« StarTalk Radio

Celebrating Einstein

2018-03-09 | 🔗
Join Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and astrophysicist Janna Levin as they celebrate the life and achievements of Albert Einstein and his impact on the scientific world around us including the detection of gravitational waves at LIGO.NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/celebrating-einstein/Credit: Ferdinand Schmutzer, Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free, welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Dartle begin right now. This is start talks on your home, near the grass taking your personal astrophysicist, and I go with me jack go ahead, Hawaii about getting at Jackknife comic because our yes, you have to tell people that you're funny, so that a laugh at your tweet Otherwise, how would they know so check? No one. The fan of Albert Einstein, that is true, is like the modern icon of what it is to be smart,
he's also somebody that he's so smart that people use him as the singular example of being smart and his name is an adjective right, we're already, which some cut Einstein. You know what he said about himself and you haven't introduced you yet Jana. Damage of Boston em like like an impatient warm up my homey here and now you gotta bus. I sent you busted in an eleven always good to have you and star talk. I've got to be one of our start. All stars now you like hosting your own PBS, so shows staff will hopefully not black holes. Are I pretended my evil? Tat was Jack, I'm black holes Joanna was working man with all kinds of space suits high tech cd, This is an stiletto because he needs to let us have a space suit, it s very cool because all spacesuit or shiny, because apparently stars are brighter in the future and reflect the sunlight.
You guys are talking about signing closest to levels. If you did aroused man has selling its work and its work. So so gentle you're, a professor of physics, said Bernard in Colombia, and so thanks for coming in for this, so that to be here to help us sort of. I know a little bit about Einstein's, but it's a subset of what you know about Einstein and that's why we got I really wanted to give my answer and crypto about the adjective of Einstein. Told me what do you say it is said about itself when I was a student I was. No Einstein really say that I don't know I do here the legend here and now, Google Man and see if it's a verifiable quote. You written a couple of books and what's listed here, does not include that book, but I want to mention it anyway, how the universe, gotta spots and very nice very, very rude. Ukip Larry interview- yes, yes, definitely reference to how the leopard got his
it definitely and also most recently, black hole believe compounds as it better than in any other eyes outer space. I hope a fan of the blue down doesn't what was that book about just broadly, so the book really fall as the recent announcement of the gravitational waves protection from the clear two black holes, but it proceeds the detection. So the story is really about the climbing Mt Everest aspect of embarking on a very long term, scientific experiment that may or may not succeed and so called black hoboes. Because re who won the Nobel Prize? and twenty seventeen on with Kip Thorn in very bearish, said to me Thirdly, the month before the detection fifty years into this endeavour, if we want to detect black holes, he said this whole things a failure, but then I know we don't have to worry about that, because
didn't have no way, but we re also Atley came out to be what it will lag. Oh that's! What I'm talking about there is interesting isolated. Italy's aiming at once spoke cage pics, permanent was them. We will you have to think, though, about the prospect of failure fifty years into an experiment that has a lot of negativity against it, even from other accomplished. It is in that this is something we dont understand about sciences at the risk of failure. If you're not really risking beg you're, not out there enough, so it's it's think bigger go home. Yet so Albert Einstein was born. In Germany on March, fourteenth, eighteen, seventy, nine and Chuck. You know a day that it.
