The dean of Yale’s School of Management grew up in a small village in Guyana. During his unlikely journey, he has researched video-gaming habits, communicable disease, and why so many African-Americans haven’t had the kind of success he’s had. Steve Levitt talks to Charles about his parents’ encouragement, his love of Sports Illustrated, and how he talks to his American-born kids about the complicated history of Blackness in America.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
You may go Abu regional series, I'm doing the trends. We said the merit of my best run on electric motors. He wouldn't Macgregor in fighting the broadband guiding great to see the places on the way to fight you reach the people, s amazing people and experienced the journey. Did adventure about might have meanwhile a great thing to see the world one way up. Watch it exclusively on Apple TV plus, for economics, radio sponsored by progressive insurance? The data don't lie drivers whose, which and see with Progressive saved, seven hundred and fifty dollars on average, and when you bundle home and auto with progressive, you can save even more
your car insurance quote online in under seven minutes visit progressive dotcom today, national annual average auto insurance savings by new customers surveyed in two thousand nineteen potential savings will bury. You are in fact talking into a black person who is the deity school of management. That fact who was your colleague at Chicago, we have read. Who were deems that similar places are prominent faculty in other places, and I could go on. But if one takes the an american experience panoramic and one way is these obvious, an undeniable aspect. Success with the bad things. One would have to say that there are ways in which our hopes have been realised and is a healthy dose of stuff. That's pretty back disappointment and failure.
Intermingled with success. So current Charles such an interesting character, he's a top economist, he's the dean of the Yale School, the management and most interesting to me, done. All this when he was born in a small town in Guyana, welcome to people. I mostly admire the Steve Level, Poland has a way of understanding, that's not academic but intuitive. Somehow Kirwin can see what's important and that's. Why doesn't his researches studied things as varied as black white income and wealth gap, and how, video games might be the reason why young males are no longer working in the labour market and how we beat tuberculosis, and I have to say
all the economists- I now have a clue and gives me the best advice. It is such a pleasure to be talking today with current Charles, a good friend and a deep thinker who teaches me and clarifies my thinking every time we talk, so you sit today at the pinnacle of academic success, but I gotta say from where you started has to be incredibly unlikely. How could you just tell us a little bit about crime up in Ghana, so I was born in a small village you're my parents met when they were in their teens. Buxton has developed
therefore I began my education and in some ways I think, you're right to observe that the path from that place and time to here is an unlikely one. In some ways. Diana was during my childhood and still a relatively poor, very poor country, but there are aspects of the path and journey that are less unlikely. Despite the fact that I was born in a small village, I was enveloped always by loving, attentive parents, family and friends. Elders of village raised me as they say, and because of what had been poured into me, despite the challenges that were inevitably
by across my path as I move through, I was given equipment to surmount the that's a sense. I genuinely had my lifelong considers a sense of unlikelihood and then there's a sense of that. Whatever I wanted to do, it would be difficult to achieve, but achievable. Will you, parents, educated or now there were the government of Ghana was sending some select. Persons The study feels that were of great need in that country. My father, when he came to Miami, which is the closest you s school to my country, became interested in marine biology. My mother did special education. I was already borne and left my grandparents bucks and my parents pursue, Education in the state my purchased alive than I am incredibly close weapon. Talk to my mother and father. Every morning I thought my mother at the close of every workday and weakens it might be more frequent than that
about my mother, ever say that she remains the best he Trevor had Miller. They became a point when the things interested me could not be taught me by my mother, but she gave me a sense of excitement about things I didn't know and an eagerness to test myself and challenged myself to death characters me my whole life, Stick to it. If this grit and not whining and offer, is one important lesson taught me by my mother, and she got me to the importance of being open to new experiences and people, because one does not now as one traverses one's life where I have full relationship before wherein insight will come from inside, and you were an incredible student has added understand which opened up the
But you ve come to the: U S, Kinshasa, but that as good student, I was fortunate because of my parents, early sport, her to the stairs and because my deep reading about America through my life, if I did, I spent a lot of time with a kid at the John F Kennedy Library in my country dynamism. A socialist country, certainly but the Kennedy Library was this american outpost, to which I repaired frequently in between school lessons or basketball practice. Terry, All this uses force with a straight it and other american magazines. I am to this day of says the sports illustrated everytime. I move at the first thing I admit Cureth forwarded at. I will talk to the american dice there. Some Erika fascinated me as a place and so when killed him to go to college.
