Neil deGrasse Tyson is an astrophysicist, cosmologist, author, and science communicator.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Hey everybody! What's up, may no excuse me, March March. Third, I am going to be at the cost. Theatre in LAS Vegas Nevada, with great tony hinge, cliff and powerful. Even Edwards should be a great time and the next data have available is April. Seventh and Buffalo New York at the chaise performing arts Centre for show. Sold out. Second show almost sold out same thing with Portland on for twenty Portland Oregon First show sold out second show almost sold out, and tomorrow take it's gone well today is Tuesday tomorrow. Wednesday, pre sale goes on sale, lived nation. The link will be up on my twitter. The password is show time, and that is for Friday may twelfth at the variety
and Theatre in Grand Prairie outside of Dallas, because as a bigger dallas, you have see, may third Joe Rogan, DOT Net Ford, Slash tour. All details, rights. Ok, this ep, so the party asked, is brought to you by square space squares basis. An awesome service, an awesome resource for you to make your own website what squares waste is done as put together an incredible company that allows you with a cent easy to use, drag and drop user interface to create your own professional website couldn't easier. It it's a simple, as attaching photographs to an email or moving files around on your computer, and they have these beautiful award, winning templates. You can create awesome, awesome, beautiful websites
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corruption and tenth planet Judy so you can learn. Josie It's too at the onlooker me go to o n, and I d use the code, Word Rogan and save ten percent off any and all supplements. My guest today is one of the cruellest people on the planet earth one of the most important people on the planet earth and he is fascinated by the stars, give it up from my friend kneeled Grass Thyssen will gain experience, told your ready but alive. I gotta tell very kind of Indiana Jones, both its not quite that car yeah. You like in the middle of a new right away, you dance and only edge walk. I really fat
and so there is a website called like Bay Heads Dotcom, doesnt website without a total website, where I can get my friend wolbert crisis. Had then his hat on, I couldn't believe how big is headwaters like there is like an inch gap. I thought I had a baby you're, so If you know your had your head size, you know your had size and do not so so if you know your head size that that number comes from somewhere that Cathay, what is short so. If you measure the circumference of your head, just gotta take measure emerging away slab dude around your head and take that number divided by pie, then that your hats ice well yeah just seemed complicated, abide by two. Just like your ways at thirty. Do you know you? Where is what your way? As I know it just is what it is right to want to give just be the circumference right, so what it turns out to be. So what that means is, if you divide pie you're, getting this the dynamic of the circle that
has the same dimension as well as the a conference of your head, so we have head Then, what doing is finding out what the circle is. The diameter of this circle that has that same circumferences, your head. That's what that's doing for whatever forward out whether that helps to happen. The hat maker so Emilius, I think about Dan, accurate Ancyra alive. As a cone head remembered with an idiot a tall hat forget to get this issue. So dude I'm inside I still do not stand up, that's great cause, I'm in love and air, and I ain't got you. Months ago you were m, seeing some Mme was it. What was one always you now you're gonna get caught some of it than I. These crawler data shape cause I'm fats,
but you are a rip back in the day and pictures only legal redress, Neil some Street crab back exercise it all right. It's not that I don't have the energy to its it's trying to find the tears you back in the daily you shredding coming way back then, oh, I wish I was expelled, go and what does he six nor norm six to some about her ninety pounds in that area? We Hungary had a big size and stuff while the rest, would have Skinner thighs and things so I was so taller than anyone. I wrestled so since were the same height emit. They have bigger muscle, actually, so these were the same way right, but I'm not the centre right, I'm taller, rapport with the same weight. So, let me say, bigger muscles breakers. None of us have right. So I had to do things. That might linking this would enable me to do and to accomplish that they couldn't
so have long reach United assorted. I said scooping ankle that Canada is great advantages to having long limbs in martial arts space, particularly wrestling grappling puzzle every year. Also, if your quick and with we- and I was both, but if, if they got me in their grip by it was hard for me to get out. So what can exercise to do these days? Does not try and I do not get. I'm trot, I'm trying and up when I mean I'm good, but I've just cuts so much going on. Yeah like make the time that problem right, when you become a little yes, understandable for your eyes, wholesome food. There's a lot of food documentaries in trying to get you to eat differently, so thought I'd watch them all based on them when we can. While I was doing stuff- and I hungry. No one wonders whether the guys who shall lose a hundred pounds of some sort fifteen upon the lost and put a bowling ball. I'm not carry around with me
is what I'm not carry around with me. Well, the bonobos about fifteen pounds while he's measuring awaiting bowling ball, that's somethin because we see three pounds lesson to Panza that doesn't It's? U emotionally, the way, a bowling, ball diarrhoea after you, ve lost fifteen pounds. Could no one one to be carrying out around so psychological. I thought those quite potent that is potent we do needs. I usually use like plates, I think, of weight plates or dumbo. Ok, I guess we're we're here. I am sorry to an intermittent fasting, prairies, where I only allow myself to eat ten hours a day, and I was out of the twenty four hour. Yes, so if I were you, I had a Terry crews on my radio show on other at all the boys. My boys ripped whose gray had ceased to and he's like forty seven or somethin Emmi as he's so he doesn't eat until twelve noon. That is why I really don't know till after ten o clock. That's right. Yet ten already does need after tend to turn our thing, and so he has a he's watch
and everyone else have brunch and breakfast so he's gotta overcome that Bud It was a little bit of fasting yeah each day, Intermitted asked just to keep the discipline. I think it's at Vienna dates really justice. What is that? It also forces your body to burn fat instead of carbohydrates and what it forces your body to burn fat, that state Iquitos is actually easier maintain because you don't you'll get hungry. You have in rollercoaster yeah the crash that, with the carbohydrate crashing you get right outside the realm possibility. For you know, I can totally He tells us guides running a divide and science, but even it's in there. I would go right over the coals, not by everyone, but I tweeted once I said that there is a diet book written by a physicist. It will contain one sentence: consume calories lesser rate, then, at a greater rate,
soon carries out a lesser rate than you burn them, TAT is What a true, that's the one sentence no it's more complicated matter, and we should try to get all of this. Is that that and one of the great things of physics when it when you do physics is all the details are just cut off the that it's it's window dressing need to the window itself and that's what the analysis works on I have rarely seen you attacked, but I did so you attacked when you were celebrating Sir Isaac Newton Spurt, oh people. There were so many people lost their lost your mind when you were by the way. Correct in the date of Jesus, his birthday, that is not the date of Jesus Jesus was not born. On the twenty fifth throughout will mean it's just one side, even mention also what I said was, but with that to this day is my highest retweeted.
Tweet I tweeted ever set, so you remember is actually couple years ago, so it was on one December. Twenty fifth comes here: it is: are you you get you out of your new money to transform the we're happy days on this day long ago a child was born who, by age, he would transform the world happy birthday. Isaac Newton, born December, twenty fifth, Sixteen forty two: seventy nine thousand retreat by thirty six thousand, like people just lost their work, so math there what they were angry and I thought what interesting, because I'm just speaking the truth here s he Transformed civilization by Bore actually did by tiny with twenty six So, yes is provocative, cause you expecting. The Jesus is going to end that I've thought I share some act from actual truth with people, and so some people celebrated it deeply religious people how to headlines. Neil aggression
Just trolling Christians on Christmas day is it. I said: Newton Elite has the benefit of actually haven't being born that day, then later on its actually more subtle than that with Newton, because he was the Julian calendar, which was which is ten. Shifted from the goring calendar, so if you ask what would his brow they be today. It would be January fourth, not December twenty fifth, so Gilbert when he was born his mother was celebrating Christmas. So that's really what matters for that! Tweet later a bizarre thing anyway, because if you, if you're real Christian, you would understand that that the birthday was shifted in order to comply with pagan village. That's exactly what they landed. I don't know people know that? Actually I'm your well read guy, but so, if you get me, to just explain that so December. Twenty first, we know is first day winter shortest day of the year and what makes it short shortest daylight of the year and what makes it short the arc of the sun.
Cross, the skies very low, the sun. Doesn't it very high, and it doesn't stay up very long and it's me coming a lower and lower arc every day on route to December, twenty first, the ancient Apples were worried about this because everyone worship, the sun, cause major crops com and he gave you warmth and he's a while. If this, keeps going glowing lower in the sky. We gonna lose the sun entirely December, twenty four, the sun, slows down in its stops. This load, this drop in its movement across the sky from day to day so that stopping of the sun is so This bears Latin the stationary son, like armistice stationary arms right from the end of the first World war, when, in November eleventh that was armistice solstice. So so the movement of the sun lower in the sky stops, but that doesn't mean it come back to take,
a few days for it to the slaughterhouse, stop and then reverses. Oh, it is coming back. Let's celebrate that in that a few days after December. Twenty first is about December twenty fifth above pagan holiday. Celebrating the return of the sun. Reality is trying to take foothold where they were pagans once roamed and you'll be, puts deliberations that match there's just so that the shift is not hard for you unknown birthday of Jesus within a signed this pagan there. Celebration to make their choice and easier for the pagans to become Christians insurance Fifthly remained Christmas day and insists that actually might made the birth of Jesus speculated birthday of Jesus is like the spread of spying either. Some there's some passages, of course, in the new testament that reference, with the sheep, were doing plus theirs. Hence this being taken by the Romans you know, which is What an and Mary goes to the major the
We are not in the major nodded, so there there's secondary evidence for this probably happened in the spring and now, with the ad of commercial space travel not seen, Williams, seems inevitable. Rank love. You love your sideways! No, don't do it! Do you think that is possible that maybe you could even offer up a flat earth believer tour where you you'd take them like at the very least them up to Alaska words, light! So twenty three, our laboratory, call and into his is treating me constantly thrill me personally call me a sell out. I'm a sell out right The earth sell out like as if their souls, a round, earth money. Why, like that you're the payroll again some ground earth Joe you again, so I always go round her pale or for your show, I'm showing the basque player who graduated from Duke from
was hidden the news last couple of days I saw the leaves at dinosaurs are fake and that the world is flat. Ok, so here's a finger. I've thought about it. I bet you have has as an educator I've thought about this. Ok, here's! here's what matters we live in a free country. People should be able to think what ever they want. Whenever they want, provided it, doesn't so tracks away from someone else's rights. Ok, so thinking that if his flat doesn't harm anyone. Unless. You want to run for office or you want some position of power over other people. That's when it's dangerous! I thinking of Ellen a banks where they have numbers you know I have a photo essay of with what elevators look like inside. I note does this mean the gears? No, no, no, no! No! No! No! No! No, not even that geeky just what are the numbers on the panel without
thirteen Romania, exactly so about eighty percent of buildings taller than twelve stories. Dont have a thirteen floor. Ok, and so this tricks deck. A phobia is again in a free country. If you, if you, to be afraid of the number. Thirteen go right ahead, it just seems to me you should not be tat with designing ethics. If that's your fear, find something else to do holding aside the fact that I'm a little scared that, in this twenty first century United States of America, we have people walking among us, a free, of the number thirteen. What does that mean? I dont know in the long run, but if you keep to yourself, No harm, others think what ever you want, so that the right hits. The road is review now have power over others, and that's where the failure of the educational system actually manifest.
Well, that's our societies and cultures collapse where, but it's not that they don't know that, there's a thirteenth floor and that you're just calling it before. I wanted my sharply cross out the priorities for a full and eighty about it. Now, when you see it on an elevator and you like you see no thirteen and plastic, they try to figure out how to do so. They go one two, three, four, five, six, eight nine ten eleven twelve and then you have go to the next road begin to for the sea, twelve right next to fourteen and that some some modern buildings will put their there. There heavy machinery like likely HBO, see on the thirteenth floor. So that there is no residency right.
