Four men in Congress—two from each party—helped determine whether President George W. Bush would be given the authority to invade Iraq. All of them were named Dick. Which of these Dicks scrutinized the case for war the most closely? And who was making obvious political calculations?
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Photograph from nine days after nine eleven George W Bush is hugging Senator Tom National, South Dakota Democrat, who was then the majority leader their surrounded by clapping congressmen and generals, and the two men are staring right at each other. It looks a dash of saying something: reassuring. The hug became a big deal, a sign that, after the terror attacks, politics was on hold. I hadn't been particularly close rose Bush before that
buzz, word, very disappointed with the way the Supreme Court has ruled on his election and so nine eleven change that, for a period of time and ad hoc reflected that change, you became close after nine eleven. Well, I don't off, we became clothes, but we came closer. Has minority leader Dick Gebhardt was having regular conversations with Bush to so are the top congressional Republicans Trent Lot and Denis hazard
They became known as the gang of five
the group started meeting every Tuesday morning at seven. A m
but she's just had fruit at those breakfast meetings since had already been up for a couple of hours. Trent laud would order the full chabannes eggs, grits, toast coffee juice one
story. I still vividly remembered to take our part didn't like to wear
a jacket ten. He usually carried it where it.
but he walked in the oval office war at one of these profession. President told him even in to put his jacket on two respectively, the office sender, and so did, of course, obliged.
Republicans and Democrats came together in ways that went beyond hugs and breakfast just three days after the towers fell
Congress voted on a request from Bush to authorize the use of military force
It was an unusual request because it didn't name a specific target.
was going to be an ongoing campaign against whoever had committed the terror attacks,
both ground zero. Still burning Congress didn't want to second guess the president. The exception was Barbara Lee House Democrat from California.
is not a good authorization, it was overly broad and I spoke in,
the democratic hawkers then I said look, this is sixty words and it says any president can use Boris forever. After Vietnam, Congress had passed the war powers ACT, they require.
the president to get authorization for military actions that lasted beyond sixty days, bushes new proposal
allow the president to get around the time constraints in the war powers act as long as he claimed he was combating terrorism. I then, oh, my goodness. This is really not good, because this set the stage for forever wars, perpetual wars, any president, can use for
any time any place anywhere. Congresswoman Lee remember sharing her concerns with her colleague, Eliza Cummings. The two of them talk on September four
the day, a nine eleven Memorial service was scheduled.
and the same day as the vote to authorize military action, I was drinking too
Graham S. Eighty larger, you know, I'm not go into the memorial service because I want to think through this come forward. In
What I'm going to do on this resolution, so I talked to a lot of people want to talk to more people, but something at the last minute told me to go to the memorial service and I ran down the steps of the Capitol ginger ale can, in my
and got on the bus and during the memorial service I listen to a lot of the eulogies and speeches and prayers, and so many of them and retaliation and we ve got to go to war as part.
what they were saying. This conflict was begun on the timing in terms of others.
It will end in a way
And at an hour of our choosing, Lee was disturbed by what she was hearing, but there was one
speech by the Reverend Nathan Baxter that moved her. Let us also pray,
divine wisdom, as our leaders consider the necessary actions for national security, wisdom of the grace of God that, as we act, we do not become the evil we deplore, and so when he said that that new,
that? Our voting, no, is the only option I had. President Bush's resolution passed in the House and Senate on the same day was introduced. Congresswoman Lee was the only person who voted against it and, after
I voted no and was the only one up there. I went back into the cloak room and several of my colleagues came back and but thought I had made a mistake. Others told me I needed to change the vote, because this was the end of my political career
and several told me that they knew I was going to let you know have some danger. Physically and people were gonna come after me and you did get tat tat right. Many
I don't. Even I cannot tell you what I got. It was ill so horrible for Barbara Lee, the political political
your nine eleven felt unwise and dangerous, but this
here. The bi partisanship would be brief soon enough
era of good feelings was over for every one of the first big politicized issue was giving the Department of Homeland Security a permanent spot in the cabinet ever was for it
Democrats and Republicans, but there is disagreement over one bit of language that would prevent employees from union icing Senate Democrats wanted to get rid of that part. Before voting on it
but the Republicans uses delay in voting to paint the Democrats as weak on national security, and then there is the question of Iraq.
the Bush administration, didn't want to ask Congress for permission to start another war in the summer of two thousand to report surface at the administration believed it didn't need to.
