In this episode of Stuff You Should Know, Josh and Chuck discuss the Large Hadron Collider, from its purpose and origins to how likely it is to wipe out all life in the universe.
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Looking at the park test on Josh. Clerk with me is always is Charles Debbie Bright as well as our producer Jerry. You can just call me. No one can tell you that the beginning, I wonder if that thing is discovered. If somebody will name there to expose macklewain love, someone names are kid yet Detroit. I think someone and sleeping inexpensive and com. I think in there, in the editorial, in an exclamation point, yeah, there's some sort of punctuation. When you get punctuation in your name, your parents were messed up. Yes, chucks talking about a theoretical particle called the Higgs both on we'll talk about it in a minute. But first you can talk about the place where their hoping to find proof positive that the Higgs both on particle exists. Yes, josh- and this is very exciting,
super sites have it, because it's about science, so science heavy. That check- and I are little nervous about this when I am not of the end of may- have dark matter using out of my ears. He heard you do, of course, which is proof that it exists. Exactly You just amended the standard. I let's talk about this dude. What? What? What is it we're talking about the large hadron collider? but you may have heard about you may know a lot about it. If you do, I Emmanuel Polyglot, some angry emails from you when we mess it up and eventually right, but that on the border between Switzerland and France, yes, a hundred meters, underground, beautiful country, sure, let's get skiing other there is a facility with a track. That's what seventeen miles long,
Seventeen point, seven, sixteen point, some give a lot is called seventy. Seventy and around this track, they shoot beams of light. Pretty simple, it is pretty simple. Can I stop now? Yes, we can that there There is the large hadron collider, everybody, that's what it costs called large hadron collider it's been built. I think they started in the twenty first century. Finally, when online, for the first time in two thousand and eight it so far, its cost six billion dollars to construct yeah offered any up to ten, even depending on their yet will ya and there's a lot of countries involved. There's thousands of scientists, back to their home countries and saying we need more money. We need more money. And tat the, but yet France and dumb Social into running the show their yeah CERN is the name of the company. We should point out right: the organisations, the European Organization for Nuclear research, of yellow the aid often say, sir.
I guess what to say those letters don't match up money, so you think you around here. So what is it chuck? It? They shoot beams of water, it's a particle accelerator and it is the largest and most stir bad ass particle accelerator in the history of particle accelerators. True that, as the easiest way, we ve got particle accelerators that look like gum, o donkeys, pulling carts with square wheels compared to this late at seriously. This is biggest gets its as ambitious as it gets, and basically what they are trying to do are several full they're trying to prove the existence of the Higgs both on particle acre aid, the God Party, let's talk about us, why? Why would anyone want to prove the existence of a theoretical particle should go back to the standard model? Yeah too we back into this. Let's do it basically tries to define the fundamental particles that make the universe the forces, the forces right? You ve got a strong nuclear force, strongly bull
week, nuclear force electromagnetic force. Yes, so the standard model which combines Einstein's theory of relativity, with quantum physics able quantum theory and all that other right off. You too said it combines those two in it proves the existence it accounts for those three forces, the
Ms gravity still remains unaccounted for, yeah, that's the fourth fundamental force like we can account for theoretically, but we can say yes, this is why gravity exists in this is all this directive does we're still with with strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force that we ve advance leaps and bounds beyond classical physics, newtonian physics, but were still at the apple falling off the tree level as far as it goes when it comes to gravity right, so the Higgs both on particle. If we find it, if we detect it, it will fill out the standard model. Hague was actually in a city radical particle. This point that we're looking for right in the wood. They think that it exists and that basically its response before giving mass or matter mass right right, which is important. They say because not all matter has mass right things called neutrinos, delicious and nutritious neutrinos tonight have mats right.