It still says the thirty floor and then there's the fourteen for malaria. Is anybody ever have a dummy, thirteenth button or press? It and never lights up, like I'm gonna, take it and that's interesting, that's what I would do. Oh just put it there to satisfy me. Nobody lives there examine what that's too clever, but this is one of the twenty percent of people that makes sense when a great building it. Meanwhile, there is no thirteen law, just a dummy, but no longer lays the Twilight Zone episode with Americans. They went up to the eleven for, but there is no eleventh WAR and Americans come to life at night. Oh, I forgot about. They leave the store floors and they all got to eleven that have a cocktail party and they vote which one of them is in a ground become human for a day, zone was so good? There's a brass television there ever was like still to this day ever does. Of so many great premises, great premises, great actors, grape cinematography and was in black and white, so shadows were completely dark. Yeah because shadows don't have much meaning when you're film in color, because everything is just there, but in black,
can wait, shadows, create mood, and here so I watched serve man they had seen, and I had a river had it on the DE beyond my clutch that guy who played lurch ass on the arab Israeli yeah. That was a great one because it was just like it had all the elements of people going. Well, you know they seem nice. They seem nice, and here I am a sob. Oliver Warner gotta was great yet another one was the the invaders due to remember this. I knew this was a a one woman performance and I forgot who was, it- was not Agnes more had one of these women of that era, it'll, come to me in a minute and she's living alone and farm house, no electricity, she's got farm and she's alone and Some alien spacecraft lands on a roof and it's got to
devices has got these saws and blazers cutting through things and she freaking out. She's got the pan in the ports and the rolling pin and, and she did she get the Gun- the shot gun and she's attacking this its end, and you don't know what it is and it's got lights anything and its tiny little things like three inches Ross right in the turnout, that's the thing: that's attacking her and then she finally legs comes as it sees fit. Robot, ok and an insult to it, and then I gotta give him the shows. Forty years I can give the punchline ok, so she actually successfully damages the thing and then you zoom in on it and then you hear a radio a mission from the aliens inside and it says, yeah, hello, hello, Houston
there's a giant whose trying to attack us we need help send tackles this is great like well. We were the invaders that was us landing on her home on some other plan or some parallel earth from some other dementia is itself a smile. Are we no? No? No! No! It's! Ok! I get your she's. It's another planet, she's, the Chinese, the giant who say this a giant attacking us, but the whole show you weren't have her point millions, the these aliens are trying to hurt her when they're just it was. Our space probe. Trying to explore its environment. Is it possible that it's like another dimension? It's us in another dimension and they are landing on earth except did it none of them they were. There are speaking English. I couldn't do that just as parallel evolution lies not with the definition of infinity that summit, some. If, if there,
is really an infinity. There is not only a you in an eye, but there's a union. I and everybody else we ve ever met all the exact events in the exact same order have gone down an infinite number of times, including this, conversely, except except there is how many people know this, but often it mine blowing when you learn that Infinities are bigger than others, european just leave two feet away from the microphone: they are not are the same size of its in Then it's infinity learning what is now the case not remember Your kid is it what's: the biggest numbing million other million and one rag about a bit It was a billion and wandered annoying. Kid fries added want to look at how might seem able infinity and one friendly alternative funding and one and, if any, of the same number, okay, so here's a search, for example, the number of
Of counting numbers, so one two three up to infinity right the numbers you would use to count things. That's infinite! the number of irrational numbers. So the numbers that you cannot represent a fraction. Ok that there's more There are more of those that are counting numbers were by four. So these orders of infinity. Then there are more. There are more transcendental numbers. Then there are irrational numbers What's a transcendental mom, so that's a number that you'll never find as a solution to two and algebraic equation. So please is a transcendental number be? Is these at these? magic numbers that shop in mathematics and there's turns out. There is like an even bigger infinity of those. Then there is of these other two classes of numbers and the EU
The the the He bore letter, alas, in in in so. I left one of two out three of think. There five levels infinity. So my point is Just because there is infinite universes to me doesn't mean there's infinite conversations have happened and I'd want to read explore the deaths of infinities before I say and agree with you that this convention, it has happened, a million that you know an infinite number of times in June This way, except you have a different engineer sitting next to us or an infinite Britain's words been Jamie to write the principal German and it's the argument. That's that's given, but I think that we there's some nested infinities in there. That deserves some explanation. My feelings range and is not handling this. Well, that's that's why, as I've said, as I say in the in the in the epoch graph of of the book but does not
available. Yet, but I have a copy ha astrophysicist for people in a hurry astrophysics for people in a hurry, but saving medicines for people whose item over there today? What did I say, Murray Astrophysics, for people in a hurry? Usa, quick yourself, because you in a hurry, so so the epoch epoch. The epigram on that is the EU. Verse is under no obligation to make sense to you that that's rash, I've done they got in store, and so it makes sense to you that the universe is on an obligation to make sense. So it's ok, your brain hurts my say: there's a ranking of infinities but but you shouldn't say that doesn't make sense. Therefore it is not true. I definitely say that, but what what confuses me is the word infinity, because I have always taken the word if indeed mean something that has no end. So how can sum- thing that has no end be larger than something else it so the way they do that mathematically waited demonstrate that mathematics is used. You map one eye. In the set of this infinity to correspond
items in the set of the over other infinity. Whose are you do this? So you take one and a map to like the first tranche enable member states to do the second. You just keep doing this and when you do that, mathematically, what you find that one infinity outstrips the other infinity while and then you left with more with more numbers. So that shows you that you have a bigger infinity. When you five meters, there's a new NASA announcement, that's a poster! Is it Monday that that's supposed to be announced or technocratic tomorrow that echo platitudes on Wednesday? So it's Wednesday, I don't. I don't. Have you have details are not authorized to other types of data juicy details. It is ok here. Let me events and juicy Tito. There could be so NASA, so so that
good. It sanguine lately hidden in Japan. It he's just jump and I know I have issued for a short time. We gotta get that red. I just fly back to two thinks we're fitness in Joe Miami later in a time out, openness place up at three in the morning flow man number, but very few of the love. So if I can so handsome you could, because it is saying that its I'd, say it's a stunning new announcement. Well, what could be more than the fact that we already know that there are there earth like planets orbiting. In the Goldilocks zone of the nearest star to the sun Proximate century, Can you do better that than that? For me NASA, I don't think. Unless you got some eggs, your stuff. You gonna tell us like. What's been a cottage industry in the last couple of years? Is the observation of planet atmospheres? What's the plan? passes in front of the whole star light from the whole star through the atmosphere, and it is ought, and they
signature is altered by the chemistry of the atmosphere, so deeply with the chemicals are it'll influence, spectrum that you get and when you do You can say what the chemical composition of the atmosphere sets of that star is their certain visit certain combinations of elements that we would call biomarkers No, we can't look down to the surface of the planet and look at cities if there are any, but their accounts quences in the atmosphere, to their being life on the surface, such as is oxygen their eyes. To think when I was watching STAR Trek when I was a kid, I saw it in real time. The old I am when it first, original series get started it never wore spacesuits yeah. You ever wonder, Emmy ever thought about that. Ok, what happened just visit planets, they have nitrogen oxygen atmosphere, Jim right. Well, that's what our atmosphere nitrogen, actually fine, planets with nitrogen oxygen they go down, they don't need a space suit, so actually thought about that
and that's their solution, so that must mean there be planets that you could find that. Well, here's the thing we have oxygen on earth, only because there is life on earth? not any kind of life photo. Synthesizing life. We have life that takes sunlight, turns into chemical energy into itself into would into plants, and one of its byproducts is auction oxygen, is chemically active. If you took away all plants tomorrow, that oxygen which slowly get absorbed chemically into the environment it would not have oxygen. They are to be viewed aliens trying to see if we have life here. Surprisingly, people know that, where more mostly nitrogen in our area, where seventy eight percent nitrogen in our atmosphere, it or you know what happened, If you have too much oxygen, if you have like, what's a fifth President oxygen, really I write
part of it. No, what happens is like a forest. Fire would never go out. Oh yeah, because judge and feeds conversion, and so you can basically Bert all vegetation in the world if the oxygen when above certain threshold, so you need it high enough, so that you can still have oxygen metabolism, but nuts oh hi, that it's bad for lightning. Triggered forest, for so that more money is either. So, if there is in this, if I don't know the announcement, but I'm guessing here, because it's been a cottage industry the last couple of years. That's fine, these biomarkers. They do you have stable chemistry going on in that an admin? because, if you do it myself generating it and uncertain combinations of chemistry tells you there is likely to be life of some kind, not just a couple DEC, ago we had speculation of other planets, but we we didn't have any tangible proof. In fact, Anyone anytime I give a public talk. You do this, you are in your gigs asked who hears born. So
ninety? Ninety five, ok and ninety five youtube. Bodies, leans young, so they'll be some fractionally, honest and raise your hand, and so what I do is I I'd night them generation Exo Planet has ninety nine. If I was the first year that and that a planet outside of our own solar system was discussed, so they have been alive. Oh during a time we ve known of other star system set, so crazy, generous That's right as I want to start that movement crazy. That's so recent I mean that its oil has living out here. You have twenty twenty four years ago, twenty two years ago, to attain if you stop and think about how what a short period of time that is, and in that period of time would risk hours if there's like rising through three thousand extra planet of the events of take that that's not a science of assets that engineering and technology and then telescope quality and an imaging quality and its is a lot that goes on to the. Of science is not just how clever you are,
in an einsteinian way, it's do! no good engineers to build a device to make the measurement does how we disk gravity ways, what's your take on that planet that supposed to be outside the keeper belt. That's only twenty nine for planet nice, I'll fire. All the data look convincing. So what what they ve done? Is they ve looked at other objects? In that I worry about and looked at the desert, colleagues of mine, a Caltech So it's it's a brown who, in I get blamed for killing PLUTO, but I was an accessory for sure, but I didn't definite in Cuba that do kill boo'd. He found another object that was basically the size of PLUTO out there, so either you make that a planet. Will you demote please and how much smaller, PLUTO there and say our moon out so so don't get me started. Our moon has five times the mass of PLUTO so the moon, the put was lame from the beginning are right. We thought big. We wanted it to be big. Wee wee, wee, wee made it one of us one
the nine and Its size didn't settle out until the late nineteenth Seventys we had better, better more accurate ways to measure its size and that's when we learned small even compared to our own, but granted we have a big moon, but if you're not going The moon is a planet. You surely not gonna, think the PLUTO supplanting just so this opportunity to say how did it so they found these other objects out there. The same team Constantine back take together, perhaps his last name. But getting gene and might Brown, but both Caltech and they found these objects in the outer sought, the keeper belt of icy bodies were of which PLUTO member you track their motion, and you say: ok if add up all the gravity, that's affecting them, they should move this way, but they don't. They move another way, a different way so either newtons laws are gravity, are failing in the outer solar system or this some object out there, whose grab you have yet to reconcile with the motion.