Now the president has said he will consult with Congress. Buddies made no promises to wait for congressional approval before deciding to act. John,
Bush White House thought Iraq was already covered by the vote. The previous September, that was
resolution that gave them permission to go after whoever had been responsible for the terror attacks. In other words, Barbara Lee
I fear that the authorization was too broad turned out to be justified, but that was a controversial red on the long. After all, article one section of the constitution gives Congress alone the power to
formally declare war and the Bush administration wasn't getting a lot of support from potential allies around the world. So the white has
luckily decided it needed to work with Congress administers
Hoped shoring up support at home would help convince United Nations to back an invasion in early September, two thousand to the White House
Ass Congress to pass a resolution authorizing an invasion of Iraq,
members of the administration, when on television and made them
most dramatic version of the case for war. That's the
smoking gun mushroom cloud case you heard about. In episode, three meanwhile Republicans
begun to politicized the grief of nine eleven, a party events, George Bush senior Adviser Car Rove, said Republican, should pay Democrats a soft on national security
and we can go to the country confidently on this issue, because Americans trust the Republican Party to do a better job of keeping our cue,
unities and our families safe in June, a democratic Senate staff are found a floppy desk in a partner, the White House that discontinue presentation laying out row strategy for beating the Democrats in the two thousand to mid term elections. One of the sides said focus on war and the economy. President Bush went out on the campaign trail in support of congressional republicans.
He took Carl Roads advice and his public appearances that summer and fall Rasa mushrooms widely american peoples. It
your vote for me, oh by the way on a matter of national security, I think I'm going away.
Somebody else come national who'd been hugged by the President a year before was outraged here. He is on the second floor that far
Pressure is quoted in the Washington Post this morning as saying that the Democratic Control Senate is not interested in the security of the american people, not interested in the security of the american people. That is,
outrage outbreak. We ought not politicize this war. We
not politicized the rhetoric about war and life, and so the Democrats were angry, but what would they do about it and how the republican colleagues press their own agenda
I'm going to tell you about four men in Congress to from each party who play a key
roles in determining whether George W Bush got what he wanted and whether the U S would go to war. All four of them were named Dick. This is
burn. I'm your host chlorine Malone,
lead up to the Iraq phone? How closely did Congress scrutinise the case for war? Did lawmakers vote on principle or in politics and in
I partisanship me mutual compromise or just like
the president do whatever he wanted.
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Gimme the second highest ranking house Republican, who is a Bush ally and conservatives. Conservative army likes to show a bit for issuing a big cowboy hat. He loved cutting taxes and
early August. Two thousand to Army was on the road in Iowa, something for a house candidate when he made some news. Dick army, not just a fellow conservative but also a fellow texan end. The number two republic in the House told reporters President Bush.
be better off leaving Saddam Hussein alone Redress
with all proper provocation. We will not have the support of what other nation states might otherwise do so he wasn't the hawkish kind of conservative
You didn't see the value in getting involved with something expensive overseas, especially if it didn't have to directly involve the United States. He was also planning to retire from the house at the end of his term, which meant that he didn't have to worry about the next.
Election, the Bush administration was mad, it wasn't,
just armies vote. They were concerned about a Texas conservative who didn't back
His war would give cover two Democrats and Republicans who didn't want to vote for it. They couldn't be accused of looking soft if a guy, like Dick Army was against Iraq invasion.
Armies, opposition to the warm and the whole vote might fail. President Bush tried to change
my mind. He invited army to talk in the White House, his cabinet room, then he flew him to Camp David to talk more army stood firm. Finally, at the end of it,
Amber with the vote just a couple of weeks away. The administration sentence
its own dang, Vice President Cheney.