Eighteen, seventy nine March fourteen March Fourteenth year in any here. What day of the year is March fourteen, I believe it's the day that precedes the eyes of March. When what is March fourteen, I really don't know before the age of more there's payday. Oh my god, it's ok! I didn't know it was actually March. Fourteen, of course, that makes point says point three, three one for one for your part of March Fourteenth when written into the american way, where we put the month before the day of the month right mixing zones, point one for despite it, then he get really geeky and then add one. Fifty nine by three point, one for one: five, one, fifty nine and twenty six seconds right, you're Fulla pipe pie moment can I just suggested: that's probably the access to every physics department
the workload bed. That's the one two three four or five years ago, you walk up to a sealed theoretical, for depart Magpie three pride by one five. If you compare your words tomorrow, the missiles gotten hunched rehab because yeah yeah, so its list? Let's talk about this so Jenna have what is there and its mirror bow sir, and why- and why are we even say that Latin, by welcome what you said in English his miracle year in its vote I don't know. Why do we say in Latin? That's a different question was whether miracle here in Amerika Journey beak. Nineteen o five hundred and five Aren't you know fine policy, twenty five to twenty I'm so Einstein was a clerk in a patent office, and he and get a job in Physics Department, his father,
was desperately writing to famous theoretical physicist saying you know my son's really committed there are good, get hired one of his professors called him. A lazy dog Annie here. He is in this patent office in Burn Switzerland, and he has a drawer at his desk that he calls the physics department and in this drawer he had These scientific papers he's working on in between finessing other people's patents to make them better, and in that year he has this extraordinary year, where he publishes a series of three papers that absolutely transform modern physics. One of them is on the special here. Relativity. One of them is on Brownian motion which refers to the atomic aspect of air and molecules like if you see a little
the violent you notice that it takes us exactly parenting, that's because it's all these molecules, atoms and on the photo electric, a fact which is staggering, because it it it probes. The wave particle duality of light that sometimes light acts like a wave and sometimes it s like a particle of his work. I was twenty six yeah struck out cold and unemployed over I'm twenty two little time. I got time for verifying, so I do collar and as mere rebellious, ideally saying- and I am because it was all in german- hinted at get him a job Well, he became heap. He did become too to the credit of the scientific community. Even if this outside or was publishing these papers, it was very swiftly accepted the significance of all these papers very swiftly, and that should also be a lesson to the many people who semi their theory that, when their transparently correct they are grabbed ad
amazing mine, blowing earthshaking scientific research was published in legitimate journals accepted by Pierce, yes, by peer reviewed, so at as they say to be, a genius is to be misunderstood. Rapidly to be misunderstood is not to be achieved. Right to be misunderstood, is not to be a gene. That's very kind of you to say I am I an idea, but the establishment is knocker. They're gonna rejected airlines. Brilliant. Therefore, right you don't get this. And I just don't understand- I'm starting a facebook page for everyone to evolve so you don't have to come to us to be readjusted amongst themselves, talk amongst mergers. Now now we have twitter for the domain. Is that no hidden call it special theory relativity too, when who called special and that's it Maybe I actually know specifically the history. A meeting where we have no on the show is
you, could explain what colleagues know why I mean the general theory. Obviously came later when he included the curvature of space time, but I don't know who actually coined it special. It was just a theory of relativity at the tigers papers on the electoral dynamics of moving bodies with the name of that paper yeah, the special role the paper wrapping title, the emissions in English, so so those nineteen o five, then a general SIRI comes out when nineteen fifteen, so that's ten years, and he basically pulled that out and its utter the ether. It's probably foolish to nineteen sixteen? But it's like it's ten or eleven years of struggling with the mathematics, elevate. What we now call the special theory, The general theorizing alone. Ya mean he was being influenced by people gross man. Who was a mathematician, Halbert was very influential, so I soon roads several wrong theories along the way- and there is actually a kind of adorable story when he was thinking about some of the gravitational waves
kept changing his mind in print. He would write papers, in their real is extort. Yet, while I was at a record adorable for physics, authorities haven't the record match that was for a moment ago. Right after this believe me, we're gonna, get you some very darling theory I just want to pay a goal. Writes a paper saying gravitational waves are now real than he writes a paper singing are then he writes another for several years later, saying that they're not in between acceptance of this paper and publication, he sneaks and a draft of manuscript. That says that they are its colleagues as Einstein. If we really careful your fee My name is gonna, be on these papers and he just laughed ass. He says my is on plenty of wrong paper. You know you do not need to worry about that. It takes a long time. You mean there's decades of him figure gravitational waves
and the general theory was eleven years and he needed help from other people. He wrote down stout young theories, dead brands, here is. That is that our area is. Is that actually something that is? Did that do anything to retrospect out a short order right? Look at string k were decades deep, the stolen decades I might be, it might be. Hundreds of years mean there's. No, that's an that's insane, thousands of leaders and the few early brilliant. And we have one Guy Einstein Himself- a sickly Vietnam, ebonite items to take away, Janice Point that there are other, trying to push things enlarging it along right right there, nothing, I'm alone, because he's actually putting something out there to be nudged Yang groupings. Interesting. It was really interesting that it was. It was really him on the enlarged.