It has come to marry. I had a chance to get a scholarship. There came to maybe with the intention of going home, because I had an incredibly happy childhood and one thing led to the next thing in here I saw I think first time I ever ran into you was in the context of you being a public speaker and I was blown away, you took the stage, no notes and, unlike other people, you spoke in power. Her graphs reddened incentive to see that the message is that I'm curious, whether that's a learned skill or so in the same naturally, and if you have any advice to people who don't have off the chart ability for public speaking, so someone is learned, I, what is a child? We called upon my mother to speak up,
some matter and about the matter of relative insignificance. We lost the cricket match the what's his name's team and I was cheated yeah. What had explained That thing with a minimum of arms and eyes and likes and offer and do it overnight and I'm one becomes better at so some of it was my son s personality practically. I think what is very useful to me is slowing down. It is a single bit of advice. Had the people, speaking of it is to say one. However slowly thank you, gotta go half of its learn and haven't mind something you want to see at the beginning and some fundamental points you want is he had yet another flow, naturally
I feel sure about writing to slow down, have something to say you ve got great advice, so you went to Miami you catch a Phd in Economics in Cornell. You wouldn't, do you know miss again. Where you got tenure and economics, you came to Chicago and were stand out there and now you're dean of the ethical. Imagine we ve done such a wide variety of fascinating topics and one that really hot me, especially in a covert time, is that you ve been studying tuberculosis, and I learned so much from the paper. Could you to share a little bit about the history of our public health intervention against the colossus? So we begin in the remaining with TB being set can leading cause of death in that sense and
the next forty years or so that thing plummet plummets, despite the absence of medical interventions to address them. While I there very few people today who would have cast lead to particular Sis was the number to cause of death. So there's no new treatment for. Why do people think that dust from too colossus plummeted. One could imagine that TB rates might have fallen because a public him they were anti spitting laws to pick one example or because of things having to do with a decline in overcrowding, the improvement in meetings.
An improvement in water up all the rest, so you analyze the impact of these public health efforts were the effective one thing that is emerging from our work, both with TB and for other diseases, is that public health interventions did not have the effect that much of the literature had before us concluded only very tough because it is natural for people to say. Oh Kirwin is saying that public health interventions now wouldn't work for some other thing or public health interventions then also didn't work. I am not saying that I am saying that what we thought about the effectiveness of public health interventions in the safe was overblown there. Some other thing at work
Thinking about what those other things were and what the implications of the other things might be for other countries and context will be something I'll be doing over the next few years. He play video games current. I dont have a good thing that research suggests that video games are important driver of some very negative trends in the US economy, so this is. This is work as my dear dear friend and vacant quarter, Eric first and the mark. Back Aguiar and Mark bill as it's important to mention Eric in this context. Cuz. He died in the series of paper about the decline and participation. And the labour demand explanations for that We thought about automation in one paper. We thought about sectoral decline in manufacturing and multiple papers and how that has caused sharp increase.
Non work among men looking. So what are the facts to involve talking about twenty? Some, thing? Young man they're not in school there not working there, not locked up Nobody knows what they're doing, but there's a whole lot more them than they used to be. But much of that is explained by comments. I factors that the labour market is not especially the less skilled ones is not hiring these guys. The way at once did places where they live. Some of them have been particularly buffet, by manufacturing decline, housing boom and bust of interacted an interesting ways. All the message gets through a share of young men are in this category of doing nothing about her. I want to say, and now, if I wonder things that respecting the paper is that the technological shop,
Have been one of the main sources of demand side changes there might well have been, and indeed we believe there were technological shocks that had the effect of raising the opportunity cost of went to what it might show up in things like my increase utility flow from Facebook time instrument, video games are, and what we do is attempt to document the role that that factor technology shops in the out of work space, which people calling the video games space, because that for men, is the key activity that is technology related, whereas for women It has social media. I gotta think there when I saw when you're quarters Magyar gave that paper at the universe of Chicago. It was one of the most distinct occasions of war, king him to a room thinking. This was the stupidest
the I'd ever that woken out as a complete one hundred percent neighbour. I mean you're really good at collecting data in a thoughtful, sensible, simple way and exposing a fact that nobody would have thought of aids are real talent and one that isn't always encouraged, were rewarded, not profession, but to me is among the most important things we can do. You know I think it. I feel that I think in every intellectual scholarly if one has to find once place and say look or some things. I condemn and let me find a way to answer questions at interest me and perhaps interest World using the set of things I could do reasonably well and I have had some success. I don't know I've set by you ve made some very.