Jenny, opened the briefing by saying
I know what I'm done. You will agree with me that this is the right course of action. He laid out
segment of the threat Iraq posed to the United States
in his presentation went much further than anything he said publicly and much
much further than anything. The CIA believed was possible. He claimed that Iraq was developing. A portable
miniaturized nuclear weapon. A suitcase nuke army got the message this
can gun would be a mushroom cloud unless he voted. Yes, after those meetings, Army stopped speaking out again,
the invasion. There would be no substantial conservative opposition to the war.
The Bush administration got its way lots of members of
Greece were willing to believe the administration when it said that war was necessary. Others were sceptical. Dick number two was against the invasion,
it's just that Senator Dick Durban,
a Democrat from Illinois
Urban was near the end of his first term. He was up
the election in the November two thousand to mid terms, but in a
relatively safe seat being in the Senate was Durbin's dream job back. Then he lived in a group house in Capitol Hill with other democratic congressman, including Senator Chuck Schumer. The place was sort of like a frat house. Durbin was in charge of killing. The rats was on the intelligence committee, which meant that he got to see the full classified picture of what the administration said about a rock. He was a disturbed.
Clumsiness of the evidence, and in particular you didn't see much proof that Iraq had an arsenal of WMD. There was some evidence of human cases which were being translated into some.
preparation for weapons of mass destruction and
Then there was a long debate about whether or not there was
reliable piece of evidence, but I
The conclusion that was the only tangible evidence that anybody had- and there was the question as to whether that was correct. I won T
committee hearing in early September, a staffer motion to Senator Durham
He leaned over me and he said,
they ve, never done national intelligence system and I civil. What is there any similar? It's almost requirement before you do anything signal
forget related to national security.
and they said they ve never done. A national intelligence estimate or an I e is a definitive summary of what the intelligence community thinks about a given issue
when policymakers want to know what's happening in some foreign country. They ask for an end. I e
the Bush administration hadn't, seen the need for a formal evaluation of Iraq's WMD. They thought they all
Ready had a clear enough picture. Durban didn't agree. He thought
the administration was moving too fast and you
them to do their due diligence. He wanted his colleagues to actually scrutinising and hell. He wanted that an I e here's Durban
Senate floor arguing that the administration needed to provide more evidence that an invasion was the only option if this administration camp,
produce a national intelligence estimate which comes to that same conclusion and frank
Those of us who have listened to the heavy
over the last several weeks will understand that when it comes to the evidence, there's something lacking Durban, not his way
The CIA agreed to do the energy, but there was a hitch. The White House was honest
last Sunday on Meat Press vice President Cheney indicated.
that the administration would like the Congress to vote on a wreck prior to adjourning this October,
Do you realize it's a matter of weeks weeks before we would be called on to make this momentous decision, because this is not we are talking about.
the president's words regime change, so George Tenant, the CIA director Ass, the entire
genes agencies to deliver in and I e in just nineteen days? This was a process that normally two months at least Durban was now
impressed can't really mobilise all the intelligence agencies is gonna issue is critical in its declaration of war,
the time frames. I suggested there
we're doing just what they had to do to put something on paper and moved forward in it.
Not a serious effort. It was
based on reliable
intelligent sources was not
kind of serious intelligence assessment that you would expect when we're making a national commitment involving
American lies in America. Treasure new report included a section titled key judgments. It said that Iraq had chemical and biological weapons plus illegal missile,
and that the country would probably have a nuke during this decade,
the intelligence agencies, recheck inclusion, here's Robert Draper the author of to start a war. He says,
all the incentives for this yea pointed in one direction. There figuring two things first of all
the Bush administration's already made up its mind like it or not, we're gonna go to war,
we. Saddam has probably got weapons anyway. So
We certainly don't wanna be wishy washy about this. If we save Amity he's got chemical weapons and many doesn't we don't really know for sure. Then the
Terry commanders may well send in
troops improperly outfit.
for the eventuality of a chemical weapons attack, and if there is a massacre of Americans
Jason. That blood will be on the hands of the intelligence community better there.
or to just go ahead and say they got chemical weapon
the producing lots of chemical weapons make up some number, which they did
Then I e wasn't totally one sided. There were flat out descent on key pieces of evidence and despite the top line, conclusion
There was no proof showing Iraq was close to getting a nuclear weapon, but me
that didn't matter Dick Durban was one of the few.