A practice own Virginia occurs actually written down. My name is that so everything has mass in and the idea is that, if you explain the existence of mass using the Higgs mechanism will all be better for it and understand or orange. We are ultimately as what it comes down to is world. Fear theory is not get enough. We have right now, you know so. The Higgs person particles, one of the bigger ones named after Peter Higgs by the wafers, is too. I fear I said how do you, how do you know a theoretical particle when you see it sets a good question? Do you know this is what I understand. Then, you can't say other must be the particle out there sure and name it after me by the way right right. Think Peter Higgs went a little further and said this particle must exist and if it does exist, this is basically this. Is it some energy, its mass right? So fine, this site, and even after me
right exactly, and so, if they what's going to happen when the when they turned the large Hagen Clyde or on what this Christmas. I think it begins the process which will take several months after that didn't to collide and limit the Del Valle have their sensors looking for right particle, that's created. That has that I guess mass their energy there, whatever I'm, however, its describe mathematically here, the doorway matter- because I still get coming to my ears me out so Upward- duck matters another one that their hoping to find. I do you gotta come you tell us about its her.
Well, here's the deal dark matter is right. Now humans can observe about four percent of all the matter that must exist in the inner room. That's all we can count forget that somebody much there's a theory that dark matter is this undetectable matter and that, coupled with a matter that we can detect, only about twenty five percent, which is so much in the other three quarters, is what they think might be. A force called Dark energy right, which some. It is to be calm alarmed over the last few decades when they detected at the universe, sexually expanding right. And they don't know why well and they think that dark energy may be the reason right so they're looking to a lot of what, when she again when she theorize something you can have to back it up with, and this is what is going to look like right wing and so the you you sense for right. Sure there also looking for anti matter. We rise matters, hated foe right and they
the cancel each other out. Yet that's how it supposedly worked. There was more anti matter more. My eyes are more matter than anti matter and when the big bang Happen, which is how were here exactly, but they no, why in their hoping to create that Samuel in that is- and that is the hook Jacques, what there
we do. They want to find all the stuff and more by recreating the big bang. Yet the the what the universe looked like a trillions of a second after the Big bang right right, because we think what happened was that the universe, expand and schools and all these particles floating around, join up together, inform larger particles and then vote on all the sudden what he was sword, evolution sure start rolling right blackmail. You believe in that kind of thing, I'm there also looking for some other stuff thumb, the slightly stranger stuff. Then you know dark matter and anti matter. Ah, ah they're looking for It's well adherents of string theory looking for evidence of string theory, which we mean another dimension, several up to eleven. I believe that your carrier, who I think, theorized eleven, I dont by string theory, the anti virus,
However, I have a real problem in its most likely. I just don't understand it, but from what I understand very, very smart people do standard either. Others, no blue, pressing. That cake is like this is what he didn't come up with the measurements right back it up right. You know, but you're on the same page, LA scientist, though they also say that it's it's a philosophy is not right under his theory or under his philosophy. However, you want to say it: there's up to eleven different dimensions were currently aware for height with death in time. Yes, there are four dimensions that we exist: undertake who there's eleven total so there's another eight that are unaccounted for all matter in the universe is made up of tiny vibrating strengths, summer clothes like little rubber band summer openly? little Lamb, I dont, know Tapeworm second, cut rubber band right, sure, face and check any strings. Can vibrate yeah
now like a guitar string and one vibration might make it look an electron one might make it look like a neutrino delay. This isn't a greener from another string theory in its most simples form, but events the the strings are highly hypothetical and even if they work for you, Did we apparently wouldn't be able to send them? What they're? Looking for the strength arrest is evidence of super symmetry right in symmetry is you have a particle and it has it an opposite particle like a neutron and at positron palliatives and negatively chart Ryan Anti particle sure right even further. Those are super partners even further into super symmetry. In this will somehow, I guess, proof string theory. I don't understand how it will, but an hour