Hard decisions, and I would not describe you as a good decision maker. You are then both fraud and uncertain and wish. Why should decisionmaker none the less often the people who are the worst it something have good advice to give. Could you give this music device about making good decisions? I have found that across contexts, the speed with which I have to make decisions has had to shift. So if a referee or an editor. I could sit pay for a long time and I thought but anyway and is heard the sound of women, nothing Canada being comfortable with
heterogeneity across contexts in your decision. Making style is point one. There are things you should do immediately after you have got to decide whether we will do this thing or not. I go about away their decision spell about what we will do as a school. In response to the fourth floor. There my style, then is to be contemplative is to sit with, is the walk with it to turn it around and not be rushed, and because I'm comfortable with a different story, Elsa decision making across contacts at peace with. I believe that we should be open to revision especially those of us a leadership role, events but from Europe? If events prove me wrong, you should not feel
the little by that you should just pivot and change after due diligence has been done. Information has been acquired at some reflection has occurred at then there things about which are genuinely do not know your listing people. I mostly admire with sea level and is conversation with the dean of the Yale School of management. Kirwin. Charles though return after the short break.
Apple of regional series, I'm doing the trends. We said the merit of my best friend on Electric motors Winberg, Gregor inflation has other broadband beheading grid to see the places on the way to patch of reaching the people, s amazing people and experienced the journey to the benefit of a light. I mean what a great thing to see the world long way up. Watch it exclusively on Apple tv plus, freedom of radio is sponsored by Heineken zero. Zero is now good time for refreshing beer, but not the alcohol of a refreshing beer then I highly conspiracy, Earl, Heineken, zero. Zero is brood with especial technique which allows brewers to gently. Remove the alcohol and restore the flame does that make it refreshing alcohol free beer enjoy
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this is our best offer available anywhere. Go right now to indeed dot com, slash for economics cruising conditions, apply, offer values through September 30th. Eat out with a free seventy five dollar credit at indeed dot com. You sure about race. In the? U S, so you were. An emigrant. You were I'm sure perceived, being african American by everybody. Even though you were half a guy knees, what was it like? I said I was conscious of a contractor, my whole life long, certainly my whole life beyond its thirteen or fourteen, even in Diana I, I didn't conceptualize african Americans as being funded different for me or me from them. There was in Diana a PAN African, isn't that spoke about
the one, MR black people around the world, and so when it met African, descended brothers and sisters in the state. I felt like one of them. On the other hand, I quickly discovered I want to describe it as a shocking thing. Of course, I knew that there was cultural nuance. There were specific, the ones that place ward.
More than stood back, and so it's one thing to say that I feel like I'm the same as a rather from filling wanting to say that, but fully has different left room. He has seen particular things here. His granddad experience things in mind did not, but the reverse is also true, but there are differences and am respectful of those references and so early on sought to understand that lived different. My first girlfriends United States were after american women who would let me take you down for display Syria and show you some aspect of things you didn't nor understand, and I had a profound effect on me and showed me one similarity in sameness, ay ay. When I hear Google music from DC, I heard that, before met in Riga, musical Cliffs armies, let me play something for your calico also meet me, respectful of different southern unbridgable chasm.