There are other physicists, but him largely on the physics of the mathematicians pulling em up has he was not actually the most sophisticated mathematical thinker and other immigrants and quotas is, as you think, you have a lot of difficulty with mathematics. He should seem height of occult that that is so. He was intuitive thinker, and he really originally rejected the idea of how to do all this differential calculus. This really elaborate method that that's ridiculous. It's totally overkill are thought to be able to get through and we like algebra, and he did not with especial theory. It was stunning, but he could not do that with the general theory had to step up to be differential calculus on curve holds no mean Feat, why is pretty? How did you do and whereby entirely with grated, you get an account? I would say that what I kind of go with is that you don't need that we'll, never knew that it might lead. I like I actually use that so art, so he does. This
then in nineteen, twenty one, twenty one, he wins a Nobel Prize which nobody doubts, did so many things what anyone before while he didn't benefit relativity and a right interest, ass, pretty crazy. Yet was it the photo electric back to think technically was a photo electric. If our contributions to Quantum- I don't remember the phrasing too, of the phrasing something I might actually issues to quantum. Often their phrased in a way that the Good NEWS that specific right? It was not for relativity. That is clearly his greatest accomplishment, while so it's kind of like, if, when an actor, never winds and ask her and then are just like our aid, so we're just going give you a lifetime achieve he one in twenty one, which is quite early. In a I mean it was pretty soon after he propose it's. It's not so accordingly, laid after he proposed this sort of revolution, a quantum thinking and the interesting thing is- he never really accepted. Quantum mechanics writes a he initiate this revolution
what is a good day. I wonder what is that, his brilliant, the fact that he was so self contradicting like he just like, I think he's Anyone has, I think, there's something to that which is his refusal to accept them, something he didn't actually understand at a good point. Us there was that it was hard to she remembered the air he came from the nineteenth century into the twentyth century. This was the towering achievement of classical physics where the world the universe with deterministic. If you tell me where to stand and measure the motions and momentum, I will predict all future of this universe at was us a certain posture that the community, a physicist, has up comes quantum physics. Will you isn't gonna is aware Avers at a particle is that some per cent of the time and in who an end and what was the famous quote- you ve tried to God what to do. What was it an god doesn't play dies. Is that we are, God doesn't plate. I tell him, God not to throw dice
He tells God not officially technical doesn't think has quoted by meals bore or somebody who doesn't play dice with the universe has one let instead rule please. Quotas plays crabs. Then what is Stephen Hawking say later, God now not only plays dice, but he sometimes throws the dye where you can see them as we like God's gift her,
so and then and then, as I said, some melts at another point about God and and then use, but I think it was Niels Bore said I think, stop telling God what to do is I'd. So nineteen, twenty one, we got general rope. So for my for my money, I think general Tivoli is a brilliant achievement in the file. I can. Let me quantify therefore receive you agree. So if Einstein didn't come up with a special theory of relativity nineteen o five, some combination of others, The day would have come up with the same thing, probably by one thousand nine hundred and ten, but if Einstein didn't come up with general relativity, one thousand nine hundred and fifteen sixteen, I think it would have gone another fifty years undiscovered, and so this, for me, makes general relativity a great of singular
it's in special wow. I do think that you're right, it would have been many decades before it was discovered if it had not been discovered by Einstein general relativity and that those barriers game on your behalf. I also think it would have looked totally different, so Einstein: All of this, the general theory of relativity the theory of curved space. Time and we follow the natural Kherson space in all of this alliance of of geometry. But none of it is necessary. There's a whole bunch of x. Degrees of freedom and thinking about geometry. There are not at all required, and I think what would have happened is that somebody like Richard Feynman, who is a particle physics, says to his thinking about interactions of particles, would have scupper general relativity, but would never have hung all of the space time language on it. When it has different matters, it is or how to Jim gravitons facade
look to remove totally different and a completely different reference chicanery and everything would have been. That's incredible. I really think we ve been like oh particles, exchange light and that's electromagnetism. This would have been particles, exchange, gravitons and that's. The theory of gravity was Einstein. Moreover, a poetic thinker when it came to these things, a man he where do you? Where do you get this kind of ECHO's France and elegance that you can attach to what you're talking about? I mean I don't want to presume to know, but you do have a sense. It here is very visual. A thinker and very intuitive, and so all the space time machinery there might be excesses to it that are not formally required, but but create such powerful imagery and tools that in that particular example, which is often rare. It's kind of the contrary of outcomes razor with the extra machinery actually leads to better clear intuition
than the total leanest abstraction of just particles, extending gravitons, this beautiful write a book or a you're in somewhere there are, we gonna take a break. Come back more. Our exploration of Einstein, man, the secret for you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star, talk and support. Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