Of these objects. So they said. Let's assume Newton is right. What object we have to put out there at what distance and of what eyes to influence the movement of these cover about object in the way we see it as they do this through bodes law No, no. We weigh Pat when we wait. Let's grab thanks remembering boats lobby. Both law was an early a measure of where you might find a new plan is based on mass and gravity known about what was a simple arithmetic tool. All I did was basically double the dust and with a certain added, a parameter, double the distance of your own reopens shown planet so, for example, and then there was a little there's a factor in there that help the inner planets come out right. But let's Mars. Mars is like two and a half times earths distance, from the sun. What comes after March, Jupiter Jupiter is five times Saturn is ten times to have twenty five to ten, so boldly
it is a simple arithmetic scheme is not base. In any known physics and was only based on the solar system and its also to resolve. That's right so and it worked, and yet you have fuck your way to get mercury to work in that area and headed, wouldn't didn't have PLUTO whistleblowers? the plan in anyway, but anyhow it was. It was a is Fiji way that was mostly right by accident. This was in like what year was this. Oh, that was eight hundred space awhile yeah. So now we have advanced computer programming. Very high precision, modelling and they're saying there's gotta, be a planet somewhere here in this arc of the sky, with look for it, because we think that too Everyone looked at the orbit of Uranus and said you know. Units is not following noons Laws: was discovered and because not everyone looked at them. Orbit of Uranus and said you know. Uranus is not following noons laws made me. We need less, don't work that far out has never been tested that far and they saw it
Let's assume it works and ask what would have to influence it and whether it's a difficult mathematical calculate because you're not saying here's the object. What's the gravity field you saying here every field? I need where Must the object be and how massive must it be? That's a meal discovered planet, Neptune, wow so now window looking and that's how they discovered planet Neptune, while so now, when they're looking at this plan, orbit of Uranus, who was known and calculated. They started looking for another planet and that's how they discovered planet. Neptune wow. So now, when they're looking at this planet, nine hope I said that right it was there movement of Uranus Orbit was not following proper laws and they infer the presence of tune. They said look here tomorrow. Night look there and they found it. Why? Yes, good brilliant display of and no we're going back, is it a nineteenth century, so I mean people. People were bad ass,
at every generations got bad as scientists now huh further out from the known solar system. Is this unknown planet? So I'm not quick to call a planet nine, because so far twenty thousand times farther away from the sun and the earth is so I'm not sorry, you're, not the family. You now than they ever know, you're not heard. Not sorry, I'm not feeling. I call in Connecticut me you're, not real in it. So it's something massive right. It's like six times the mass the forgot, what mass they were signing it. But if that were in our solar system to be no question, you would label it is a plan and it wasn't their one time, speculation that it was some sort of a burnt out star that exists, not only mass, no, no! No! No! No! No! You might be thinking you if that's what I think, second, you a good memory the long ago and a galaxy far away sometimes making seventies people looked at. The extinct record on earth and every one thousand years. They found a little blip, a little dip,
and the fossil record, where we lost some species, and people are wondering why could or been some flux of comets raining down periodically on the earth wreaking havoc on the ecosystem. Rendering species extinct in these periodic animals if there is more be there's some double star to this rise sign or not, or somebody like every star system, so they invoke it and then they called it they gave came, name if he called it, nemesis will give it a name, so you know what period orbital Perry that object must have he's got a match. The extinction Harry Audacity, and so it's gotta be a twenty thousand year period, and So but people look for it, they couldn't find it and then you re analyze the the extinction records and it was you you had to fudge it to make it look like it was periodic, So basically we have abandoned the idea of net of nemesis in. By Norstar Systems, really comedy more than half the stars. You seen the night sky or binary,
people systems, in fact the iconic image. Star wars the region STAR Wars movie before they numbered them. I think what what's Norway Toto Loony Range where they were well yeah, whatever, whatever that that that that desert planet that look was on and he comes after visiting is was what step parent know his adoptive parents remember, we are where we visiting. He comes I see a double sunset, so that's So the only accurate science and the entire series are more serious thousand. Nothing really enjoy your ears, but taking up a heart of gravity, although gravity and how many people got Madigan. Yet you know so I stopped comical movies. I will need to piss people off when I watch a movie, I'm having those thoughts anyway, so I might will share them with people if your interested, so I did just that and then people live.
So I did, it was four star wars. The force awakens armor seven. I had I series of tweets you not one of them was Eight, a smooth, rolling Metals, spherical ball would have skin uncontrollably on sand. People got angry. So so what are we to back a shut? The fuck up? Ok, that's so so I said: ok, I'm not here to get people angry, I'm just here to enlighten to help people in here their movie going experience, but to the extent that is not accomplishing this, I don't need to do it. I'm just saying I don't I'm an educator What I would be a nice idle it does. I haven't tweeted about a movie since then we pass them stop. I have tweets like a post about arrival. Do I didn't want to do what he wants a little bit of a shudder off? Ok, I know you gotta, give it a chance. I soon, as I see a movie that starts, I don't spoil, starts out with a secure them like fuck you.
Oh no, no effect is very not about the kid I'm sure. That's why keep is totally not about the kid Jimmy hated it. Oh yeah yeah so you just give it a chance, but button anyhow. So I just stop. Maybe I'll come back, but I'm I went. People, they don't know gravity. That was good, that you explain that they did not always is not plausible. Those two satellites are anywhere near each other guys. We're said, oh there's that there's the national space station and I'm on the chinese space station. Let me just jet pack my way better. Do you will excuse me, I'm ready to pay lady. Do you know how far away these are from one another is jet around from one space station took no can do it the tens of thousands of miles from one another, for goodness sake, so millennium. So I guess you remembered: let's do it was like fifteen tweets and I didn't know I was when I realize, like the press was reading my movie tweets and though tweets. Isn't there.
Couple years ago in gravity came out, Sandra Bullock and and and what the Deuce name George Clooney, so I tweeted it and they got talked about on that on? They today show set the set the weekend today Show on NBC. Then it was tat about on NBC nightly NEWS then way tweets. We talked about Saturday last weekend update it was the NBC trifecta and I said, my gosh. This was an idea had not. That was not the point. I did seek this fight- I'm glad they. They are reacting this way because that music about the science, maybe but what seven Is it because he was doing we conducted at the time he said astrophysics. Neil deforestation harshly criticised the movie gravity saying It contains a number of scientific inaccuracies, for example. There is no way George Clooney would have spent that much time
talking to a woman, his owner, each that's layers Annabel hostile younger than George Clooney, though they should it got there extraordinary, but not by much media there with them in the same neighborhood, yes yeah. I think it's important. I think that you enjoy the movie. It's great! It's fun at every like that, but it's important to point out what the signs errors are. I think I think that the I think We done better honestly they could have made the same movement. I dont I didn't like the movie when all our resumes pointing out things they are wrong. Button did some stunning things correctly, for example, this is this is brilliant fearing zero g, a fire. Basically puts itself out so think about when burn a candle on earth, so you liked the wick. It. Does people candles anymore? They forgot what a candle is delighted with such that used to get from smoking flounces at bars. So you light the candle
and it stays lit the fuel is the wax the oxygen continually comes in because the around it'll heat, the air rises, the air will and fresh. Comes from below and has fresh oxygen. The candle stay lip until it burned all the way down in space. If you light a candle, you can write the candle it'll heating. Air, but the air will not know where to go, because not later than everything, because it's in zero g it'll state clustered around the candle, the cannibal use up all the oxygen in that bubble and it'll put itself out. They did this in the movie. Why do they have some good science because they make you can think of everything they just have you once tat monitoring you won't know comes from limiting very say. If so, you can't think of anything. So I wasn't judgmental so much as this movie the fact that it So much right is what put it on my map to criticise what it got wrong? That makes sense?
Does that makes them a gas. Ok here earned the right. You're older, her bang? Should Bin Laden photo now, if you think of my butt NIT picking, no, because we any picture somebody with hair, ok in base in zero g they're here flying everywhere is the first thing you notice about them It is so obviously why that's the cool you not thinking about the spaceship or the Thai technology. You look at the Hague, doing stuff? You will never see happen on earth. Unless someone underwater and their jiggling their head, so they would have to film at all in zero gravity they would have to feminine when those drop things year or drop. Think they'd have to be a clever about it and actually have bangs. That's all you had to figure out how to did did other clever things so anyway, it's all. I did by the way, in all fairness to movies I'll call out something, that's good, the science that ruling right that always got no science right, I'll be under the first in line to do that, like what oh in the movie monsters ink, oh my god,
signals go in there did those doors were for dimensional portals too to another, that's possible. Well, if you four dimensions. That's what it would look like you remember them. Yeah, they take the doors home. Yes, they opened the door and there in the closet of the kid that they're going to terrorize. Yes, you that's a wormhole, that's what What access to the fourth dimension looks like think scientifically, that's possible one day outside wholly blow, I hope so real increase. Here's the example we wait. We ve got a nice broad desk. We hear at that at this interview right. So desk is two dimensions. It's got lengthen wit and I can stop putting paper. On his desk, and I can lay them out mosaic style and then all of a I have no more room to put a sheet of paper. If I may, living in the surface of the desk. I say no more room but wait a minute. We are three dimensional people, And I can put an organizer and and and
jack things vertically. Can take a sheet of paper and I can put it huh, up in the surface of the desk. The aunt will say we did it oh, my gosh. It disappeared from Porto. We know not what what is that it went into the third dimension and the ant bound obviously is a three dimensional thing: Imagine it's only lives in two dimensions. You would have made that paper disappear into a third dimension and will have no clue where it went. Cause. You had a portal, you have access to the extra dimension so Look at how much you can store on a desk when you have access to a third dimension above it rashly more than just papers, mosaics out on the surface. So now, let's up this example by a dimension Europe storing boxes in a row. I ran out a room. No, you didn't openness for dimensional door, you open it put the box, through the door closed
The door box is gone now the os four harder. You you're, you look around the other side of the by the door. There's nothing there right, though your out of the door, nothing they're, just a door. That is a portal to a fourth dimension that can, vastly more content, then what is what you're stuck storing and the three dimension space of your room. Now, that's settled. It sets a brilliant concept and even though it has monsters that don't exist, that all speak English and one of them is a Cyclops and one of them is a you know how much judging the Bio physiology of these creatures, but they got the physics of affordable, portals completely accurate, not a concept of demand. There is work. It's really abstract with people love me some dimensions and it is of track. It is now and that's why you you'd. Do you ve, taken? Let the math take you into those higher demand, and because our intuition will not what will fail for us right. That's where gets weird women's, they take the math the low, let the math you so like when Quantum physicists using legal nope
those yellow paths and write all that crazy stuff down that nobody, but you and maybe them understand, and when you look at all those equations notes them, maybe me move them. Damn you probably understand are right, but I deftly don't. My point is: what are they exist leave figuring out that allows them to say there are, I think they say what One point I was eleven by things have expanded that right, what it well, I don't have. The latest dimension count the universe, but what wait works as you beat you trying to make sense of the world right And so you take some leaps so some some philosophical, Leafs leaps thematically leaps. You say all right may a b all particles at manifest as electronic proton a neutral May, both quarks me be they're, just strings of energy vibrating at different frequencies.
And we sense these different frequencies as different particles. Let's just go there, therefore, okay, well, if you're gonna do that, what are the consequences to it? Then How many dimensions do these vibrating strings require to have the proper? is that we see in our dimensionality so The exercise of explaining what you see take you. Places that you ve never been before, and that's fine places at intellectual places that you sure in temperature. We do then thing wrong with it, we ve done that before wheat, that's why we know what is happening in the center of the sun. Have we ever been there? No! No. But we know how matter behaves under pressure and temperature we can do that laboratory. We ve had a son sitting out there with a surface temperature, a mass of certain luminosity and would say what my be going on down in the core: let's bring our best physics, a quantum physics, our our chemistry, our new,
LEO Physics, bring it all together and we have a complete understand what's going on in the center of the sun and we're onto other problems now, even though we ve never visited there. So when they're gone, over this mouth, the mathematics and like observable things that we have right now or like the atomic subatomic level. Crap you don't eat. We can't see you realize the electron distant, ok, bye, I mean. I did a whole series of this there's something called the the great courses lecture series. Though he was a sponsor this park Ezra. Why would they re greek horses so cool? So I was once invited to be one of their professors for the great courses- and I taught a very short most of them are like thirty lectures is like a whole college semester, so, but I NATO have the time or the energy, so they, let me like short bits, so one of them was only six parts and it's called the inexplicable universe and six part of everything.