How can you imagine the length of the emails we're gonna get from people who explain how this proves string? Theory, I M already suffering from brain melting. Imagine anymore! So you get the neutron in the positron. Yes, those are super partners, but each of those it have a positive partner to, rather than an opera, They have one, that's like them: rail, each one has their own partner. So each particle will have three partner particles, three counter particles, counter particles perfect shot. Yes, so that would be super symmetry and apparently, if they find evidence of super symmetry, then room but of being string. Theory is right right and it also helps to explain dark matter. Yes, it does
what is still out there? Yes, that's like this are very were muddling through this part, but it's about to get a little more interesting ears like ten nerds that are like this is the best thing ever eat no they're like carving their knives right, ready to slice up. Yes, sir, that's what they're looking for an also. I think this is what I find most fascinating about it most of the scientists out there. I think the very few who are looking for evidence back of their theories? Most of them are actually hoping to learn like everything they know is wrong and there's this new stuff to go out there and figure out what how this fits here and all that I find that very interesting initiative is very ambitious project in a strictly and points out in his article very comprehensive work, oh by the way- Then there is no practical application for this yeah. It's all just to see what happens. Which is over there, who think six to ten oh yeah. You know well and if you ve ever seen the thing in the pictures of this this the hay drunk lighters, is unbelievable. Its Jain Norman
So what are they gonna be doing check? How does this thing work Well, Josh. There are eight sectors at the hadron collider. And they basically use magnets to steer these beams of light. These proteins, in a circle rise. Otherwise, right do you have that part possessing report that makes sense The magnets are actually super cool guy Chuck yet well as ninety six hundred magnets few one little last that status instead, heavy signals you're sure. So. Ninety six hundred its many of them way several times, which is pretty pretty big, pretty big and they are cool Josh to one point: nine degrees Kelvin, which is negative to seventy one celsius or negative for fifty six
which is just above absolute, zero and the reason why they would want to cool an electromagnet to just above absolute zero. Is this very little electrical right resistance to when you turn that thing also can operate smoothly exactly ideally right because its it some its purposes until I can go to? okey attract all of the pots and pans certain facilities. To it I mean it has the opposite: steering beams of life, which is much more difficult. You go out there and try to steer a beam of light handed a train yeah, it's tough! It is tough okay, so why? Why do they call it that?
That's a pretty well stay cool it using liquid hydrogen and helium right liquid, nitrogen yeah whew. That's the first ten thousand, eight hundred tonnes of liquid nitrogen and sixty tonnes of liquid helium too. To finish up right, that's pretty hard core! Ok, so you ve got these magnets in actually inside the magnets or pipes right which are vacuumed yeah. We gotta vacuum so basically, if you hear you for a vacuum and almost absolute zero, this assumption, awful out, like outer space like deep space, exactly yes, I'm so that they are creating a vacuum to keep any particle out right. Any particle could screw this whole thing. So imagine that there's inside this almost seventeen miles track, there's nothing the creating deep space. Three hundred and twenty eight feet below the earth's crust without the spaceship. That's that's
ok, so check along this and also those on the aid sectors. Each one is an arc like you said, so it's basically one circle yeah and along along this big circle are six stations basically right in each one of these is outfitted. With you know, tons of centres is a hundred and fifty million centres. I think throughout the whole collider right, and so each station is basically working to measure one thing or another right now and we could go into detail here, but this is really when people with Tuna Bryce suffice to say there are eight main stations where they're looking for our six seven six main station, sixty four, which are really jain, enormous, collecting lots of info and then to come a smaller ones, write em. Remember these there there collecting things like some information about radiation, sudden changes in mass near invitation,
feels like her magnetic fields that kind of stuff and it's gonna sort through and actually another interesting thing about certain is that it's getting something like fifteen Petr bites of data gathered every year, which is fifteen million gigabytes yeah, that's in their constantly. The senses are constantly feeding back information. They say that was enough information to fill one hundred thousand dvds, which is not is impressive, as I would have thought, I'm pretty impress hooker and there actually using a grid computing using off the shelf computers, which is pretty cool yeah. There is linked together, but they do that, I'm more efficient from what I understand. Yeah thanks and it's cheaper, their saving. Speaking of cheap, you know what
