high and said no big deal. We can continue to search for them.
And why these little did you so hardy? One of the things that they found that was pretty unique is on ice, is a big deal and we talk a little bit of human,
go harking back to the frostbite, where ice crystals form inside a cell during a part that dna-
and there are some animals
make an anti fee. Freeze like protein like fish, some fish. Do that to keep it from freezing
and they thought well. Maybe the charter greatest doing that, and they don't think it is. They think it can just handle it. Basically, like
maybe it's just freezing the outside of the cells and not the inside. Like some weird mechanism, they don't understand, but is definitely not
using in any freeze like some unease Fisher, exactly it's just like bring bring it on blue eyes. I can take it. I can take that the problem
and again with the radiation exposure they have, they been found have proteins that she'll DNA,
and the ability to stitch dna back together, right yeah, so you got that covered
and I think you alluded to an earlier.
It may not be the case of the tardy great. Has all these different things to survive,
violence, but maybe two or three little tricks that are just you can apply to different ways of survival. Exactly
because I, like their evolving to go, fly through space right, colonise new plant. That's a question that alot of people come up with once they look
tardy grades is like we'll wait. A minute. Are these things like aliens? Did they come on an asteroid in hiding clique, spread like seed here on earth? They could survive space. Some of them could conceivably
but they would burn up on reentry. So, probably not.
So where they I'm on the back of an asteroid, they would burn up his fire, apparently can kill a charter great. I guess, yeah. In those space experiments, they were inside the satellite inside the capsule, protected from RE entry right into
they were out in space and then they were exposed to solar radiation, and then they were put back in the capital and brought back to earth right to safe and sound yes alike,
The thing he found a common was with the heat and the cold it the com
I think there is an ability to repair dna, and so maybe that's the sort of common denominator here right. There is good at it in there
because they have to be, or else they would be around there were forced into it. So pretty nihilistic view I like it
There is another thing that stood out for me a day, just love so at the pressures they can withstand
the fatty membranes of their cells should be as solid as cold butter and again she sat functioning at those pressures or it should kill them they bounce back. So
this cold butter yeah, I mean think about it. Like normally
I remember, is that make up cells are basically in the liquid state. Here called butter, a sucker for cellular function, yeah. It's also
good when they give it to you in a restaurant Anna. To put on the bread, but you know the key to that: stick it on your arm
Why is holding my hand, sir,
and you want you're gonna wanna get greedy and try to do to a once thought it's
the down more than it longer than it takes to do to separately. Then he got butter
No, no, I mean you get a little foil. Rap came
talking about laser view, difficult butter. You leave the Antonia about like a real restaurant, that just as butter in a dish
is there something you leave that Russia, the son, a real restaurant, if they somebody somebody's, not paying attention
or even the worst of the little called butter balls they stooped and
I grant you that spread about useless.
Yeah just rules around when you try to put it in a nurse gun, never hurt. Have you seen those things lately, motorway
what are the kids show me the day and I tried to get too like hysterical about stuff, but the nerve guns. These days there there like assault weapons here,
I guess I do likewise in German, rightfully ours, so it doesn't count.
No, but it's not an armaments, clearly made me think like well. There,
Clearly: indoctrinated young children as young as possible. You like this nerve, good, you're, gonna love. They are flatly anyway,
While I took a weird turn at the yet in view, I know more about tardy grades or guns, you can take those words into the search bar has to work that common sense. I said whatever its side for the cinema,
his errand Sorkin rebuttal. This remark for us
hey guys at a common to about chucks professed dislike of Erin Sorkin. The use of those me tells me: did you check again up yet
I'm alive and our definite fans on a different perspective out there, for you consider not make anyone is.
Consider, is writing to be conversational. I would kind of like in it to a musical or the place of Shakespeare
and he says I'm not equating Shakespeare was Sorkin
the goals aren't how people talk. Shakespeare was definitely not representing help. People talk back, then.
Four Willie the shake it was: a poetic language filled with metaphors.
That turns a lot of people off even today, but like with musicals at this time,
by way of showing what people are feeling and think
Realizing that yes, people, don't
That way actually makes me enjoy more in some ways. It makes things more compact and that it can express feelings, ideas more quickly
We can often do so with more do some more entertaining
and people are way more quick witted than you would be in real life. Spinning your disbelief makes an enjoyable for me. At least, I think that's the problem I have with the egg. It prevents me from suspending this point,
yeah me too. I definitely like to Steve Jobs Movie, which we both like right. You liked arrived see, I did
like a clearly artificial, the construction and was seen very much
play in several acts. I agree with you there, sir.
If you like anything that was attempting to show real events, are real sequences rather too
it's a lot of what happened during periods of his life into specific scenes. I would agree with that.
Scenes, packed in drama emotions from the time they had. We also just finish newsroom,
newsroom and love that
anyway. People always up in their own opinions, and I tend to agree with most of your film thoughts. Does not this one?
I love both your show and you guys and will continue to do so- that is marked frost eggs mark those
well well written well thought out. Thanks yeah, I get people love certain. I love others less weight and stuff like that. Have you seen them
No, what is it? Where do I hear, but that's it everywhere
Jean Luc Currie adaptation with them,
doktor house and actually really good movie, that's like of six per minute. How very check it out you will like it aloft, prompts let's get Josh's guaranteed yeah. He also said it like toilet,
I didn't say that I was getting you say, you're making me because these in my mind, I feel
again such a check me, you can t to us as well as care podcast, her Josh on Clark, Facebook, US trials of each her prey or establish now. Sanderson emails, stuff pike, s house, to recycle,
it is, after all, on the website. You should know that count for more or less and thousands of other topics. As it has done for Stockholm, this progress has brought you buy a lobbying alone,
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-10.