About which we know nothing. Universe, he might see what a pretty easy course to get rather than having to clear to them, It's what you might see something dark man could be so we will stay too so, but it's trusting to learn how we come to know what we don't know, and so it's it's exploration of our ignorance and a very proud of it, because it's what you normally find an electric series and it still is still out there, but one of the things I will tell you in and out tell you now the electron has no known dimension. It is smaller than the smallest we have ever had the capacity to measure So far as we are concerned, it is infinitely small. We have no way to know how to measure by the way. How do you measure something small? You get something smaller and find out how many of those it is
I do not think about what think about the challenges at each extreme. Ask me how big the universe- and I see it big as well. I gotta What am I gonna say right, there's nothing as big as the universe so at the biggest stand at the little ascend does not some mouse is its it doesnt work is well. Ok too, Try to say what it is relative to something else. You entertain the possibility that the biggest send the little is done, the same thing, meaning that are the smallest measurable point, literally might be a whole another universe that, like might be fractal it's fun. To think about it. I mean, the way down here. It's fun to think about a infinitely down, however, and people by the way in the nineteen twenties when we discovered the atom and its structure. And that there is an electron quote orbit around a nucleus. It was a way we ve been there before. We got planets orbiting the sun and so
this this. So maybe it's a many solar system, maybe it's its source systems all the way down. I'm glad you brought this up, I'm glad we brothers out, because I wanted to bring this question. I almost forgot: there's a photograph, a brain cell and by side with a photograph of the known universe and they looked eagerly similar. So you talking with the large scale structure, Yazzi Universe where large scale campaign of galaxies I'll get to that in a minute and upstream, ok, so saga, so you have a tunnel pull up his own damages cabinet capital that he has done so you who so why that's not likely ok, was entertained idea, but here's. Why not likely the manifestation of the laws of physics are different at the atomic scale than they are at the
macroscopic skim. The just simply different a planet can take any orbit sensible for its philosophy around a host star. An electron cannot its energy levels are pre determined and quantities. Hence the word quantum the prefix quanta in quantum physics. So if it was a continuum, matter and energy fall the same laws of physics than say then its sources and all the way down, but the rule completely change, and so things can on this surface seem similar, but when it comes time to understand them and to analyze and to manipulate them and to exploit them conduct in their behaviour, for other means, as we have done with atoms, are molecules for the entire t revolution you
no longer are they the same, and you abandon this romanticized concept so now with the neurons than the network of neurons and they cluster. The clusters of like and Galaxy Super clusters that would be on the right, neurons and laughed at so eerie guess so so they can look the same, but they operating under completely different laws. Physics, so in others the laws of physics tat, they dictate what on a brain cells have no relationship to what's going on in the universe brain cells, beer undergoing. We can take what forces are operating? It's it's! It's electromagnetic forces, Brain cells use electrical impulses. Chemical impulses. This is why drugs can affect the brain, their chemical and then there's chemistry going on in the brain and its natural state. You disrupt that Hence it you just put you just put, down some some, some mystery in your stomach! That's now affecting your brain! Would you
drink? There wasn't alpha brain Africa, ok, yeah, so you're entering the chemistry. So it's chemistry what's going on on the large scale. Structural universe is not chemistry right, there's some chemistry deep within, but it's not the chemicals Not what making that pattern, and because of that it becomes an artistic curiosity, not something that has any kind of deep scientific. Inside, so it's just a fascinating Worthing similarity. Yes, it's a fascinating, similar, put him up together and it's fun to think about it. But it's not it's funny thing about artistically, but not scientifically. Now is great. If you hanging out with your friends, don't why man with a high you are now when you're looking at subatomic particles scares me and you can have these like when they they observe the particles and superposition weather moving and stationery at the same time with a blank in and out of existence like a white when you get down to that- and I repeat the the
the opening page of the book. The universe is under no obligation to make sense, Natalie We urgently warnings so at that scale things on with atoms and molecules fall outside of your life experience, you don't hang out at the bar, who is protons new cod nuclear arms or other nuclear answer or molecules you just down. So what they do in their day is completely foreign to you. So now you shrink down to that size and particles popping in out of existence there there they become conjoined quantum locking equally conjoined, and it's completely weird you would say this. None of us make sense- and this is observable in a visual sense- while depends better how big the phenomenon is. Otherwise, you can see other things that would happen that you know that are the manifestations of that happening rights, but it is so an electron smaller even than that. Oh yes, by how many factor alone
We don't even know we don't know. I don't know what you mean, measured the size or an electron, the concept of super string theory. So a soup. All these liberating strategy are smaller than that. Yes, the strings would have be smaller, sinner smaller than the electron itself there are many, many that I didn't. I couldn't quantify forty. I get brain a string, theory person, so it's like at the bottom of what we can observe. Well that's a great question. What is the bottom and the guy? You know the word which was introduced by the Greeks, not at a means and Greek present a trend. And here I mean not indivisible. So they imagine that all matter was you'd come now to some thing that was indivisible. How that everything you that unabated figured out the supposed it, and maybe there was the first. They would be another wealthy and had free time, and you know when they weren't waging war. You could think, and you know what we Think of his philosophy.
Is traceable to a lot of what they were doing back then, and the origin, of what sciences are traceable to back to back then, do you have an idea that applies to what universe does that enables you to predict future behaviour that science and so I saw the it turned out is divisible. Is the visible into Sub atomic sub M particle, so you get electrons, protons, neutrons and a whole host of other parties. Less familiar neutrinos and other things. Then it turns out. Protons neutrons, our further divisible that the core out of those in as far as we know, there are only four four the mental particles in the universe, the photon, which is light, the electron of their several species that the anti electronic business, but just these dissolute stay simple here the photo, the electron than the court and the neutrino. That's it
everything in the universe that we ve ever reserve is made out of that stuff. So Those are quote the atoms of the universe, the indivisible parts, if you will now, this is not an abundant dark matter could be made of yet another kind of thing that we don't know yet, but we got top people trying to figure. What dark matters we measured it out there. We just don't know what it is, but it's something like ninety something per cent of the universe, you out of dark matter and dark energy. It's ninety five percent While that drives the universe em, we can measure the existence of both. Yet we have no idea what's driving them. This is an awesome opportunity for you to eliminate this offer us all in astrophysics for people in a hurry up. It's all it you may count on me you can pre order at which, by the way, publishers love it. If you pre order its hidden adorable, but we did it This is a good sign. As adorable you can have a pre ordered on Amazon. You know the reason why the publishers, like you, two priorities, so that they can
can you do remedy together, just wanna been won over print. I didn't want undercurrent, the answer they get a sense of the pre ordering. Could you not charge until they ship it? So it's a pretty harmless exercise while we're on this subject of subatomic particles and weirdness, I wanted it. I wonder if you could eliminate this often misused explanation for this observer effect because you know that the particles waves and you watch them observe them in a change. Is the reaction is heavily misunderstood its misunderstood, because people want I what should be done to magic, the Maginot line in the consciousness looking at it, but isn't it in fact, just measuring it. Yes, thank you. Please explain next, find me because I'm so tired jargon, hurries Joe you good registrars, you carry you people with you. I try was little, whether that we're going home and when will you pull what what? What will you
your people know, well that I can count on them for sure you don't own exactly that. My voting about their very great continent together. I know you're going to have you have an admirably diverse following and that not many people can claim that in its policy of your divers profile right, Why is open minded as I can, but on top of our and your reed and you're thoughtful in here also on some level respectful here somebody out and you you know you did. You got your Emma may thing so now you you're in a lot of places and a lot of spaces and it's a good thing and we need more unity in this world. So so, thank you. Thank you so please explain what what a poor people are getting wrong can zero very simply as much simpler than you think. Ok, you're ready! Yes, so I'm looking at you The only reason why I can see you is because this light, reflecting off of your face your body into my eyes, so there's light obituaries star that others are hobble, photo
oh, my god, yeah those images. Finally, how long I walk in there sheets that you put over the fluorescent light cover, and so when we look up, we actually see very little real images, pretending it's the nice so that we can reduce the recording studio. But what I want to do in the future studio. I want to actually build a glass ceiling and have a full scale image high resolution image of stars to appoint a harem, yeah yeah you're, describing a platter exact call it that it's a planetary, suddenly regimented image. What you can do, what you did not do better, we don't have to do it I'll. Do it no do better than that. You get a you just the we get occur version of those very high risk. Pollution, Ellie, discouraged, yeah, ok, anyway, the image of their. You want then it's the night sky tonight it's what the sky looks like from
from office ensuring so like when you go to see whether star shows at a planetarium and they show it on the ceiling. Above you will you support nowadays that the ceiling itself is the is the source of light rise, not projected from something. So then, you just feed that with image data and then it becomes what everyone can hook me up with someone who knows how to do it all excited. You don't know p like people, I mean people, they led him up. Humanitarian me, my people for Germany, while you are you are you happy that you know the people with teeth so like it so nervous? I look at you. Ok right, yes, and I see you, I want to know where you are I turn on the lights, and I say there you're all right now, let's make use tinier. Let's make you many me ok like in the movie right, a tiny version of you, a mini me version of Joe ok. Now you little, I turn on what you're. Still there. Ok, ok
because if the lights are not on, I can't see you. I don't know where you are right: it's that simple. Ok, ok,. When you start becoming the size of molecules. Right on down to the size of an atom, and I ask the question: why here is your Rogan the atom. And I turn on the light. To see you there, because I think you're there, the light full time comes in hits. Your Adam, pop shoe into another location. The very ACT of trying to measure your position prevent to me for measuring your position and as have Jack shit, to do with your car justness or your mind or your eyes or anything it has to do with this. Act that to know you're there. Some information has to come from you to me. Like shining a light on you
and a small you are the more susceptible you are to the the energy of the light changing your position in space, so, question is lying. You know what you're just like you ever. This is still happen. You're a cop, spills out of your pants pocket in the back seat of a car and is there in the wedge, between the bottom, in the back seat You try to reach and to get it and the act of reach for the coin makes the court, move farther away from you, the act of reaching for it. By radio separated energy slides down even further such your mind making that happened. It's the is the of the measurement that is affecting what it, you're trying to measure- and this was- governing quantum physics and to the point where that's actually, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, it's one of the basic foundations of all of quantum physics. Now when it's just crowned between firm but when its described in the blue way. You
they were actor, maybe a little weasel people don't know. A lot of that is from a cult. The woman and I didn't know the woman who is there's a horrible cartoon days. See in that movie. What in the bleep I couldn't get through them, I tried to go crazy with, though, that science, nor can I tell you where I turn to maybe I'll wait. But don't know. A lot of that is from a cult the woman and I didn't know the woman who is the rapporteur, my watch out of mine, occult movie she's a channel, are speaking as a character, no, that that one or blonde woman, older blonde woman, it's an embryo caricature, speaks when she speaks. She speaking as a care look out and you have to like it is as a part of like this very bizarre sort of cult and tell you where I turned it out or you want a familiar and would not fit our ok. So I've tried to I just couldn't watch it right, there's a point where there are talking about
natives in the Caribbean, seeing european ships? Yes and then they said well, because I've never seen a ship before they. Brain didn't register as anything, and then it just disappeared bullshit and I'm thinking that's not how the brain were. Excuse me, that's not how this works hey. What would have they might not know what they're looking but don't know they're looking at something and it had ships they they went from island, Thailand, that's how you get from Ireland. I was well that's a really big version of what would we ve never seen anything that big before I don't know what it is. I don't know where it came from, but I want to find out what a study it protect myself whatever so just because you ve never seen doesn't mean you're, not gonna register it excuse me. No, no, I said,
What do I can't wastward? I got other things are not devote my brain energy to instead, it instead of this, but someone else gets better later on. So I said, maybe I'll know it does not think it's more confusing later on in it. It does a better job of confusing you as to what, and has shown and what they haven't now by the way. Just in all fairness to what do I think that the point they were trying to make there are things that you dont know to recognise them, you would they would go, undiscovered, yes, ok, but that doesn't. You wouldn t see them. Ok. So far, javelin say you're walking and you didn't know that you're walking over this huge burial mound because the slow Was really shallow and you just walking? Ok what you just did you? Did you didn't notice that? Ok, so you need a different way to see it in order to do so at them from space from an angle measure the height whatever. So there
is to miss things. That's up in that. It happens all the time bright. But if it's so then there on the horizon. My gosh This is why we have eyes: ok, they're, not the best data taking devices, but if you to tell you where there's a ship or not a ship, that I ve never seen before it gets a ship of cocaine of sums are absolutely not just so much evidence of that when people discover new animals, yet never for anything, you anything doesn't know measured at whatsoever. People find it make it still most scientific discoveries. You discover tat, we ve never seen before ramp. That was the woman's name. There was the did that sin that she was the old ship? That's cool, channeling, Navy, channeling, ramp or I'd be we're ramp though I found that after the after, the movie was done after I watch rousing. He they got me with. Allow thanks also allows a truce at real and I started reading