we're here another commercial on star talk ever again, you will definitely not have to hear me sing if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. Rebecca Stark, I got to cook nice logos, channel eleven colleague, physicist expert on the universe, and always that matter. That's it for this conversation, cuz we're celebrating the life and times of Albert Einstein, your book, the black hole blues, it explored the quest to measure gravity wave and what effort that we take. So could you described him what's going on when two black holes collide and how they going to give us a gravity? one think of his very ways all the time. So in print
although they do give us gravity where we do not recognise no right now. Check in what you gonna hurt, very modest. If you think about how we. Gravity is like the entire earth is pulling on me and with my little arms like lake, resist Some lift stuff? Whereas if it was charge there is that much charge pulling on me? I'd be liquefied, so gravity is radically weak, takes an entire planet thing and make it hard for me to walk, and it's a good thing that another quick calculation in due back and we had a space shuttle that would launch people into space. If you took all the electrons out of one cubic centimeter of the nose com, just remove electrons put them at the base of the launch. Pan european shuttle couldn't couldn't when we launch wait a minute because electronic the electron in one cubic centimeter, one cubits at the base of the watchmen
they would be pulling on the left over extra protons that are at the top they'll be attracting one another right? You would not be able to announce that you could allow cubic centimeter cubic sentiment right through the difference between the gravitational traction between like an election and upon John and their electromagnetic attraction is something like a trillion chilean trillions. So it's it's not much stronger. The electrical attraction, gravitation gravity, it's the gravitational pull is weak. So gravitational is are incredibly weak, but so what you need in order to have any aspiration? Even Einstein didn't think this will be possible cause. You don't think anything in the universe could possibly space time we bought enough its pre black hole. So so you need. Thing like the tremendous radical concentration of mass and energy in a black hole need them not only that we need them to be in the final throes of their orbits together. So it's like mallet on a drum when they closer and closer they're getting louder and louder, and it's like this crescendos
wind lag or made its first detection. It was the last one fifth of the second of the orbit of two black holes, each one about thirty times him ass, a sign a couple hundred kilometres across their going very nearly speed of light were andor executing. You know a few orbits in the final one fifth of a second, and finally loud enough that, even though its travelling for one point three billion years across the cosmos by the time it hits the earth. Do you think that the time at last that just multi sold Org, since for differentiating on the earth they were in, others is raised their building like we ve known the final hundred years and then boom when it hits it's just barely and all the while that wave is heading towards earth, but it could at them from the previous roll billion years. It's been ringing the earth, but there was nothing there right capable of detecting it. Now is there any way that we could have
is it yeah many way so that actual night, that the first detection was made was supposed to be the first science run of the advanced instruments. It was in September, twenty fifteen and they decided they were ready. Yet so they cancel the science run and instead they were there a Sunday night Monday morning in the middle of the night, hammering on the instrument trying to mess with it just as tests there literally driving trucks along the access road slamming on the brakes to see if it screws with the instrument and then in the middle of the night they get exhausted, they put their tools down, they go home. The same thing happens, instead. This is no within this, of an hour. This thing that's been traveling. One point three billion years smacks instrument does not show that this is happening more frequently than we think way. Frequently. Does everyone tol me, with the exception of Kip, thorn, that black holes would be years years on that we would detect all kinds of things first, that we predict existed but
holes were far off in our future and they were not only the phrasing first act it and it was beautiful black hole signature, but it was the first four things we detected we're all black hole. Collision. Looking calls all the time black holes all the time exactly which which the future well, then how wonderful thing happened not too long ago, they made an announcement that they detected. The first neutron starts colliding, so neutron stars are dead stars that are quite big enough to become black holes there there under two times them ass, the sun and their dense dead stars are often highly magnetized, but the interesting things he black holes are empty. There, just darkness empty space, there's nothing there. So when they collide it's in darkness, the black hawk research work when we say that a black horse a certain shores s, that's not The glee had occupied volume, exact described the size of a black hole, the size of black holes really just the extent of the shadow that casts the sky by convention. There s my convention,
region beyond which like cannot escape, and so it is literally just the shadow cast on the sky. If where does we dimensional shadow yeah? yeah, you know you grew up with their own national. She disliked by the collar blackball. Not black support would ice. What work go wrong A branch already objected to black hole to lower its offensive in French. Apparently that's what they call a black. They gave em. You know review resist wherever such so that's the fascinating about a whole when we think of a whole, we think of a circle in a horizontal surface that you go through a plain, whereas this is a whole in three dimensional space, where you can fall Oh god, I'm any direction. Woe and walking into the shadows should be as harmless as walk into the shadow of CHE nothing's there. You wouldn't notice anything cry