There are differences between me and african american persons born and raised here. That are important. So let me ass. You are high political question, let's think about some high point in american history. Weathered the emancipate proclamation or browser subordinated case to nineteen, before our civil Rights ACT of sixty four martlet things. I have a dream speech mention you I sitting in having lunch at one of those times projecting forward to what we emit in this country, would be likened twenty twenty? Do you think that we would be disappointed in the economic progress african Americans have made or surprised what you taken less cutbacks can go to the fundamental amendments guarantee equal cities should have an American. And the day that signed and past looking forward. What could one imagine indeed one had a short term view. One might say:
You know the amazing and the be amazing. If there's an american representation in the national legislation of your mind paragraph in american property owners to large numbers at the amazing India's unification across the country would be amazing of racial violence or, if not at an end. Then dramatically reduced and if one password it Eighteen. Eighty four is also one would have thought boy. Every afresh is being met reconstructions when a fantastically their black senators in at a thousand of them designer after the Americans are making all kinds of roads and then those books are dashed in nineteen sixty Having like attorneys are there in the media law firms in the country having like accountants working not just for black plant, those numbers, incredibly small, I'm gonna pay their way.
We are today. Also there is good news and yet, and yet always mixed in with the Good NEWS is some back or some very by the experience of african Americans at the bottom of the earnings of the employment. Experience is worse than you would have predicted in eighteen. Sixty the incarceration expressed today is way working to protect it, one thousand nine hundred and seventy one I think, could have easily predicted in nineteen seventy that more than a million black people as we talk on the phone would be in jail. The share of american men are measured in the whole population were not working today, meaning you take into account the institutionalized the unemployed and the out of the labour force is more than thirty percent. That's astoundingly, ok and then there are other disappoint. You mention brown.
In some ways. It's been credible. The black population rate is not usually dissimilar from the right direction, and that was not true and I can say at the same time We have these other measures of lack of performance, of lack of investment. In what share of american school districts larger than that in fifty thousand? Does The majority of african american children read a great level if a handful. That's national disgrace! That's a national disgrace, but if one takes the an american experience, panoramic yet is good things and then is a healthy dose of stuff. That's pretty back, and you not just talking Dolly is well. This comes out your research. You ve done this profoundly important research that has shown exactly what you're saying, which is at the very top african american success has been fantastic, but you know in the bottom part of the distribution, blacks, even lost ground relic
the white since the terrible nineteen seventy years at some peered like that, is accurate and left american boy who goes to Princeton today and majors in actuarial science or chemistry over there He will be not especially dissimilar from us by Conover. They only that's been at that unless think about the many millions of an American we're not backward think about it and unemployment rate I just talked about think about the decline of manufacture and the rise of automation and other things, all of which, especially at first effect, blacks at a meeting in below. You can imagine a society tat stretched affected by forces that left for purposes of our conversation, call them race, neutral, the overall
I mean of the earnings distribution. The running away of one percent tell from the one adjacent to notice that its effect, this race, neutral thing will be to exacerbate already existing gaps, based on initial condition after Americans clause, the high school gap right at the time, the being ice will graduate doesn't matter to wade. What's the African Americans in one of the world's great migrations leave the south, where there were clustered and spread to the MID West and the North EAST and to industrial centres in the rest of the country and have a good life for a while,
and then manufacturing the claims collapse if the training staff after the Americans in the late ninety nine days for the first time dramatically increase homeownership rights and then the housing market collapse the effect of a house in buses not felt equally by raise a collapse in housing prices, especially for certain groups who were unable to move who have become regret together because of other eat it using. So that's the backdrop historians and give you up again. I think my work shows that in the aggregate these distributional forces have been the prime mover for observed black success at the meeting between nineteen, forty and nineteen, seventy or so, and have also been depraved minute mover
for what has occurred subsequent to that. That is not to say that what Nepal in this conversation raise specific forces not matter. Unless there is a discrimination, there is occupation exclusion, which is discriminations twin, their skill differences. There stigma, what do I, as a society, find discomfitting alarming anomalous, odd, weird, the peculiar all that, because humans are limited. We cannot be animated by every single thing. If a country has to pick and choose what is going to be the things it