gently that movie came out in the two thousands instead of in the nineties, because if it came out the nineties we all got duped of those who are now the internet. The research policy is wrong with it in the two thousands us our research and then I would send it to my friends. I look at what going to fuck this came from and then and then you go out. Oh that's a called yeah. It's called the legs at cop she's she's, talking like she's an alien she's, presupposing be an alien right. Isn't it do you see it in their again? Out of my mind, peopled think they're travellers are just and put him in charge of anything. That's all well, it's! nothin I signed it's just that you should probably say that when you get go on with that range of ass, I know exact origin understands recalled nobody research is calls herself ramp, they think is real and genuine, and since in their very sincere cause there, they ve dupe themselves, The whole thing would you leaders is. Is you know you need is some foundation science literacy so that you can inoculate yourself and to those who exploit
your absence of knowledge of how the signs work where their own gain, but not even for on gay injustice of Youtube videos I mean someone could make a very compelling Youtube video where they get you convinced at all, my god dinosaurs, our real. They start plainly things for you. They tell they tell you so that we can pop popcorn see that what I have seen that you might have some, rather than that start poverty. Are you gotta like, rather than on what the court colonel someone? You can't really have not, of course now courting I imagined it could Jesus Christ, we could we do these funds, there's. A ton of those out there were people see that it's one of the problems with with a lack of dialogue with some who just has one narrative? I d sit down here Add something any just talk. Is very somebody like. Even if you write a blog, I mean that's one thing: if you're writing a blog, I say if you're an expert in electronics, you rather a blog about how a television works, but if you're, just a person- and you D
really understand what you're talking about what you write, something and use the right words, and you say in a very compelling way, like an attack piece on someone. There really is no bay in reality. You can have someone convinced this persons a terrible person just by writing something without them. Having responded, call up. Stop never do that. I tweet. I never was there a tweet, a few Creasy budget, because it is way better as the tree then I'll ever remember it as the tweet. So it was one of the great challenges in life is knowing enough to think you're right, but not enough to know you're wrong, yeah? Well, that is a big problem for our people. The watches you too that's what it is they had all. This is right, oh my gosh, but they don't know enough to know why it's wrong with this. What I want to talk about a what is it about people that there's is this? This is very compelling need to
find something out that other people don't know like the world is flat like dinosaurs. Aren't real. That kind of stuff is very compelling to be so I do in those cases. In the end, they, thankfully yachts, What I do is, I would say, instead of debating them and some of some of your listeners or listening to this right now. What I would do is say what is your best single bit of evidence for what your claiming And what would it take to, show that you're wrong. I was going to a simple one. So that's what I ask and I've done this exercise and it doesn't work. You know why why This was a guy who's didn't believe we went to the moon, we spent a thief about time. In our last session got there there's someone I know it doesn't believe we went to the Moluccas rhythm, you say skeptical. So I said what kind of it its would convince you
he said, had images of the landing site of the politicians, so I said: ok, here's a website where we sent if it wasn't, what was the chinese items Chinese or Europeans, sent Aced? I probed an operator to them, so it was close enough because Granby Telescopes in prison don't be a resolution to see the winning side, but we are closer to them when you can't did it for if the entire surface of the moon- and there were the and excites and you saw the rover tracks and that the base further the module, and so he then night, he went home and found it. Then he came. That's? What said that we have? I have no other conversation with that's a singular event which you because he's not ready to be convinced Well, that's a weird one is high, gave him the evidence he asked for exactly. That would convince him and it did not convince them
that's what I said we have. I have no other conversation That's a singular event which you could say in one where it like. It is possible that someone could fake a singular event. They can't fake whether or not the world's flat right again, to me: is the scariest one that there's so much people out there. The believe the world is flat because that you could you could literally see the curvature of the earth from a plain I mean you can yet to parts of the you look at the images from space station where they circled the moon. Or they certainly earth. Rather I mean there are theres many many satellite images of the earth in its entirety. You know and monitoring the argument was how come every photograph of the earth is accomplished. Mission of photographs well because there are, taken from three hundred miles up. The earth is Hugh, yet hers away bigger than through undermine you have to take a complicated you haven't. Do this the only way to get going exceptionally APOLLO photo the politics eventide coming back. Has the earth? That's the famous one as Africa
and article in view is the full earth. Very few. Full earth is very hard to get a full earth single photo the ash? And when we went to the moon the Moonlight and when they are coming back, think about it to get full earth. Means the sun. Behind the astronauts on the way back to earth, which is the side of the moon facing earth is not lid. But that's the sight of them when they came from so they want to visit moon while its sunlight, their didn't want. It needs. Slight when they get to the moon, so they ve. The moon Waller Sunlight earth. The view of earth at that time will not before so APOLLO, seventeen was their long enough. So that by the time they left the moon was basically a new moon. Earth was full moon of earth was full earth and then they got a fuller throat up. Those paths
so they have in their back that regulate the temperature, yet it allows them to walk on the surface of the moon when its tuner fifty degrees, the idea of a site is facing the sun is that more than two hundred degrees and in shadow it be drawn one or fifty degrees below I, so can it's. Which, back and forth between those two environments, you what you need? Not what you just insulate David S, rights in waited, and so when you're insulated those temperature extremes, felt was, did their minimized and its regulated by the pack so yeah what he says: it's like tat, world wars, contradiction and maintains the temperature, but The catering waste lay of warming and cooling in the face of what is going on it maintains that, picture. That's how you need to think about it. Ok, so, regardless of what did cooling one side of you and chewing the others and heating the other side right, it's maintaining a temperature for you and when you are in space like say what they're doing space sampling of airspace efficiency savings being on the surface of the moon on Earl Atmosphere on earth, you are in this in This cocoon, dare I say, of atmosphere?
So all the air in this room is the same temperature because the air can communicate difference in temperature to itself be quill abrading? whilst the whole room right. If you dont have air, then Temperature is measured by where's the energy coming from attaining you, if the sun is hitting you all. Energy will be, raising your temperature in the sight of it. It's not facing photons that temperature will drop. So you need you could survive it. If you put yourself, rotisserie figure out the right rotation rate, and even then you have to be spent pretty quick. How do you like that? That you have to figure out what the right breeders now you get in a debate with a guy like that to be overly guy and ultimately, ok. Well, when you does it saying ok when an argument last more than five minutes, both sides are wrong. That's a terrible, saying, if more than one wrong the other person stubborn, can deftly last four hours,
that's not true at all, it's it's true, eighty percent of the time, ok, but you got into with that wrapper that thinks it Here's to why be obeyed because in his twitter stream. He was saying he was invoking physics, and I thought I gotta. I got a deal. This right, and so he showed a picture from bear Mountain which is a mountain in in sight. We upstate New York, where my hand is in sight line of the summit of this mountain and he says when the curvature of the earth and this formula, you should not be able to see Manhattan at all, ok, it and its peasant how view will thank you won't while so so, if you do the math and it turns out Manhattan, The island would not be visible at all. That's true. But any building taller than fifteen stories would rise up above. The curve
sure the earthen you'll see it. If we look at the photo, you see the tall buildings rising above fifteen story, exactly what the correct formulation those and not his formula, which was wrong and misinterpreted claims to show. What is bizarre, because snipers have been using the liberals curve of the earth to plan. Where bullets Oh that's! I wanted tat you have to when you shoot a mile when you shooting like well out over a thousand yards, those those factors. So let me a mile. I have to ask how much curvature the earth you get four miles, we are setting drop question you get drop, incur mutually gravity drop, yes and then Korea, so both of those yeah. What is it good luck? here is a thing say someone, you have a bullet in your hand, and you should The gun two premises robs faster rate than the other
They get the wrong answer to that. The Iraq at the exact same rate, though, hit the ground at the same time that same time and that Dat blows people's minds are. I believe that when you do that, if physics one or one it's it's an expected physics demo, so the fit Why, if physics is so important to use all its take ology in this great, but don't leave out the physics, because that's where the fundamental operations of nature are to be found again nickel universe are to be found, so you have. Is you have a at one side it's like a poor thing that shoots out of projected call it a gun at once, stage, and then you have a like a little stuffed animals. The other side's held up with an electromagnet at the top of his head Two are exactly the same level as the projectile comes out from the both as many cannon trips and electric circuit that releases the electromagnet at the top of the stuff. Animal stuffed animal. Begins to fall. The bullets, whose horizontally, but also falls because gravity is poor,
women both and you watch. The projectile curve down. You watch that stuff annual carved out any hits the stuffed animal everything this time, the only fact That would change. That would be if you put wings and a bullet and was dealing with the wind variety, a win win would affect. It did have both with wings I'm seeing the now. They dont ok now, but if they did in off like a shot the bulletin and figured out, I think wings came I saw about James Bond movie, I probably I'm sure it's it's just gotta, frustrating for you when these things come back around like there was no flatter theory when I was in high school. So there are other things, though, think about it. When you in high school there was much more strategy going, oh yeah, the President Reagan. Oh it's about that Nancy Reagan has an honour all azure so today, you don't see much of it. You let me talk to steal
Maxwell, but still there it's just not it's not manifesting in public policy Some people believe in a deep. I agree, but it's not up there in public policy. That's when I say: ok, well, we're Le Nancy. Reg was really only one. They made him public law. Sure then, but at the bar tube do hear people saying what your sign up to one hundred percent knows. Only true is indeed your marriage hinder their North America, man I'm out of it. You don't understand. If you wanna get legs s, nonsense got sought a scorpion. If you're a tar ass, we should just stop. I miss that I misled myself. I thought it was fading, but just But now she Reagan was the big proponent. We get nonsense astrology. Now it's not like someone who really understands astrological charts and can plotted and moons and retrograde and you're born on Sal CS is rising and all that crazy crap that they try to. I don't know what they're doing I was on. A talk. Show within astrologer a real one, apparently
she's real effect, one writer says she's real okay and I trust her because she talks about how fake other strategies are there's a hater with them. It is. I don't trust her. And she was saying that the Kennedys all died during lunar eclipse, scary, and you know that This is a very checkable statement. You two says this and it was listening and believing in while that that Campi by accident and well, I don't know what other Kennedys died, but I know when Jack Kennedy died, and there was November twenty. Second, Nineteen sixty three! So so, I want to know if there is an eclipse, then I just need to know what phase the moon is in my You can only have a loner clips when the moon is full, the moon was nowhere near forums like two weeks away from full data that was collapse. It happened during Eclipse is my point: we're ok, so, of course, because those daylight well well
You can have a lunar eclipse at any time. Ok, I can soil. It is also time to adjust reviewed arc. Four year would be for the latter. The world right, don't be so simple. Patrick Central effect. Where there's a lunar eclipse. Anyone on the side of the earth that sees the moon will see that they will not. What's so they did so by we lunar eclipses. You, several per year by the way, a partial so as a minimum and every couple years here's a full eclipses? So these are not where things to start there, not rare, ok, so I said you know he's he was shot when there I forgot what moon was first quarter Moon and she said: oh well, This counts, if their anywhere within two weeks on either side of the eclipse. Why that's a lie? that's why I say: let me just shut up here and let her keep. It was. What did you hear in the time it was forever to torture. We were so
science by the way you are NASA shirt at the at they at the. The Academy award group photo. So I got against some proper that, but sober whip side. You, SAM, I'm, nothing more to say here. Hence my Are you there lasted less than five minutes now? What are they when, when they're trying to decide like what your personality would be in what you owe a hike out, what you can dictate from your birth date and what I'm you were born. What would have exactly trying to connect, so a deeper awareness of this recently when I learned that people take the names of things very seriously. Okay,. The name's mean things to people, regardless of what the thing actually is. Ok
So what might we mean by this? So unless, like Ashraf equally I say we have this thing called dark matter. We don't know what it is worth. Having some kind of matter. No, no it shouldn't be called dark matter. We call Fred right. With no shouldn't leave Judith think anything about it, because we not know what it is. We should really called dark gravity. It is it is gravity that we have measured, we don't know it's causing the gravity. Just call it dark matter implies you think it's matter something we'll do, but we don't know so explain to me what what is this based on like when you say dark matter? What is it based on its I'd like to just Fred Fornicate has called for an objective. We don't know what it's like, what how is always management the gravity of this stuff? Ok, it's out there. It's six times the gravity of stuff? That's ordinary matter: we don't know which come. If we don't,
what we all know, the arduous and apparel universe is it we don't know and how we measuring it by its effect. The motions of object so a certain strength of gravity will force you to move in a given speed as you near it, and as you pull away, and we see this in galaxies what's he clusters binary Alex, ease, nor natured entire galaxies that are made in completely out of this Fred. At least eighty percent of the Force of gravity manifested in these galaxies is Fred. Yes and that's, Why? Why are they calling it dark matter should, in my opinion, you called dark gravity, literally what it is. So it's gravel that cannot be measured. Gravity, that's not gravity. Clearly understood is not understood correct. So its mysterious gravity or don't fleetly measure to Norway measure it. We, you can't narrowed down, why the measure gravity precisely right, ok, see measure it, but you can't so.