cheap their power bill. Did you see that unbelievable thirty million dollars per year just to power this thing after they ve already sunk between six and ten billion into a right? And once this once this thing gets rubbed up or they're going to do? First, the first step chuck in this is like the big experiment. Basically, there just shooting beams lightly smashing amended each other right, ok, so what the? What they're going to do? First is going to take hydrogen atoms they're going to strip them of their electrons right yeah make which produces protons they're gonna, take the protons and they're going to send them through a machine that fires them as beams the PS booster. That's the accelerator right. I think that's what gets there's a bunch of under that's what gets it going right. So it's just a beam and then it's a be right
right, ok, chuck! So when they get these beams ready right when the, when the whole things ready to go online for the big experiment right sometime early next year, hopefully so were. The first step is to take hydrogen Adamson Strip of their electrons pork eyes, which makes protons dry and there we have a protons causes. Ultimately, the proton accelerator right right. What they do is they feed these into a machine called the line act to which fires the beams of protons into the accelerator, which is the PS booster? Yes, indeed, that uses radio frequency electric, to push the protons along and cannot get him started on their journey to just below light speed rights I gotta get along with proto right and what you're gonna need some other guys later, they're gonna with you even harder, yet either PS booster makes them go from you know. A beam of light will be like right right. Ok, it's good ways. I thank you.
In the end, the magnets are going to come in now, they're keeping these protons years on track and the things go along. Pretty quick, pretty quick and then the PS booster injection into another accelerator called the super proton. Simcoe Tron, hey, there's something in children's toys it does. Their expensive one said the beams are now really picking up speed and their divided into bunches. Right in case you have, I just imagine one beam in its divided into. I think twenty eight hundred bunches twenty eight hundred and eight per being her name in each bunch has one point. One times tended the eleventh power protons right, and this is important to say that
they shoot. One counterclockwise and one clockwise rights need to be married. Areas are two different tunnel yeah, so the other going different directions for their getting faster and faster and actually coming very, very close to the speed of light. At one point remember: this is in seventeen mile track at one point: disagree, it seems are getting to their their top speed. They make eleven thousand two hundred and forty five trips around the track, per second stated a year that it may be, did it's what does this mean November and that instead of the year yet more than eleven thousand trips around sixteen mile track per second, if you ever wondered how fast the speed of light That's ninety nine point. Nine percent there yeah, but You gotta admit that hundreds of a per cent is pretty substantial autonomy. Trips they'd make at the speed of light. Yet the fact that we have figured out how to do this, not human, I passionately for humans to figure out who is pretty amazing.
I agree, works amazing or terrifying which will determine yes and then Josh no happens. Then they converge yeah. They the direct these bunches dreams of protein and they reach other boom boom. Six hundred million collisions per second at that point, and I get the impression on there was a clear, but the beams can be directed towards one another at each of the six sensor stations. Oh ok, really, I think so because I think you have your central right, right right, we'll see what makes sense we'll find out so going by the way already book. This trip really will be the sweet. So what happens? Josh's they theoretically they're gonna collide and they're gonna break up into small particles like corks there. The accompanying energy called blue on you know glue on keeps it altogether, which is why it's called Blue is early.
Where's night, but corks are really unstable and they will decay and dislike a fraction of a second, but we have all these sensors to pick up what? How exactly exactly, I think, that's that's part of the problem with why we can detect the stuff in the universe. Is its already happened right right and were witnessing its effects were part of its effects right right, so they want to recreate the beginning, the universe to see if these things really exist and what their effects are, etc, etc. He did inadvertently yet photons and movements and black holes chuck that's awful, it's very possible. Actually, even Sir said it was possible. That's one of the critics, one of things the critics point out is you may create a black hole and you may destroy the earth so much so that suits sue them. Basically, to try and soft and nuts is to deeds
then basically to try and stop it and not just to do this again in Walter Wagner and Louise Sancho Walter Wagner was the former nuclear safety officer for the large hadron collider right he was like the guy who is in charge of safety and he file the lawsuit in a? U S: district court in Hawaii too, to file an injunction decree an injunction to stop that thing from being turned on As you know, the black hole is it's a bad man. The germ of what it is all about, Strickland puts it. Black holes are regions in which matter collapses into a point of infinite density. Not good. No, its not end again, as Chuck said, Sir, has said yeah. Maybe they may create some black holes, but really teeny, But that's what they're saying they saying tat the black hole. You know and love is a star collapsing on itself we're talking about subatomic particles collapsing on themselves.