Elected officials to study the and I e in detail Senate staffers
made the maybe only six senators asked to see the classified document in full. The entire process ended up just
Enforcing when members of Congress were already inclined to do the people who are most sceptical of the intelligence, read the actual
document and got even more sceptical. The people.
Wanted to vote in favour of bushes war, could point to a shorter declassified white paper. That document was
more waited toward the intelligence of the administration favoured
and had no dissenting opinions. Nobody thought much pressure to change their mind. One more possible objection to passing the Iraq resolution was gone.
There were people in Congress who fell in the middle on Iraq, debate. People who may be didn't want to
President Bush a blank cheque from our third deck, a third way
the Bush administration. If it were up to them, they they would have just had.
Our resolution is said: the administration,
authorized to a war in Iraq for whatever purposes it deems necessary that stand dealer he was
legislative Director for Indiana Senator Richard Dick Luger.
Luger grew up in a soybean farm before becoming an eagle scout road, scholar and Navy officer, but she doesn't to heed run for president once and was a high ranking Republican and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Luger was a centrist with a reputation
for working across the aisle. The chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee was his pals Joe Biden, a democratic senator, who is also into bi partisanship.
two decided to work together on a bill for all the people in the Middle one
authorize the administration to go into Iraq with more restrictions, and the president was asking for the boy.
Luger Bell didn't allow for regime change as a goal. It said the prince
it could only go to war to makes it I'll get rid of his weapons and it required President Bush to ask for you and approval before invading. If he couldn't get it, you have to prove to Congress. At the WMD threat was so serious. It could only be handled with military force. We believe that we had potentially sixty votes for a vine, ludicrous
Lucian that it was the leading option. If you were on the fence about authorizing bushes war, you might
been drawn to the Biden Luger Bell
wouldn't be writing the president a blank cheque, but you also wouldn't look soft and threats to the United States. We had the power to sequence votes in a way that would give covered to the the Democrats, who did not want to go to war.
The idea was that they could vote for our resolution, even though it would have authorized the use of military force, but still had votes that would have proven that they were against the whole process. In addition to what they might might Saint statement knows Democrats but look concerned and cautious statesmen, like those especially helpful for Democrats were up for re election in the mid terms, Senator Tom Dash all the democratic majority leader believed that the Iraq vote was not just a matter of conscience who is also decision the head to reflect what the public want. It wasn't just a question what the right policy, but, but how do you defend yourself politically, when you ve got the overwhelming
priority of the american people and support the Bush administration's position and really putting pressure on their members of Congress to fall in line and to be is supportive of that policy is they could be Biden and Lugers team spent that's a timber trying to get senators to back their version of the Bell, the Democrats and Republicans on board and according to Biden, the private backing of Secretary of State Colin Powell
but there was powerful opposition dandler again. The Bush administration was doing everything it could to
find allies and to block what we were doing. I don't want to get a resolution which ties my hands
I'm not sure why members would like to
in the resolution, but will work with the members I'm carpentering get. Some data will be speaking with one voice here in the country and that's going to be important for the United Nations to hear that voice. It's going to be important for world here that Voice Biden Luger, probably wouldn't stop us from invading Iraq
but it might have thought him down and change the scope of the war. It was kind of a throwback bill, one an imagined this present
bush may move against Iraq under the same kind of terms. His father had was a building
seemed an invasion actually was about WMD. It was a bit
they got the Bush administration completely wrong. Still look
side believe they had a path to get their resolution passed. They just.