Turning the origin, because some we don't know what it is right that by pointers, because someone called it dark matter. It has swayed everybody into thinking that it is matter of some kind. Has constrained people's thoughts about how to think about this problem. Ok, so now the agents looked up and they saw these stars and they put their culture on the sky. So they're centaurs theirs, there's you know, the weather, sent, there's a cent or archer Sagittarius? We have a Ryan, the hunter. We have tourism. We have sea serpents. We rivers. We have stopped it matter to people back then. Ok, we have Aquarius it was the warder bearer o the water bear TAT
This means that when the sun is in Aquarius, it's gonna re more on earth. Why because the ancients called it the warder bearer and all of a sudden, the name reigns Supreme over fact that it is a random set of stars were idly separated in space Don't even look like people holding a pitcher of water. Of the eighty eight constellations about six of them looked like what you're told they're supposed to look like the rest work, opium induced imagination to establish what they are. So they all have names. And you go to the astrologers tables and they say. Oh, this is the rain sign or this is a drives. Drought sign and eight the names of things and those names or what they interpret Basin
where the moon is. The sun is where the planets are an or whatever The angle configuration there are and angle has a certain latitude over which they counted as a whole. Rather than as amiss, and so this extraordinary capacity of the astrologer to tell you what's going on in your life. So it's bullshit. But they did have this real, fascinating connection. With these Certain constellations and all of the different things that they thought were attached is certain constantly you know it's. You know to be like to be like a gene I'm just going up to the border of Colorado. Trying to understand the shape as a geologist it's it's, and arbitrary shape. Color
was a square on a curve surface. It's amazing how much information buys a Thyssen astounded by river via the that's right, so Wiki has a great website cognitive bias, there's like twenty or so well known by every person should be that this should be a course call Cognitive, biased one or one, not for your college. Every high school should have a course cognitive bias in the entire court should be about all the ways we fool ourselves. You think that science is so. It is to science the only point of the scientific method. Is to make sure you are not fooled into thinking that something is true that is not or thinking there Something is not true. That is. That is the only point of view
Four decided met could be anything you invent just take better notes. Take it recorder I'll be more awake. Next time you take the data, bring a friend to observe it with you whenever it takes to minimize the chances that you will miss interpret what you're looking at so that you don't Something is true that is not or think something is not true that is, do whatever it takes to support that that mission statement, that's what the sight of method is and that's what we do with scientists and that's why we you bring All of these things that people do totally strategy in the crystal healers any and who the the the the court therapeutic people are dominated of embryos. That's real right! Now! That's really! You don't understand that vehicles are Lila, I'm an intuitive vetoes on and on and on and on, and these are the things
the sale in the double boy, science. Anybody do double blind sodium fool yourself into thinking. Something is true. That's why, you do double bind. If you doubt and you want something to eat you, even if you, even if you surprise me something that might have been true that you are again announced still, you need. Someone also check it an end, but you all get it and emergent scientific truth. When you have agreement among different peoples, experiments So, even if you get a result that you are happy with that, it is not yet a scientific truth until you, and confirm it by other people who have no one. Estimate in you who don't care in fact, we try to show that you're wrong this, made Einstein so great cause, we believe this relativity and kept devising ever more accurate experiments to show he was wrong and it showing that he was right by ever higher precision do Think that we're doing ourselves a disservice by not teaching people how the mind works, how confirmation by employers and in
it is. You should naturally warnings in school, I'm workin on what are you know? You're, not a few years are going to have some, but I wouldn't busy my kids go right now is. Excuse me I clear then, that I understand, but I'm willing to discuss it, because I think it took me when we come to include an entire course on cognitive buys. Yes, if we are going to emerge as adults longer susceptible to charlatans. Yes, ok, who are either well meaning and just misguided or who are explicitly exploiting your ignorance and in its a major factor in our culture, a major factor when it comes to politicians dry, just factor when it comes to bosses. It's a major fact, when it comes to how you choose what you do for a living. I also human interact, lyin human interaction with accurate, so I mean we are constantly trying to manipulating control other people's biases behaviors. The way they
the way they act and were very vulnerable in some senses, because it's not something is taught to us at an early age. You know, and I think that we work It takes a long time to figure it out on your own and often thought like men. Why wasn't I explained this when I was young, because the curriculum wasn't did wasn't thinking about that terrible whirling can about giving people fact? Yes, it teach them how to think in the land or your mind is this vessel into which you poor infirmity? and and nowhere and at no time or we trained how to turn a fact into knowledge knowledge into wisdom and wisdom into inside. I think that full sequence needs to be in there in the academic system k through twelve thirteen through sixteen, what are you a college. It's gotta be in there somewhere without it you just this vessel effects, even if you and even the people we call smart,
in class. These people get aids on everything and they know everything, but do they have the deepest insight? Are they Do they really understand what it is that their putting back on the test? I don't think all of them do. I think they have good short term memory some of them and they do well and exams because of that fact acquiring data and maintaining in a corner. Information and then bring it back on command not all summer. Deep thinkers and up and want to take that away from them. I'm saying is that the correct my think, needs these other dimensions of of survival. Really it is its survival in a world when a scientist says this is true, you can ask what why do you think? That's true exercise, some! healthy scepticism. I will have a problem with that say because of look at this effort do. You know how to read evidenced by the way and look at this ever look at this chart. Look at this the experiment, and this is why we conclude overwhelmingly that this is going
it happened in our future. Ah you pointy headed scientists. What are you know Do I give me my cell phone? So I call my grandmother used gps satellites to took no one to make a left turn right right. I'm gonna call my astrologers totality scientists. Don't they got their head up there at record, so well, think also would be really beneficial to teach people how to manage perspective and how, look at you know look at life in a way that can be beneficial to you word really give our name any more, to manage the mind like philosophy but little philosophy, class of the shore, but maybe even philosophy. Now flustered we as various our air, the philosophy of lot. You know just how do you think about decision. Making now and the causes and effects and consequences, does not an
for that either, knowing that relying on that happened at home, but not all homes or are intact, Brian effect, perhaps most or broken homes or separated homes, and so I think the school systems school needs to be rethought and I'm trying to think this through we feel more years while anytime, you talk about alternative schooling, people look at you Lex you're, some sort of a hippie freak wants you, kids de granola mountains and in their own spring water. Let's that's what they think of an alternative schooling right off trade him at home, and good luck. It's just you say homes going all your religious, not we nets. Let's immediately open ocean fastest growing sector of the home school, they don't want you loud your head. Well, that evolution talk very different. That can have a guy if ever sat down that no one will know. Has a middle night debated him. I can't debate but that's not what I do understand do I just can't do it? It's not what I think I am an educator and owing to educate you, so you re think for yourself but
go away. That's it debates, when implies that, whoever ever is most convincing, is correct right, that's not how knowledge works right solution which charisma involved, not how now, whatever charisma level, I have not have I don't want to hinge what is true on that fact. Right right oh I'm an educator. I will. I will teach you the causes and effects of what science, knowing what science is and how white work, which is why its critical they continue to criticise science fiction movies. It's very our don't go back off now, It is a lot of people. They would know that chinese space station is no representation her hair, remove it all over the play, Harrowby everywhere at my favorite, wanted remember. When he's at the end of a tether, She's runs to save him, but budget have oxygen to do it, so he let go of the tether and that way she can't save him before she can save yourself, and he
Any flies away like no they're like flies. Putting in place there. He lets The tethered just stays there and it doesn't. He ll be right. There would be righted nothing. Let's go. Nothing happened when building a bunch equal now, if he, if she were sway in Heaven circles any like oh yeah, I offered attention, but that's not what was happening right nor were they rotating I've checked the what they were relative to earth below them. Not what was going on so don't. She couldn't just give a slight tug and then he would a drift towards that could have even been a little romantic, a little baby tat, maybe talk would do it. They were slowly drawers want to know where their helmets would hit you now and then they we met on and how must break and they'll be freezing it. Instantly right when you say that its Africa powers that too and freeze to death right but movie nailed there was one movie. What space you know you over there. While there was people, what you'd like explode in space? No, no, no. I mean
they want you to free salad, to instil right now. Just now, there's an even in wasn't Armageddon where the sun rose over this over the over the comment and You have adviser, DOW blinded by design. It's like this son in our data Skype atmosphere does in protecting anyone, the earth's atmosphere it takes out. You know a few percent I know you're a few percent boy bring the middle say just why daylight at the top of the sky TV, statistically, a few percent now get more uv, you'll get more uv. That's important get alarm brown yet, but Europe ass in space is nowhere near a spectacular as movies would have you think, do they make it seem. He would take that home at all stages of immediately freeze area. Nano I mean you can go into Varick. What happens is there's no thing, making you cold. Then you radiating heat from your skin. She always as cold as quickly,
you can radiate away here. That's all! we take quite a while you. No air seed, suffocate quicker, you'd suffocate, oh yeah, he's long before you saw anything anything like that have so, so just think about. There's nothing touching you! That's me, You called it has to wait for you You two radiated away. That's what's happening. And so that so yeah yeah you're, very cold very quickly, but you're not gonna die from that fast. When Stephen hawking avoidable. Yours have dissolve gases in your body which will try to come because it in in in the vacuum of space. You dont have the air pressure tamping the dissolve gas, so you take away the air pressure than the dissolve will begin to bubble out of your blood
same problem with when you have the bends. When you come from low altitude right and you go to less surprising around and poisoning a night, so you want to do that slowly, so that there is something but the hazards. But then why would you be but naked in space and we even have a spacesuit on satellites one want to prove they could do so like what is it in two thousand want to space ought to see. They basically did a right. The guy, without his helmet, went through the airlock, held his breath ok, How will that that's way more reasonable look, reasonable movie, there was second movie that had real advisers daily cubic? Well, he was a really interesting guy took as he was a mathematician standing. Can I do know that another, but I knew he cared about that level of detail. He's too complex methods for fun, so there's a there's, a there's, a failed metaphysics in two thousand when you want to go out there when they target among onslaughts nuts then a model which was a so remember when he's he's on one of the moon
after these orbiting the moon and they give him food There's a tray of nasty food, obviously like astronaut food member this night. Sixty eight, so everything here is a visual, the taste of the future. So he has another packet where he extends a straw from that plastic packet. Ok, oh, there is excellent and again the good photo you good your boys, good right here? Ok, there is so he sucks up the straw and this isn't 0g to of stuff is flooding what he suck up a straw. Then to another straw and the law put in a straw goes back down is that's. A factor here totally so that one, obviously you can't get everything right, but it's. To notice the things he couldn't get right didn't think to get right, So to me. It's a celebration. Here's another one! Ok there rotation rate of the space station. I calculated that
Calculated. What Gee force. Would you have on the outer per, of the space station in two thousand and one- and I did the math- and I forgot the exact number something like between two and three Jeez: that's Why would you do that? That stupid? You wouldn't do that and I realized if they rotated at the rate that we give you one g who be way too slow to make an interesting scene, so I gave it to him, as I give you three g's because the Strauss walls as the thing turns, and the space shuttle that's approaching it matches, rotation rate with the opening in the center of the space station. This huh, bow lay this entire. Ballet wireless collagen happens at Us we but real pace? Ok, but that pays gives him a three g three jeez of gravity such three acts. The correct pay,
the correct patient information. It's maybe two and a half, but I forgot the number, but it's it's multiples too, So let s look at us. I let him do it, it's it's! So I'm not going to ride. I get that artistic like that. More twenty and licence where he says. First get your facts straight, then start them at your leisure. That is what I'm holding artists to so now, when you are looking at a space station like therein zero when their in space station. No there are in one g on the edge of the space station, the edge the ongoing turning edge yeah. That's all I mean that thing, so I got real Sebaste Asia thing up our space. Let us all sorts of zero GI here right now, it's about. It is positive synergy because it is in freefall towards earth so costly, and for well, but it's just going around the it's free falters earth, but it's going sideways so fast. That mounted. It has fallen, equals precise
firstly, the span of the curvature of the earth is that more proof of the earth is wrong. If you have physics wanna one yet is it possible that generate gravity we're in a space station I'll go with rotated rotational gravity its assent? Russian, let him go according to Einstein, their indistinct, with one another, so you can do it so there it is possible to do something where you can send people into deep space and generate ground Through some survey rotation to at least two ways, one other news rotated and all the goods. I movies have rotating sections of a space station right right and some have rotating opposite ways, so that they can spend up against one another right and, So there's some clever ideas out there with space station of the future for longer just is. I had Commander Hadfield on the part of the king back some space and was talking about scruciating difficulty. He had readjusting to gravity
being in a zero gravity environment for so long to show off because you'd, like certain record for using that wasn't like six months, it was a long time usually show you I couldn't. I couldn't handle life with you loading earth people. He was talking about his body like it took like over a year before his bone density came back and well. This is partly addressed in the field the Though the martian kid he's born on Mars comes to earth which ones born on Maria kid born on Mars, I'm not a research! This like now What's the name of the movie, its recent Yo Yo Yo this the space between us and what the hell's that you're gonna get out more, do I do That's! So this is a martian colony, the where the first community, What movies this came out of comments ago? Really, oh my gosh, oh yeah man, so that there this out on Itunes you're, so that's the martian colony and one of the female astronauts they send.