straight over, there's no dense material. There there's just nothing there. So am. I called collide its truly a dark event which, even though this would the first collision was the most powerful than ever detected since the big bang. None of it came out his light. None of it. Can I ask you this: if it did, it would be the bridge, thing in the night and they would have shown all the stars in the observatory. Universe kind. So, ok, what if we don't see, what's colliding? Ok, what is colliding space time itself, all black holes boola together and the shadow just hold about a register, but they re lab delighted that better then, like This blah be thing. It sheds off all imperfections and settled down to be one bigger black hole of so there's a buckle out there
as we know, about slow bigger than sixty times him ass, the sun. That's just wandering the cosmos, aimlessly, completely dark and completely quiet. The opposite! Is they settled down only hole don't get him away. So that's amazing! You see it in that mean you hear it in the recording. The latter makes you hear it ring down. You hear it settled down to a final buckle. So so tell me how one point three billion light years away. We, No, it's two black holes, one twenty eight times the masses on one. Thirty, six. Why is getting models. Their yeah give us that confidence is there's an old. Ashen mathematical problem. Can you hear the shape of a jam
it's very similar if I Bangor drop yeah just building our call to be the title of my memoirs, sent you here, the shaping stern. You hear the shape of the drought. We all recognise out. You know our phones go off and we're like that's my ring tone. So it's fine of similar. We have a prediction for how the mallet the black holes bang the drama of space time, creating a sound and it's a very specific prediction not a whole range of possibilities we can literally here. If I played, for you, are predictions. The difference between black holes are extremely despair and size. It sounds different if the black holes are on, while the accent orbits. It sounds different, so you can reconstruct the motion, size behaviour, spins of the heightened the mallet with some things. Less
evidence than others show like to spend. The black holes is hard to determine their both, probably spinning something's with less confidence, but that there were two black holes with a pretty good degree of confidence, with the measures that they were ascribed right with the masses they were escapes you can. You can tell how big they are too, because if you can hear the orbits again. Just like her, you can hear mallet tonnage on an even bigger signalled or well. It is but it's point seven times the speed of light. You can tell when it's done one full orbit in that tells you how big the system is clear, and that means you ve got. You know is two black holes summing to a little more than sixty times them ass, the sun in a region, only a couple hundred clamours across is how you gonna do that? There's only one worker sore there any black hole. Tiny enough that they spent in collide and create the sound of a triangle well. It is fantastic that black calls that are just a few times too,
supply ten times a message on something that range actually ring. Spain I'm in the human auditory range. What so that lie, go as an instrument home without once, and nobody will you wouldn't karma its language and it'll sound in space is sensitive to the range of the piano. So it's true there's! No. In space, because there's no heir and anyone who see somebody screaming outside a spaceship is gonna write, complaints on twitter that they don't But if you were near enough, those two were calls really near of your ear, could technically ring in response to the gravitational waves you're saying Your ear drum that is normally said into vibration by vibrating. Air molecules in this case would be set it to vibrate by vibrating fabric of space time. It would plucky like, like a like an airing like a heart yeah well, that's where I assume that you could like if you heard that, like get out move away like a man,
you would see nothing if you heard that you would see you later right, where it doesn't. Actually, Maybe if that's what it says when you hear it instead about, is this like you got so so what would hold my eardrums aside? What would my body feel if a wave when it my body so presumably write another black holes colliding all over the universally we're being squeezed and and began it so weak that we don't even know if its strong enlarge HU. I felt that war or, if its reshaping the fabric of space and time and I occupied, that coordinate I just shake with it and I wouldn't even know yeah, probably most of these, that chocolate, I'm just saying tat. If you in your right, if I, if I draw stick man on a rubber sheep- and I bet
the rubber she D, Ngos with it. So I think that, even though that he's being bent just this mug, I am do it. What is the difference with the stick? Man is that we are bound together. So, for instance, your head is harder to squeeze in stretch than your ear. Jem speak for yourself. If you, where you know, if you were there, or your ear would start resonating more willingly and your head would so you know the fact that were bound means we're resisting to some extent, so the whole earth, when the wave passes, doesn't really notice it. It's just so atomic bound to itself. Just me fine. I think back. We did yet. I think it's going to be more like for these long waves. It's coming, warlike bobbing on an ocean. You know just kind of what fears and the legal instrument do when the wave passes Bob on the wave? It's not that the mere itself is being squeezed and stretch, it's that it starting to swing, occur and that but you're. Looking for your lives, open ocean, Amir, Open, a whole new way of observing the universe and the way to bring about
milk to bear on the big bang itself. Definitely gravitational waves experiment, but probably not lag, go so Lego can put limits on the big banks of the Big Bang might have actually made a bang when the universe was created, gravitational which probably Billy cacophonous, it probably sounded like noise, but it's the it's side of really the range legos optimally designed to detect it's much more likely that a space based instrument like LISA the laser interfere. Space antenna. If it ever launches, at least it would be able to detect the sound of the bank rebuke, recovery, yeah, noise yeah, and so you ask me, how do you know it's by calls those two things sound really different ever like also my group there's, this was good and unaffected did again black hole on in Europe.