it is a little more time to get there, but it turned out they had a big roadblock in their way. A fourth dick, a Democrat with an entire
the different agenda. You cannot get this into politics and I feel very strongly about them. Remember Dick apart the
minority later he's, though
who put on his suit jacket when Bush asked him to use an ideologically flexible democrat from misery, and he was thinking elections Gebhardt was hoping. Democrats could take the house which would make him speaker, so he needed the other members of his cause to be a strong electoral footing. Gebhardt was also thinking about another race, the two thousand for presidential primary. Why again apology cache of software here I'll? Do the same action were in two thousand to Walter. Shapiro was applauded,
columnist for USA. Today, battered by from what the Democrats we do take care part John Kerry, Joe Liebermann. All these people were already charter, which were already running for president in everything but name.
Al Gore and Hillary Clinton were also concerned potential presidential candidates and everyone else was jockeying for position around them by the fall of two thousand to Gore had come out against the wall.
Clinton had said she wasn't running
but she had her eye unto doesn't it should-
influential hawk within the Party Robert Draper worked as a ghost writer for John Edwards in two thousand to enter
some three and I remember you, know the Edward saying to me: that's the way he could get to.
right of celery would be to say that
Saddam had nuclear capability, and
There was nothing in the intelligence to suggest that that was the case
but it is also abundantly clear: the Edwards
was not and assiduous reader of the intelligence, to say the least, and
I think that anything else was very, very attuned to what would position him correctly among the democratic field for two thousand, for we reach out to Edwards for comment that he didn't get back to us. Dick apart, like Edwards, probably saw a political advantage and looking tough on Iraq,
Gebhardt had a personal reason to worry about. His vote had been gunning for the presidency. The last time there is a resolution on whether to invade Iraq.
Nineteen anyone he'd voted against the Gulf WAR,
that invasion ended up being very popular. Remember Kepler was a politician who came of age during the nineteen eighties Democrats were
crushed by Republicans that decade, Blu Ray him years, were this role for him.
and he knew what he thought was the safe road for his members, which is, if bushes go to war against part, says how high
So while Joe Biden and Dick Luger were working hard in the Senate, Dick Gebhardt was making inroads with the White House here
Dick Luger Stafford Dan Diller, again the White House, and they were very up front about this, that the other they were working hard to construct. A coalition in favour of their version
but we do know that they were close in this way to Gebhardt Gebhardt talk to bushes team several times
and went to the CIA to hear from George Tenant about the intelligence. Here's Gebhardt describing the tenant meeting to me earlier this year,
Eliza doing George, I just gotta. Ask you, as directly as I can, is it you're honest conclusion that Iraq, Sudan,
Hussein is pulling together. The basic elements needed to make a nuclear device
and I said I'm just asking you one on one and I want to know your rock bottom, honest opinion. Any said: absolutely it turned out to be
so true, but all you can do what you can do
it is what it is. Is S Gebhardt cut a deal with the White House for different Iraq resolution
pretty much behind Biden and Lugers backs
says now that he tried to get more concessions from Bush, but
administration. Just wasn't going for it. Many in the Senate.
Here were also in disagreement with what I was saying and doing I Alaska discussions with Tom Dazzle
He was trying to put some language,
I don't remember the tenor of it into the resolution
but we we couldn't get that done with with the Bush people.