That one there happens to be they learn, is pregnant and they can bring her back, and so they she gives birth on Mars. The first person who as ever, born on Mars and nay than they keep it. A secret of any comes back as a teenager. The falls in love, see, there's the fetus, so so any how he is a hard time on earth, because his heart develop in March and gravity, which is only thirty, eight percent of gravity, why on earth he just couldn t there too, you know forgot what to do with you better Mars. The kid was born on Mars. Hooker dont speak Let me Jamie that's why the idea, so where we were with gravity? Yes, always rotated up another ways if he headed somewhere right. I just have a huge fuel tank and just always run near rockets.
When you add precisely that sovereignty there at one g o, my god, you hit near the speed of light very quickly. Woe, oh my! I mean I forget what is it in a calculated, but it's it's! The have to have so much fuel or on something you knew you filling stations are route disorder. The end, if you do this, you viewed wait! One g halfway there turn the spaceship around. They knew decelerated one g for the other half of the trips. When you get there, you're not whizzing past it in a fly by There we have won whole trip. That's how you do that why so? The momentum, airborne you'd, precisely the new accelerated there at one g o, my god, you hit near the speed of light very quickly Well, ok, I mean I forgot what it in a calculated, but it's it's the acceleration of great earth gravity, if you actually their fast. That's that's head snapping now what
they have to have some sort of a crazy propulsion system in order to do something along those lines. How fast, where one g get you there yeah. So while one He would take one layer lost the distance in light years. Proximate Centauri four point two light years, for example, would take five point two years so that since in light years plus a year, why x or one g? So that's that's that's so that gets you basically twenty twenty five percent, the speed of light. What happens if you just run into stuff on the way I got his stuff out. There is not a giant issue and didn't Mars. Law of the sea is actually quite empty, but if you do hit something this, and of everything. So it's it's a low risk. High consequence thing you gotta put in place now? How much of a risk is the space junk that we ve left in the environment? We restarted we'll freaking out the only about how many weaknesses are up there. We got so there's countless thousands of bits of space jumped from ships or paint that fell off. Who does belts
bolts, nails and Rachel Ryan Mister rosier? That's all it's all up there and I'm and I'm wondering whether we haven't been visited by aliens act as I saw the space junk orbiting earth ass. If forget that going to visit some other planning risk my life, clearly short sighted approach to space travel so get her out of the Knesset. Orbital debris office website can actually see the red at NASA tracking basic most in real time, it's crazy Georgie rest and it's like a beehive around the earth. So you got you out there. It is that's the debris around the earth that accurate asked that NASA tracks and as yet EL japanese experiment to try to find that out a ring that you see. That's the the attitude of GEO Synchronous, satellites and that inert enough there's that should be the should be a video of that fine just for you go to the bottom right good about em right right. There click on that play a video thought, a video
Wasn't that a video I'm sure there is a video somewhere gathers of any on that site? so you can just see the movement of these pieces and it's it's? A launch windows have to know when to not hit stuff, so wit when what was not just is everything aligned right. Is Care will you successfully get past the debris and the Japanese. They need an experiment, tragic I'm sure it with nets recent mon, yet I had so didn't worn yeah, so problem is the low orbit. Stuff will eventually be fallen and burn up the higher more simple, never go away, does nothing to destroy it, and so they can't capture that stuff Well, you need a very clever, decisive to stop moving eighteen thousand miles an hour. So what's your name, just what are you doing that so great the Bali I realise, the video I got go higher as on shore,
There's a noted IRA. That's ten eighty knows from NASA Japan from ok somebody s, but that's that's! The guy so all that's. That's debris that you're looking at the half so yet. So your concern for debris as well placed, and we may we may be putting so much debris in space that we close ourselves off from space travel the dangers it would take to get through our own garbage heap crazy, and this is all started in the nineteen forties. Nineteen fifties like one of those shoot stuff up there? No nineteen fifty sputnik here that was the first satellite for anything else anything in orbit God in that short amount of time. New, that's crazy. It's like it's like dumpster,
sixty years planetary, the ruin all thank ruler, Hofer for billions of years. Sixty years they filled it with Jack. That's another younger! Ah, my car. That's tariff going around the earth. Oh my god Oh my god, and is anybody ever hit anything while trying to do something? Well, So what exacerbates it? Is your man in China. When was this eighteen from two thousand and four two thousand and three China. Freud one of its own satellites. Yeah? I was out about orbit. I remember somebody yeah yeah and they basic Glee did a kinetic, kill on satellite, so Connecticut river. Those don't know is you don't need explosives if the speed of the projectile and its kinetic energy is higher than the energy that would be an explosive shall itself So a fascinating Kaliko.
Patient to make. So so here it is so Have this delivery system with a warhead and I put bomb device in the warhead, and you calculate how much energy that is then I said and it hits and blow something up suppose I send this thing really really fast really really really fast, I can catch how much kinetic energy this thing has, there will be a point I give it so much kinetic energy the. Energy is greater than the Chemical Energy of the conventional explosive that I put in the warhead. Like Shoemaker, leave what were at, for example, I give a terrestrial example like it so it's what you call a high speed collision, this more than a bargain for this. In our time, together by, we tell you now again ready perfect The argument for the long, time that
craters on the moon, work cow Darras from volcanoes and not asteroid, impacts the geologist argue strenuously these key and be asteroid impacts. There's gotta be called errors, the thousand craters on them and who? Why? Because everyone is a perfect circle? and if asteroids are coming from space, they would come from all angles. And if you come and at a shallow angle, you get an oval, and even shower, be more overshoot of a whole range of circles and ovals and ellipses, and if you don't see it, they must be called Darras. It was not explaining how there is embarking all just about headings and it leads to create volcanic, greater Yellowstone. Yet yeah it's about its volcanic, greater! That's all and its additional, more poetic caldera. But it's it's a crater left by a volcano that has exploded like them
bomb was so big mountains gone and now it's just a big hole board or at the top of the mountain there's a crater at the top of the mountain crater Lake. That's that's all! hole in the top of the mountain? Was at once a volcano? I dunno, but it's a whole okay. So in the nineteen seventys we were able to do calculations with high speed computers with good computers, and what we found was if the object is moving faster. If the kinetic energy of the object is higher than the energy that holding the thing together. So, what's holding together a rock, the chemical connections of the Sorkin and the oxygen and I everyday than the iron. All everything is making the rock is holding it together. You can calculate how much energy he's holding it together and if it's gone for Five thousand models right that right down that number now
I send in the asteroid, with a kiss, Eric Energy higher than the end it is holding together on impact it explodes could that energy goes back into the rock, because the thing is in moving any more. We did the kinetic energy go. It takes a crater, number one by virtue of in all their energy back into the stone and that x below which it so on him even at an angle. It is a singular point explosion and that's why every single crater is a perfect circle. We call that a high speed impact with a speed is greater the energy the speed is greater than the energy that's holding together. Now you have experience in this case. Have you ever thought owners do this natural you they were in California. Sorry, snowballs snowball take a snow going too big they have told us nobler. It faces a barn
all and throw the snowball at it and it'll be it'll, make a little circular mark on it now, change your angle to the wall and throw us. Of all again it'll steelmaker. Small round mark and it'll keep doing it. You know why, because this with which you, through the snowball there energy is greater than the energy, this holding a snowball together, could hardly energy. Hardly any energy is holding a snowball together. It's just loosely pack snow. So when you do it against the wall, you see the snowball completely disappear in it in a meaning, snowball explosion. If you will this works for any comparison of projectiles speed and what we do the binding energy, the object itself. This is why the intercontinental ballistic missiles never carried conventional MC warhead because there speed! Coming out of this of spy. Because they leave the atmosphere go from.