My colleague Lord, as black hole, collide attitude by calls gliding much less are now much higher than those links with ethnic. It has asserted: leg, sweet little chirped. What thought about how you get a thirty solemn, ass black hole, that's a really excellent! just are not only was the first to make one of them right, and not only did they detect the poorest gravitational waves, but they actually started probing new astronomy. We had no idea, there are black holes that big the projections were for much more. I once and now we know, there's one sixty solar masses, so maybe there there are some that are made at an early to did those already collide with other black holes to get that big or were they formed by direct collapse? Did they skip the death STAR state we don't really know sets that's already people are working on its no equivalent are black holes in your astrophysics class. What did you get your ass? I asked of physics, I'm taking, it would mean I'm ok, I got it,
I got an incomplete that we got em. I am I in astrophysics, though, We learn that one way to get a black holes, the end point of a high master right, I'm stars or twenty thirty. Forty fifty or mass, but they lose a lot of mass on routes or by the time has done you dont? Have you don't really have thrives? efficaciously sixty solar basil, so, and so, but now we know for a fact that we You have one, because I watched them kaleidoscopic. There are some people that think they're pure dark matter that they don't form from stellar collapse. If they're, not the state of a start there there, to tell you this, because, as I just as a vote for science here any time, we have a new instrument that takes us into a parameter space we had previously looked. You discover stuff that nobody ordered right now you can em. How now a well designed experiment is, is thought up to test for something that did you have any idea about
right, so we think we will do to detect colliding black hole. You do it and, oh my gosh, it's a kind of black hole. We never even thought was their right and it's so so good science is that which shows that maybe you are on the right track to begin with, but it opens up a whole new places. Never even so now the next generation Lego Gonna know how to have an effort at how to be better at what it is to for the new staff and they ll discover sixty solar mass black holes. That will collapse and say damn look out. Look I wouldn't you go check, it wouldn't be the six, Consider these would be more powerful than the thirties right over did it would detect lower mass black holes or the thirty Mass Michael farther away other way. I also what about something we ve, never even thought of before, and we think of the timescale. Air force pointed the task of this guy he's looking at sad and is looking at the sign. He's nothing in Quasar, employee Also, things aren't even conceive,
well to him and what we all really hope secretly as that working to discover staff and gravitational waves that we couldn't possibly see and light after all night if I put out of the universe, is completely dark right, exactly so maybe there's something out there that we have not even thought of, and that is what everyone hopes for. To be honest, I regret to break, when we come back more than the life, the legacy, the predictions, the discoveries, the all over a bad attitude. A sort of general ever they think you come in and where do we go about this? stop it Barnard in Colombia, and I just heard you- you taught a class this more. Glasses morning better that it took out his law, whose, while uniform gases law
just about our as this is brilliant mathematician. Oh, I thought it was the thing you get when you PETE Swell of Eden, rich fool, us we'll, give her gauss and work out I don a gauss, my alibi and gas is a beautiful gases law. So good. This law is this suggestion that you can look at all the flux coming out of a surface hooker and determine all the charge and closed. It sounds very simple. It's basically a way to understand the electric fields of sources and sinks. In the most Elegant way imaginable, like you can do this incredibly quick, rapid fire calculations. We are pulling out the electric field in these very sort of symmetric situation, and what is the surface you're looking at It's it's an imaginary surface, we're just another massacres. Let's say I have like this table is charged. I can use gases law to find out the electric field from this table by drawing an imaginary surface around and understanding how much charges and closed in the flux of fields in and out it's it's. It's incorrect
we powerful it's- maybe I could say a shorter by forgetting what it actually says. Mathematically by saying it is one of the fundamental laws of electricity. Magnetism is pretty wild, because what you just describe accompany came out with a baby monitor that does that babies, I'm not lying, takes exactly you just said, and if you have any gave either and it turns out it may these are what it does. Is it uses these little flux around the baby? To tell you like the baby's heart rate, the baby's temperature, how Europe? Actually the health of your baby, try quarter for the crimson try quota for the kid of total for the crib and whenever you go check on the crib, there's a recording. The goes he's dead, Jim. What a cube! Germ electricity magnetism is a first, example of unification, and this actually relates to Einstein. Does he was interested in this idea of unification? So there used to be clear force about your Jacqueline electricity which had discharges and magnetism which we saw on rocks and stuff and their didn't anybody who knows