As I remember it, we couldn't put it together as national wanted it to be put together
the resolution. Gebhardt sponsored was more or less than one. The Bush administration wanted all along the blank cheque. Dandler again, once the referee Gebhardt showed up
at the White House the ballgame was over. They have demonstrated that they had the votes, and then it was a complete surprise to us when it happened. The white has announced the deal gap, part in a press conference of the Rose garden on October. Second, the
by partisan, showed up a lot in the speeches, even if it always seem to mean that President Bush was getting his way tax to buy more of our by partisan rose,
position is clear and it
Strong statement of support from the Congress will show to France
an enemy alike, the resolve of the United States? How speaker Dennis hazard also said by partisan, there's a bipartisan agreement? The resolution does not tie the presence hands it gives inflexibility needs to get the job done so did dick at partly in response to the president's desire for congressional support and in keeping with our constitutional responsibilities. I have worked to draft resolution
that reflects the views of a large by partisan segment of Congress. Nearly all of the congressional leadership is there, but Tom Dash decided not to go dashes still toxic, an old fashioned senator he's polite and collegial. But if you read between the lines you can tell he was hissed about this whole Gebhardt deal. I just felt uncomfortable ya goin I didn't go because I I wasn't in the same position as Dick was right. I had many mixed feelings and misgivings about that approach, and so I
there I didn't show up. I wasn't there and I dont think any of our democratic senators were their job.
and was also mad here, he is talking to press after the rose garden event.
The straight honest answer: is it's probably too late with me here this morning,
I can't you do you know, I don't know, I don't know how it's gonna work. Dick up heart told me
It was nothing political about the deal he at the White House with any one sort of saying to you back in two thousand to hay it'd, be
smart to position yourself, one way or the other. You know in advance of this two thousand foreign, no one so that you ever there
no idea running in two thousand. For then, I was just
trying to do my job as best I could do it.
the evidence suggests this. May not
totally true by then Gebhardt
had already met with a political strategist about the presidential race. In an email Gebhardt told us,
doesn't remember this meeting, but if it had taken place
believes it would have been after the two thousand to mid term elections, either way get parts deal close off the possibility of raining Bush
It was all over
so going into the vote. There were three decks who had been potential obstacles to the Bush administration, Dick Army, the Texas conservative, had been convinced to back the war. Dick Durban, who requested the intelligence report, hope the lack of evidence would convince people to vote against the invasion it didn't and Dick Luger. The senator, who tried to find a compromise approach alongside Joe Biden, had been betrayed by the fourth Dick Dick apart Tom Dash had supported the Biden Luger compromise. He wasn't hugely enthusiastic about the war, but he also believe it cinemas a threat and he didn't want. His party kaluza Senate dash had to decide how
vote and what signal to send his fellow democrats about what to do. I felt the need to make a decision well ahead of the bow, because I was getting asked almost daily life back. I was being ass, daily work. What my position was the night. I felt that term. There is important from a carcass point of view not to read the fence. Here is a very, very close call for me. Dassault decided
what the bell to give Bush the blank cheque. This resolution gives the president the authority he needs to confront the threat posed by Iraq. It is neither
democratic resolution or a republic.
resolution, it is now
A statement of american resolve and values are carcass. Was
bitterly divided. It was very emotional I know from,
we view this resolution is not what you want and it's true
for Democrats in some Republicans
in some ways. It's true for me. Coming
devoted in the very early hours of October, eleven in the
The resolution passed the house to ninety six to one thirty, three dig army and
Gebhardt were among those who voted yes, a
free of Democrats voted against it
cutting barbarously of California.
Mrs big arise today and opposition to this resolution authorizing a unilateral first strike against Iraq,
an action, could destabilize the Middle EAST and south
an international precedent that could come back to
on us all.
The resolution passed in the Senate seventy seven to twenty three
Only one republican senator voted against it. Lincoln chief,
He would later leave the Republican Party, even Dick Luger and Joe Biden voted for it. After all that effort to find it,
way the leader in the house reach an agreement first, I thought that was unfortunate because I believe we could have had a better resin.
She had that not occur, but nonetheless, in contrast to the house, more democratic senator is voted for the invasion than against it. Almost all the democratic presidential hopefuls John Kerry John outwards Dick apart, voted for it Walter Shapiro, almost every Democrat could convince themselves that they were either
doing it to help negotiations, or this was the right thing to stand up to terrorism or that this was the right thing for their own political survival
Dick Durban, who'd asked for the National Intelligence estimate was one of the two
to democratic senators who voted against the resolution.