Right. So if they dont worry a black hole, but now it's gonna be tiny one of the year. The concerns that Wagner in Sancho have is that sure it may be tiny, No one's ever done this before in you guys have no idea whether this is safer, not too much unknown right in their like donor magnets are safe, they ve been testing their like we're, not talking about them its return there, all the stuff. You have no idea ask an app and they also set up their spots. One concerns response was and there's no one allowed down in their well, it's going on right and there I did. What about the earth right, yeah being swallowed up into a black hole? Sure forget the one scientist it's you now wants to watch the explosion. Forget him yet
he can right out of the black hole what's going on down. Yes, Josh and you know what you want us, I think they might produce the stranger near these things are a little scary. Yeah could be worrisome strange. Let's could possess a gravitational field that could converting them and the entire planet earth into a lifeless hawk right. They think that strange. Let's have some. There there very dense, I think they're theoretical as well right yet hypothetical they they apparently have the proper. Eddie of lending their incredible density to any other particle, it touches and setting off a chain reaction colleague, road from X, men sure, maybe kind of I think this quantum physics in ass men and I pay brain. That's what I think could settle with their worry that, if a strangely is created, it could set off a chain.
In reaction. That turns all matter on earth into this ultra dense dead, like a lifeless hawk, including us on earth, because we're on earth- yes, but certain dismisses that for a few reasons they say. I'm first of all, that is hypothetical swimming know that right you don't get your panties and a wide, yet I believe this. What the memo said actually end, then they said the actually there's like dramatic, feel that would really repel normal matter and set of changing insurance. Don't sweat it then they say even if it does exist, it would be really unstable and would probably just decay like instantaneously, like those black all right and then the final thing they say is that a high energy cosmic rays would produce this. Naturally anyway, and should be hitting the your authority and were still here so don't worry about the one that I have the real problem with was the third one. Then, should decay almost instantaneously yeah, what I should do
Really. What I mean is it really take a very long time for a strangely to transfer that I set off action, MR we'll find out if the world's lifeless hawk this this February sweet? There is a couple of guys, member that Higgs Bo Sun Particle, that we talked about the beginning ring There are a couple of guys who are actually very well respected. Physicist straight check. I've told who have come up with a couple of papers that basically say in these are real physicists, he's a real, respected, physicists and they're, not joking right. There saying that the Higgs Bo Sun has already been created in the future, at CERN at the large hadron collider, and it was so important that it ripple back in time and sabotaged itself so that it could never be created, sabotaged the alleged
So it can area created. So, what's what's the idea and algae they like to coming back from the future to kill your father, so you will never be borne grandfathers, whatever that's actually a paradox. You can't do that or else you never would have been more in the first place to Jack, but they make the case that it's not a paradox. The travel back in time to push your grandfather out of the path of a non coming boss right, which is their what they're saying the Higgs both on doing right and the reason I say this is because it is fair on a spectacular level so far they have yet. It has there's frank, this nothing, iterative, Haljan, strange thing she could say well now further, there have been some strange when the first one that strange as it currently and destroyed a lot of the magnets which was pretty expensive fixture so that knock it off track for quite a while off track. Literally, were good and then Josh. What happened last week, a bird dropped, a bag, get a piece of bread
into this thing, you know one of the magnets. This is really what happened yeah. Can you believe that I can, because I'm kind of with the two physicists who think that the Bo Sun has been created and travel back in time? And, yes, it is burned, if this into a piece of the outer door, machinery and overheated parts of it, and it was not appraisal of the time, but they said that it produced such a spike that if it had been turned on the dropping, his bread would have enabled the automatic failsafe than it was shut. It down right piece of bread right from a bird yeah, that's a little hanky. It is, but at the same time, if you think about it, not really that hanky, but this everyone is so everyone paying attention is so like this can be really great or it could conceivably end life as we know, I see what happened so anything that happens to it is just hugely under the microscope. Yes, yes, and I
I realise that I was agreeing with the string theorist. One of the physicists is HAWK Holger Beck Nielson and at his some compatriots chinese physicist mosquito Nino Mia- and these are the two that are saying- that the Higgs Bo Sun was created and travel back in time. They have a very easy way of solving whether or not the elite sea should be put on line. Has it the card game really yeah? They want to come up with, basically, let's say, million cards and ninety nine million nine hundred and ninety nine thousand and ninety nine of these cards say go ahead right and am one cards is shut it down and obviously is all software not actual cargo. And then you ask the EL age seated.