is anyone whose I've been electrocuted. Allow knows that those two things are very. Very closely related at I let go of his paw. This was the first and when the lady teen hundreds that two seemingly totally different forces could actually be unified into one, and we could realise that electric fields magnetic fields are different sides of the same coin. It's really one field one force, and so that programme gone on for the past hundred years and more to realise it based they all the matter forces are just one. The electroweak theory is unified, so much mechanism, the workforce and the strong force easily in a grand unified, there can be you know, so I start with one's dig in this afforded again so right. So at the time
the answer I was thinking it was all worked out perfectly, but he kind of accepted matter was all the matter forces all of them. We're gonna, be one gravity stood apart on and one of his ways and gravy a matter force so gravity actually just pure space time limits to masses interact gravitationally, but in some sense you're not talking about in an matter forces. You can ignore space time if you wanted to and only talk about how matter interacts with each other, like in your body in this room, I'm not really so concerned about curved space time theory, it's just due to large scale, it's not relevant, but when you try to push this thing's towards each other, like in the centre of a black hole and ask how matter behaves in a very strongly curved space time, it all falls apart. We can't unit I'm together. There should be one theory, a theory of everything is thereby hope will bring us, and I heard by eminent lead, I am bringing assess regulars worse and bringing
statics and and last best example. Bringing aesthetics to the problem. Kepler said: wait a minute: there are five planet, coups murky, Venus Earth, Mars, two percent and five planet, and there are six platonic solids. Do you know about this? There's a cube tetrahedron. These are solid shapes where resurface is identical to every other surface: okay, the dodecahedron and octahedron. Ok, there's only five: it was six thousand five of these. May be that you can in bed the distances of the planet's with these five solid, because this is geometry and is perfect and its universe. An edifice, the universe and it's pretty created by the same thing. It's that must be it missed an opportunity he spent hand up a great may serve as an opportunity
the up, so so he spent ten years driven by the by the elegance purity and the simplicity of this idea and which is bullshit yeah, so many people spent you know years since Maxwell's to the seventies? Eighty, successfully unifying matter forces, and they did a beautiful John? I mean the thing is: is there was a lotta reward in the previous attempts? Why gravity so stubborn and insists on standing apart. It plagued Einstein's thinking in his later years and has plagued an entirely to three generations of physicists, though maybe so He got as far as he did there's a lot of discussion about things it that interested him in childhood, like a compass like watching we're thinking that why? How does the compass? Now it's gay, where we have explained today what what accomplices-
so it's it's a thing. You put a pencil and has a point on it, and then you can draw Perpich circle, perfect circle I got an idea, yet nobody anybody actually use a cop help. You get cheaper even seen, CO has no regard years. We had to learn about the accomplice, such a cosmetic indulging in point poles and all that, but does covers doesnt point this animal. Which the magnetic north not did you really care about rising and any good boyscout knows that and the girl evolution the boys a manual. I would not know we're not know so. There's like there's an angle director, depending on your latitude on earth, because if you're up in Canada, you or north pole. Companies can be appointing south because they are the magnetic pulse separated from the geographical. So, if you upload hike in Montana compasses, not very useful to you,
savages, like just light, became a really interesting quiet how the magnetic fields are invisible and that's what entreat Einstein right? How does it know? That's what you're asking and the magnetic fields aren't actually invest, right now, I am seeing you because of electromagnetic fields bouncing off of your face, and it's just that were we can't see magnetic fields that are fairly static. Our eyes are really bad detectors of those really excellent detectors of one's a wave around They make money because they make light, and so so it looks just like theirs is invisible forests. But it's it's something only invisible to us to our weirdly animals that can see it. We got many animals that can see fields that are stating that I see as a loose were there right that they can know it's there. Have they haven't, I quote again tat they can use their tax it enough cool. Are we seeing as it I don't mind using the word seeber whether they can. I will know where