Come into the other than they fall out of the sky, that speed gives them more kinetic energy than any conventional warhead would have had but there. We figured out how to make small nuclear warheads the nooks Now you talk and energy the kinetic energy of the icy. Be M is not higher than nuclear warhead that we now put it that's why all I see be aims are nukes Why do we reach a rocket based We didn't need an explosive warhead in its tip came out of the sky going five miles per second. There was none of this that that implies your hearing. The thing is coming in supersonic, Well, you sitting there at a cocktail table on a block in and the block is got these obliterated in then since you don't even know you didn't even know to look up. So that's the end we had an explosive anyway, but did they probably didn't need to
to go back to Shoemaker Levy. There was a comment that slammed into Jupiter no good Jupiters, aghast giant. You have always been confused as to what that means, most of its mass- is therefore a guess most of its values, ninety seven percent of as you, so when it Shoemaker Levy slammed into Jupiter and mills going so at last, the gashes. Miss fear was like it in a brick wall, wow, that's how fast it was moving, That's why the explosion was only go you're there. That's exactly so. It's slope of its kinetic energy that it had cut, put back into the object itself, because a slow down very quickly relative? to its speed relative to the so so here's this comment forgot how big Shoemaker leader was so, what goes into the atmosphere say, who isn't it clouds, and can I watch our fast is going you can ask the question over how much
since will it plough through its own mass worth of gas? That's it that's a question right right That's that supply that which mass out of the way doesn't it Wharton resist a forthright. So how much actress, that's a lot of atmosphere because its gas and this thing is solid. However, the thing is going. What fifteen twenty miles per second. Its falling into Jupiter at twenty mile. Whenever the speed was which way, monitoring and cover that much atmosphere action of a second. So it a fraction of a second eagle from twenty miles per second, two: zero routine. Any fraction of that speed. All that energy has to go some. It goes back into the system. It's a comment made of ices not held together very easily. The whole thing explode impact. There was another terrifying statistic that I read about the impact that hit the Yucatan and kill the dinosaurs that how
keep it had gone into the earth's surface within the first second thought: oh yeah, the Visa, These are numbers that are staggering once you calculate what they are I said if you come and fast enough, earth's atmosphere is a brick, might well be a brick wall to you. And by the way we go sixty miles an hour down the road roll down the window just stupid hand after where you to use muscle energy to not have your and your hand blown backwards against. Sixty miles an hour of air against your open palm, does try that next time, what kind of energy that requires than this sixty miles an hour. Now imagine five miles per second ten miles per second twenty miles per. Second, you toast. How deep did the Astor? that hit and killed the dinosaurs. How deep that thing going over. So what was that there was a hundred and fifty miles but a crater. Something like I forgot. The exact numbers so these are
There's a relationship between the death of a crater and the diameter and the mass of the thing, sir, no goes miles down. I mean it's! It's mile, Sawyer, oh yeah! Well, let me think earth rang familiar. What happens is that approach? Let me pull take back. I don't know if it's miles its, I think it was when I had read an ornament. The executive. What we actually know, there's gotta go miles out, because the thing is miles MILES is the the the asteroid. Self was the size of Mount Everest. So therefore associate five miles across so its deep? Not you just don't mess the bottom of the crater in Arizona called mediocre, for obvious reasons. Decades think. A sixty story. Building not even a mile across and now atonement equator more than a hundred miles across the together dinosaurs
The famous one in Arizona results in a sixty story. Building, if you, if you put dirt up to the remedy crater you can bear if sixty nine is no bad, an instance where you. This is your whole calculation about explosions and about the amount of energy that they were looking for. The wrong cereals that cause that crater correct ought to take mine correct they first thought is volcanic and that the geologists thought was volcanic again and the but ones I'll. Just in particular Eugene Shoemaker, who was to be on one of the lunar missions. Then he had like a heart murmuring they sent judgment to an end that was also geologists- turned you senator
from our own where's. He centre from I forgot, but I can you look that judgment wherever senator from forgive me for forgotten. I knew I am friends with them. I should note NASA judgement at Sea H, MIT, it's that there's no dna So let s go yes. I was right just in Mexico. I said I was on its into Mexico, so he but anyhow he say no. This is this is an impact greater about if it's any procurator. Why Where is the meteorite? It must be buried, here, and so they were minors. They were. They were there and minors who bought them. The land, so they can get this huge meteor that they were sure we're just sitting down there. They can mine for its natural resource that could not find the media that's because it hit at high speed velocity, whose a high velocity,
ACT which reaches collision. Energy was greater than the binding energy even of the iron Adams itself, and ninety percent of their thing, vaporized on impact, my brains there like there as well wow, you're, no iron, nor impressive! Even and I remember ok to pieces. That's that's nice low angle shot, so you get the shadows of the rim, that's in Arizona where wherein areas near Winslow Arizona where would that be near Sadly, one fly into sea that oh here it is, if you go to the Grand Canyon. Then you drive to this and it's a couple hours and hours: ok, is mere rather matters coming up and we're Grand Canyon, there's, meteor, crater and grant in Gaza, which is also in Arizona. Why is any support? You can drive that Sudan and canyon to through Flagstaff yeah. So
fly that? You just drive it and has Yelp reviews it's a curse, looking to highlight a five year review: crater! Look. Why doesn't have all the stars look? Note should have every guy. Damn starting point, nine million is big deal, Diego better myself, so this whole was this. This media crater was dug in, like you know, a few seconds this crater was made. Just and how many years Rosa fifty thousand years ago does not ultimately nothing while this probably some form of human living. Here then The early humans are none of their in North America. I say forty thousand is the most recent right yeah it does when they cross the bearing straight that's when it there it after, I am new to order cool, and I'm going back and you gotta get multiple times is a freaky which freaky about it. Is you walk up to you? Can't
see it because the rim of the crater, it just looks like a ridge, a ridge, fine, the rim It is raised above the plain of the area right because when you present It raises it up a bit, so you just walk up to it, and then you come up to the ledge. And, in fact, here is what this is. Nearly a mile diameter hole in the ground yet stunning to stunning encounter with the forces of nature and the fact that there are so many those particles just floating around out there. Go you not lammergeiers, not that's! That's how big was outlined yeah. That was a bow. Bout twenty yards across some you're. Not it's nothing! There's nothing! That's it! Twenty are maybe there between twenty and forty art twenty yards is assizes. Oh yeah, that's right from that garage
front. Do not make a kind of known yards wow! That's crazy! Right, let's not end there. The kind of thing they can get close enough, that you don't even see, and then it's too late. And I was like there's nothing really. You explained. That's not gonna make it. Extinct. What do I take a very bad day for a city? Yeah, ok, we'll sit. It's done and most likely the power grids Jack for a long time to right now. I want this letter detail now. You have ten more minutes, so I had to get the Stephen Hawking called out for you. Stephen hawking was talking about de the possibility live Alien life discovering us and that it would be a terrible, terrible thing if it did happen. If you look at what has happened to other primitive I forms, and we discovered I'm proud of cultures, and we discovered him do shit, That's an opinion that if something did find us, I don't have strong opinion on that question, but I have an analysis of his comment: ok
He is worried about the possibility of aliens, enslaving, us her. Based on the reality that we ve done that to ourselves. Yes, to think about that. His fear of aliens derives not from actual knowledge of aliens but from an actual knowledge of ourselves. Any time a more advanced civilization has come upon a let's. Have it technologically advanced civil? It did not bode well. The less advanced civilization, and it happened in North America, South America, North America, with with European South America, the spanish Australia with it with the Brits, ever bode well for the less technologically advanced civilization, his actual knowledge of that Lee It's him to suspect that aliens would be exactly the same,
I I'm not that sceptical. I don't Think all life forms in the universe have the bays. For I know violent attitude that we do as a species have not been given reason to think so. But don't you believe that things advance because of competition and competition forces things to be fairly ruthlessly. It has been argued that a few colonise, if you are civilization at colonizers, the galaxy that it's a self limiting exercise. Why, Because here you got ready, we start here on earth. Is you and me boy are right and you take them Why I take this planet, and now we have we have all that are just like us and we want more It's right. We reach a point where, expansion is not possible because we are working with ourselves to gain.
Territory that each other has obtained, so it has been. Argued sociologically that the very act of wanting to colonise this. Self limiting against sick, several colonization of the galaxy, please to colonise ideology, has to be done in an organised way. You take this sector, I take this sector I won't territory and I want it now and my it wanted. Now. I want that territory, not this one thing I want at all that kind of, two breeds violence, war into intergalactic war so it may be that the very and of civilization that could peace? fully colonise a galaxy is the kind of civilization that were colonise the galaxy it all woof, that's heavy, very heavy weather.
The idea that only advanced definitely comment about. So you another one he's got. He made another comment, but we should be my planet species without checked ourselves so an asteroid rendering one as instinct and makes it headline and sounds like it makes sense, but I'm not I'm not there with it. The course I wanted to backup, of course, let's be multiplied species mine, but but I will do it for different reasons. Have ducas it's cool, not because protect human at the human species from extinction? No, wouldn't be the reason to do it. Can I tell you why place Every reason why you think we go extinct, one we trash earth, another We can't live off of it anymore. Asteroid is coming through. Some now bought gone astray, ok pandemic and virus pandemic. Ok, so it seems to me that, if
one of your motor, a multi planet species Mars, would be the one cause. It's a twenty four hour day, Scott seasons where we would have a terror form at first, but then we all move their Hooty ship a bill. People there, here's my court, here's my point. Would every takes to tariff for Mars and ship a billion people there, it's gotta be easier to deflect the asteroid, whatever it takes to tariff for Mars, to turn it into earth. If you can power of GEO Engineering. To do that, then you have to. How're GEO Engineering to turn earth back into earth, but there are nationally and things that we mess right because of the way there. So so you so you say: ok, whatever it takes to GEO Engineer, Mars and ship a billion people, there is, to be easier to create a proof. Picked viral serum. That makes us immune to all possible disease. This
gotta be easier whatever. Takes what isn't it possible that there are some asteroids that we just will not see until it's too late? Then you put up with what over their tanks. Look honey, I whatever their time available or even ship a billion people. There have been a bit what why, of course, why wouldn't it be? We have set? for people air, what you wanted not submit your species right, ok and if an asteroid, is coming that you can't deflect, which would surprise me if you could ship a billion people to Mars. You just, let em all die. What what is it what's you plan to utilise all the earth people dying of Mars people survive, justly, can save this. We don't save everybody. I'm not by into the premise this cable car, ology premise that you have to save one to not save the other india. You know Your cable cardiology assumed the cable car
someone's tracks you let him do you let him go. You viewed steer it out of the way, but they knew actively kill two peoples, their path to the killing. One person. What do you do? I'm not buying into that premise for this question simply saying that whatever it takes It's gotta be easier to put up I'm kind of net that finds end asteroid they could possibly harm us in them out of the sky, does The media is the last question is: is it possible all that. The reason why we are never visited by extraterrestrials is because the way similar to those of the series of memories one is because the warehouses editions they have visited the the jury. Comecon. Nobody like high play costumes word is good. Is ours? Ok, three, three three: they observed us and judged
there is no sign of intelligent life on earth. Ok, but is there, but that another possibility that civilizations don't ever get to travel like that, because what tat is ass, they advanced and as our technology advances they become instead of a buyer magical entity seeking to spread its genetics throughout the universe. They become some sort of symbiotic artificial life that, as they create as they advanced their tech, algae and has continued to innovate. They reach a limitation in biology eventually create artificial life that sees no desire whatsoever to travel or interesting, So I would say that's a great philosophical question. I would say that the day, we create a I if the air I is everything we are, except more you're, not emotional, then if we have been urged to explore, maybe otherwise
That is not the wooden agreement, though, is the wars like an monsters and can start gone dimension dimensions that fucking around with Jack will, I hope so Jane here all right right right right right here they figure out the fourth dimension. There would not be the best way to do things in and they figured out, and then they would figure out a way to travel better than any way we could, but if the fact that we want to travel- and we could eating versions of ourselves called a. I I what it by Marie, why I wouldn't want to travel, but why would it be curious if a If it is only logical did then it's not well. If we create every Neuro Synaptic MOB Map right of our brain into silicon into a computer, and we create our consciousness as humans. The human brain but wouldn't humans rain. On your version of ay, I wouldn't be like an infinite version of HIV, or I could create itself. Could why would limit itself to Oliver emotions and sexual desires and jealousy and other predict,
those things that are holding us back, it could tour modest, fearsome away. I, as others are- I I you know when We're not gonna, make it a I'd. Looking human being cause, a human form is not the best were ideal form for any did you see Ex Mckenna? Yes, such love. Love is good. It was gonna love a good moment. You didn't love it now. She was good, I loved it and want to marry. You want to marry the first thing you as the sector by not even that is why they don't have. The money would be for sure for shown right yeah for sure, but I'm since, when my favorite movies I want to marry, the movies is also moving. So then, marriage or no one to be about sexual just worry about reproduction could just go to your room with well Sonny Boy, I'm hoping that that's one of the first things that people figure out they shouldn't do anymore. What they get smart enough to symbiotic. We attach themselves to artificial intelligence. I was watching those family feud. One of inventions was, if you're
We have one hundred married women If you can have a second husband for only one purpose. What would it be? So seventy percent of their it said, Jeff for sex, woe! Damn you haven't for only one purpose. Just just forget stuffed just just set so lets a fuckin. Wake up call for a lot of gap is that NATO, the Grass Thyssen Astrophysics for, people in a hurry hurry and thank you the logic of our text, appreciate. Ladies and gentlemen, what a mind blown podcast that was was not fun, guys, awesome, so happy. The people tat exist, so happy the heat he's such a enthusiastic educator and just it's so can too
you just we're talkin to you just want to just started. Reading shit and watch Videos on the stars, amazing amazing. I loved it thanks to keep my coffee for food when us, given us some other groovy carbonated products and even non cabinet approximate amazing hibiscus t drink its nitrogen hi biscuits to zero sugar, zero ramps, sugar, zero, grams of caffeine, no caffeine sugar, no calories, just awesome, delicious taste, in their profits out as one of the best gotta Caveman Coffee seo dot com is a code word Rogan and you could save ten percent thanks to on it good, oh Anne, I t use the code, Word Rogan and save ten percent off any and all supplements and thanks again to squares
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Transcript generated on 2020-03-12.