One of the OECD picks the one that says shut it down. Then we should shut it down, shouted on then it's fine! You re actually do this I don't think I don't think that was aiming to sway over certain anyway delayed out there they're not related to swim, but, like I said there are both respected, physicists and the visit community when they first heard about this for like and then they re
they're, like her yeah yeah- I guess it is possible hypothetically and if the elite c is involved in anything, it's hypothesis and theory yeah big time and until it proves everything or destroys the universe. We should say too that this budget in the works has not thrown off schedule. Apparently this time just shut it down for the time being dead on schedule, like you say, I think they're gonna start cranked up, sometimes winner and then they're gonna break for Christmas and come back and then right booms even happened. Chuck I propose- and I also proposes to- although nurse having a big old party on the day that they do this because it could be. Your last could be also point out that I just saw this in the news today. One of the scientists was arrested in France as an Al Qaeda suspect that weird and, of course, are saying that this has nothing to do with Al Qaeda trying to
get their hands on the sea or anything like that. Just kind of one of the things in theirs. I think seven thousand scientists working on it right. So the big deal. I guess it is, for this reason, a big trouble you're. So that's the allied see the large hadron collider yeah. We talk about it again at some point in time. Much think you should follow up when it happens. If it, and are all probably read one of the emails from one of the physicists that right in and let us know how a super symmetry could prove string. Theory might have afforded So if you want to read this article, I strongly recommend we didn't cover all of its good article written by strictly yeah. You can type in large hadron collider in the search bar has two weeks that calm and bring. Drip PAN to catch the melting brain, they matter the gypsy debts- and I guess, is now Jack it's time for listen, remember. This is Josh proportionate share.
We're going to call this a response to my my in that Emily and I fight before every plain trip and when I said that yeah, so we have someone out there that agrees. That agrees what happens to her in her husband's? Well, they ve been married for sixteen years, and I'm before we take a trip? My husband has a major anxiety attack and act like a total AOL. I know that's what it is and I am pretty tolerant, but until he's on the plane or in the car, he refuses to acknowledge the reason for attention, or even that he's particularly grouchy, which is what idea so the future for we travel are always fraud and we always into fighting about the only time we do fight once we're on our way he's fine, I'm still totally aggravated, though from him being such a jerk earlier. This didn't need sixteen years. Such time earlier this year we went to Chile for a month and when I put the flights I seriously considered having separate seat, I threaten the next time I'm cooking,
quite a few days earlier, has anyway just wanting to share this. So you know you're not alone, as always, think of the great podcast. This site is great in general, searching for unicorns linked me to some information on her, you which had actually recently been looking for a while and in New York City and an says is a p s. I could not find your team on Kieva. How do I find it Well, you can find a funny should ask by going into Euro, borrow your web browser and typing W W W that Kieva dot Org slash team slashed stuff. You should know Shock, there is all the more reason by the way I want to say I could not be prouder of our team. The stuff you should know Army is also where it straight up a hundred percent. More, are we
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-28.