comes adamant about things that seem to run a foul of how it thinks the world to be imagined. I told you to the majority of people in prison. Were women don't be weird when one observes that there are things about African Americans pay some at the bottom of your earnings distribution, the scale distribution, the opportunity distribution, it strikes people as less animals and therefore they are inspired less to dig into it to understand Us Nsa. I dont want one calls that does one call that prejudice does one Paul that animists backs are especially buffet it by some forces. This pocketing need not only be negative here is a positive buffering, roundly board and its application had the effect of disproportionate
raising spending than an american students and schools. In the absence of that, closing that race, specific closing the negative outcomes we just described, the median below would have been worse so making you were in charge of policy on race in this country, and agent? You had a big budget, let's say no a trillion dollars or five. A billion eyes? What would you do what? So? Let me, let me private set by saying so somebody asked me that question the other day and I've been thinking about race in America. For the last twenty years, and I didn't have a greater, I wasn't sure would say so. I'm genuinely curious what three things would you try to do to improve the situation that cannot become the social situation for African Americans,
Ok, there is, as you know, we call a college premium and the cash payments where the action is, and so one thing I would do would be to increase college. Am I often about why we do and is causing we do costing so as to put people with the analytical and technical skills and labour market increasingly demand. Maybe those skills can be otherwise acquired in some kind of thinking about creative way to provide students, whether they the college or the kinds of skills that the market will increasingly demand would be a second skill
our education related think I would I don't think I could do- would be to look the the income differences in african Americans and waited large treasure the meeting, but it is completely dwarfed by the wealth difference. The difference in wealth between African Americans wages, Gargantua now wealth, unlike income, has, in a family perspective, the benefit of being directly transmittable I can upon my damn. I leave my thing to my kid. In fact, the thing for labelling majority Americans overwhelming majority, whether in your house, this notion about his free and intergenerational dynamics is, in my view, incredibly important that we have an american contacts.
And cannot be easily dismissed, and it has its origins, its historic route in denial. From years ago after the Americans at the boundaries of a war were sixth and seventh generation America, they did not benefit from the great land grab in the west that other people tat and you're. Once great great grandfather, being able to go and take a claim as it were, set in Illinois or Indiana territory or California. The consequences of that might redound overtime. I dont know where I come down on what is called the reparations Tibet, but there are transfers. One can make that address. The thing I just described couldn't be eased liquidity constraints in a late rationalized way. That seems to me a kind of thing. I would encourage deep thought about, and steer is something that many trillion dollar hypothetical thing you told me it isn't
The shocking did degree racial segregation which persist in our country, not by some evil designs, simply, I think, by by preferences and and happenstance. As far as I can tell. I think us right when one thinks about like great sociologists who have studied racial segregation. I believe his name is Andrew Hacker. The socialist you talked about the cultural cleavage in the country and he had the pop ten television programmes by race and think about it. It was amazing there was exactly zero overlap. Northward
It was not for my name about leap of all out of a row that away no one can say what these don't matter. I am not convinced that this kind of deep comprehension and dig sensitivity that comes from being closely connected with the not segregated from other people I caught it places like Chicago and Michigan, and their styles of talk among the very privileged black and white. I thought it was pleasant african Americans who have not interacted with white who are meeting them for the first time, bring to those interactions culturally conditioned styles of tat
and some ones use of an expression unfamiliar to you or their incorrect use of slang term causes you innocently to ascribe to them less countless initiative, but if you knew them, if you know that after make us can be bilingual, then you would be more forgiving about or slip it is that the trace liking. Ghana, after Albania's, who I descended from african slaves and save it, was abolished by the British, nearly eighteen hundreds. They then brought or encouraged to come large numbers of people from the Indian Sub continent, and so those groups, the descendants of those groups, Africa, unease in indonesia- unease constitute the overwhelming bulk of the population. There are other groups,
matter? One is a native people, people we call amerindian Sudan. Then we have a relatively robust chinese population and we have those groups, Africa, unease in Indonesia is constitute the overwhelming bulk of in one's social contacts. On the one hand, there was more easy and natural racial mixing. Then I would come to observe when I got to the states. On the other hand, there is always existed in their, especially after independence, racial tension around politics, any Dinas listened. This thing will know that over the five days a week, their mother, there aren't there wiped them so are making. Sixteen is over the course of its every candidate, its pepper pop, which is a native dashes cook up, which is now for the recognition of black dish on Tuesday, is doll.