I've, never heard any of the twenty two say we made a mistake, but it certainly heard plenty of the others. On the democratic side said most Congress. People will tell you now that the Iraq vote wasn't about.
politics at all. Then it was a true vote of conscience or a vote based on the intelligence at the time, and that's probably true for some of them, for others not
much Walter Shapiro remembers one moment from around the time of the vote here. I am
centre by hand runs,
into a member of the house who is publicly against the war
and the centre says to me off the record as
the House member, whose against the war,
you're. So embarrassing me by going ass, well ass, it was I have to do this for political survival, but I know it's the wrong thing to do. No one
who met that they voted to go to war because they wanted to get reelected, but the reality is most people. Unclose races voted to authorize the invasion. Do not look week to support a popular president. Three quarters of house members and close races voted in favour of the war and twenty of the twenty two democratic senators who voted against the war were not up for reelection. The case of Senator Paul Well Stone is a striking hunter example, whilst homeless,
We re election campaign in Minnesota stated necessarily support is anti war views well Stone voted no in the Iraq resolution. I'd like to thank my staff
for never trying one time to influence me to make any other decision. Then what I honestly and truthfully believe is right for the state I represent Minnesota and for my country,
and for the world that my children and my grandchildren live in Dick Durban was one of well stones. Confidence,
I remember most of all after the vote it was-
it could have been two o clock in the morning.
For some reason I didn't leave,
in their dinner in well of the Senate. After the vote had been announced, and there were three of us can convert
Paul, whilst myself in this.
Paul well Stone
This doesn't cost to the election
voted knows I had,
and he said to me it's all right.
Does he said
it'll Minnesota know who I am. They know where I believe in it
This boy, it's all about the Paul Wollstone test case- never happened on October, twenty fifth ten days before them in terms he died in a plane crash Walter Shapiro. His final word to me were, I have to be who I am.
air, with both good political. Advise Adam was a reminder that so many Democrats were not who there were Gebhardt launched his exploratory campaign for President January two thousand three two months before the Iraq invasion. He drops out a year later after a poor performance in the eye
the Caucasus? In retrospect? I'm sorry that I sponsored the resolution. I am sorry that I voted for it.
please. The intelligence was faulty and the whole area
was thoroughly run after the invasion
and there I mean, there's a lot to be critical of, but when I go back to the basic decision.
I was doing what I thought was the best thing to do, and what was the right thing to do as best I can figure it out.
the two thousand to authorization of military force is still in effect.
Obama used it as a justification for going after ISIS present.
tromp cited it in an air strike against an iranian leader? It wasn't worth it literally for the Democrats to back bushes war,
Usually the mid term. Elections tend to swing toward the party that doesn't hold the presidency, but in two thousand to the Republicans kept the house and took the Senate. I asked ass all what would have happened if those elections had gone differently. Do you think, if the mid term to turn out well for the democratic theme,
duration could have or would have kept going forward into war just a few months later, or was it just a fait accompli already thinkers of fait accompli? I think they were
determined to do wherever they had to and having said that, obviously we still have the power, the person we have, the bears the Congo.
send down. We would have had laboratory oversight and delight
why investigative ability, but that was
asked when we lost in Georgia
President Bush now had the authorization he wanted, with the support of both houses of Congress and politicians from both parties. Theoretically,
the White House hadn't decided to go into Iraq, yet
ministrations at the congressional vote. Just gave them an option, but dash all didn't have any doubts about what was coming. He spent a lot of time with Bush and he understood how the president's mind worked. Oftentimes was unclear what he wants to do. You just was cleared.
I'm so Baron Karbala Colin Powell and the CIA officer, no one would listen to question. Wasn't, as this makes sense in question, was, could this work we didn't have any of the background of the sky wouldn't noticing about his living conditions? I call them
No one would listen to the question. Wasn't, as this makes sense in question was, could this work we didn't happen?
The background of this guy wouldn't know anything about as living conditions. I called upstairs and said: did you sky see that you shouldn't have used that
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Transcript generated on 2021-08-09.