We await dogs, sea, which has some organ, which detects it. What it what emerges in their little minds. We know it s very fast in order. I wanted you do it's all my fault. I want, we wrapped. Can we just hang out? That's what I want it was when we perfect genetic engineering of human humans rights. We go through the animal kingdom and find all the things that they have, that we don't have that. We want right, we'd, even think. That's ok right I want, and I want to see static fields. Look at your house. I want to be able to see the infrared like snakes also wanted. I want to be able to eat a sandwich five times bigger than my head, like snakes, snake hinges did you do. I owe you I'd like to be able to hear like a dog could not smell like at least I am I'm just saying, I believe there is more problems than the silk benefits? We gotta be careful. What you wish me exactly right, plus their plenty of animals that reach
Eric limbs, something that would be casually useful endlessly for disabled veterans showed a newt can do it and we can't we're. So what are the top of evolutionary j? I can't we didn't. Oh, please note: can we have some of what Stuff can do right right. So what happened in science will find a way to help us regenerate limbs, but then will actually grow. A tale could be useful to. It is hard to predict all the possible consequences. The other you don't always know what else it comes with. Yeah regret is that the full package of what what what it would mean if that were the case or always unintended consequence o ways always so? Can you give us some final reflections on Einstein's life so that if we want to think if we want to live out
religious Christmas album to live the way Jesus lived it so in the geek worldly is to live the way Einstein lived. Is there that you can tell us? I Billy admired, above all else, Einstein's independence of mind and spirit. So when everyone I was saying: oh there's something wrong with this supposition. That speed of light is a constant that makes no sense whatsoever times. Do doesn't really makes it it's really challenging, but Einstein accepts, and this is something of a mess there stood in the idea of relativity. He accepts the rigidity of the constraint, that's what he does and around that constraint. He sees where is free to move and it's very limited, but from this tight constraints he makes this like its squeezing a balloon in one direction and blows out in the other direction kill. It leads to things that were so much more magnificent than just allowing the speed of light to not be constant notes, industry,
You say that just thought of this now that the worst they you can tell an engineer, is built this and there are no constraints and spend as much as you want it's like my guts out. I know what to do, but if you say it's gotta be thirty kilos. En masse, and it's gotta use this much power, and its guy fly in this way and it's gotta be made of these materials go and that's where the creativity so and so, for example, how do you get a telescope bigger than the width of your rocket into orbit redo? a people's up. Ok, must tell the engineers egg invent the telescope, the uninformed I move that they're gonna, who would have thought of that possess He is the mother of vengeance. Think of it, because I didn't let you do something else. I think this and I loved your reference to Einstein in that context and didn't constrain him
liberated him? I want to ask you something because you just bucks a question and make a quick running out of time. Ok, so use. At about Einstein and Lighting, a constant so well, I go detected. The pulsar then try starting to transfer its transfer when they detected that day make the detection and see the light at the same time, since the light is a constant. This is why everyone was incredibly excited. It might be at the the day. The most highly studied astronomical event in history. Basically, some huge fraction of the entire international, astronomical community turn telescopes satellites, all kinds of instruments in the direction of the
again. We do that we get. It was inevitable that asked we good. Why is it that way? Like that's a back, we got your back, it's a very important element of millet, my own research programme and then in the old days. What about a telegram? It's it's a oh, my gosh, there's an event overhear job it and I have my detector, which is different from your detector difference, and now we have ninety two hundred different kinds of detectors, getting definitely event one event, and you look at this part- and I look at that part- and I look at this- Where can get that wave like you put that altogether, you you all eyes all hands on deck or telescopes check it out. It was really remarkable so Lego cod about a minute in the recording, but all of these telescopes combined caught you know a month and on an end it keeps biking, indifferent, wavelengths. It would go in the infrared in the gallery and x ray into all these different instruments had their their time. Well, so we d
We that's how we roll elaboration international collaboration is back guys. We gotta shut it down here, but Chuck always nice to have you always a pleasure. Even more nice to have. You will find some excuses to talk about Einstein in the Universe Ass to get you back, love it you ve been watching and possibly only listening to start, I'm your host Neil Degrasse Grass, taking as always I wish you'd. Listen, the star talk, commercial, free, joint start, talking Patria for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star, talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-20.