And didn T on Wednesday and Fried rice and shallow may not terrific, that's, however, dinosaurs and yet at election time, fevered sheet to these racial camps and snake At each other, in very helpful when indeed very unhealthy, wet, so race has, on the one hand, is more fluidly uncomfortably lived there, but on the other, is a much more salient feature of of politics official social organisation. There were is a massive oil discovery by action global and Ghana, I don't know seven eight years ago which could potentially transform the entire economy there, and yet there is also, I think, a lot of challenge and I'm just curious. You can't be many people better situated in you to think about the economics of what lies ahead. So various
panes of questions arise and these questions concern matters like how to resource might be used. What kinds of inequality and related concerns might be brought to the fore how the discovery of the oil might cause simmering racial tensions to rise, the fore One sees traces of some; The downside of dual discovering in the home in fact, Ghana had a national election on March, the second, as we speak here today in early July, the winner has not been declared into this park. Sixteen is the matter of race. And so I have seen over the last three months a social media and emails and other thing more negative race. Talk more disturbing Rationalized talk.
I've seen in many a year- and I am quite disturbed by the fund- in some way to use these resources. First to reassure him that the The gains from this resource will be evenly spread by red is in a country that has the kind of racial and ethnic divisions I mentioned unbelievably inborn. This thing threatens to clean the country apart. I speak with no hyperbole, we need. Of infrastructure in the country. The country needs a massive investment in education in transportation, infrastructure, sewage light, take note of it, and all of that can be done, the resources enough to do all of that. But I worry that, despite this incredible discovery, not much good will come from it unless we solve this fundamental reason at this level
Accordingly, you have two young boys and I have observed you can t of you have for your son, your task into your sons is really hard to what is beautiful to what do you have it? parenting they give. You a hand out to the boy so major censored, with very different I love nerdy things, but I also really love all sport, especially basketball, college and protocols, but Bob, and when, when engaged once kid, there is often a surprise on discovering that something that is fundamentally, a part of me is not shared by this.
I took my son to see Lebron James play every had fantastic seat. He could not have been less interesting and there is an acceptance that apparent ass they are saying. You know you have this being four x number of years. Sunday, a roof and, with you said, Bessy accept him or her is there and let their passion become your passion and lead disappointment and what they do or who they are never end to your mind, retard, but try as best able to make that visa. I wonder you, tell them about going up and being African American, and we haven't talked at all about the murder of George Floyd. Or do you talk to your boys about those things? Members very out of the more as the age this summit think about law. What do I want to communicate to them
What are you gonna tell him of race, so what you think I wanna coming to get to them is to be. Calmly, proud and confident about who they are without bravado or pot clanging, the feel about one, so that one is the same as what is name over there. I think, is a very important thing. I feel bad about myself, the vastly more important vast, then, whatever economy,
tricks. I know I didn't know or something when it communicate back to them and there is a community from which you spring with traditions and history, and so for not every element of which you must like or mimic, but there's things about which you must be proud. Perfect communication in this hesitates. Exposure to people from this community here is the food we make on Thursday battle. We listen to that list. I love hip, hop music, a lot of the blue. That, anyway, don't stand. Whites genius, such mouldy, call him this guy. Don't know what you're going to get here and he's like you used to understand. Is that and then there is like how much history to teach them
one aspect of history. You know my boys are born in America and self had doubtless despite their legacy. King is what your legs Harriet Tubman struggling. Will, I think he's party legacy to Alexander, helpless violence and so on teach them to love the special thing about them. What distinguishes them from other Americans and then to say look. You belong to the american family that american families got one heck of industry contributed to buy black people to look at. Do by lots of my people and which is named in your class, who happens to be? Why has no greater clean muddling continue? He doesn't get how one is navigating that is tricky, but that's how I think
People I mostly admire is part of the frequent mix radio network and its prettiest by friggin mix, radio and structure. Matt Hickey is the producer and are sound designer is David Herman. Our staff also includes Allison, Craig Low Gregg, written and Cornwallis. Are in turn is immaterial all of the music You heard on the show was composed by Luis Gara to listen ad free subscribed to secure premium. We can be reached at radio at for economic start. Come thanks. Releasing man. I'd miss admission, cannot afford to see you soon back back back there to slip New Haven
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Transcript generated on 2020-09-19.