Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Eugene Mirman answer fan submitted Cosmic Queries with Matt O’Dowd, astrophysicist and host of PBS Space Time, about vacuum decay, mapping the galaxy, diamond planets, a simulation universe and much, much, more!NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more at https://www.startalkradio.net/startalk-all-access/
See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip. The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. Welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Dartle begin right now this star talk. I'm your house and the other grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist, and for today's edition its cosmic queries poker I've got Eugene Merman visiting and from Boston used local and now you're not anymore. I know why you know you got married kids ass diary. Children of two messages never happens. He added that happened. Walking back. Thank you. The Youtube studios.
I don't know why. But that's where we're Lindsey. Why we in the EU to studio where collaborate, Why? How do we know that, because met or doubt, is here from Australia. That's you, motherland straight you once upon a time what's abundant once upon a time on, and we ve got you now, but professor of Physics in astronomy, happy to be got at at the sitting in a variety of New York, So our lemon college up in the Bronx, where from and you're here, because you have a you tube channel I'd. Like equality, PBS Universe, a very delighted to learn that Libya has digital studio exactly and use your programme within. That is called. You may go on offenders. Yes, space time It's a PBS Digital studios show a short like for five minutes each or when we
go a little over. We intend to go eight to ten people and, conversely, I know I feel like that. People take naps, posh, partly Look. I woke up to the end when the jokes, though that's great, so that's why we're sure. That's why we're in the Youtube studios? Add you here help me handle these cosmic worries he also from the internet. Back from our from our basically up our social media base, they gets Sudan, and sometimes we solicit by topic and then some don't fit in exactly We put him on the ground bag so OJ. Let's do we haven't seen these so now the oasis of US vote will work. Will work at this is really prove where we have anything at all. So let's do this! Jordan, Thomas Jordan. Thomson from Indianapolis asks meal. There once were reptilian
the size of buildings, planets made of diamonds, starts five billion times that of our sun and hope. The lead to nowhere? Do you know, you think the universe has any limitations within creation, so many things to pick Let me just start up, I say I'm from New York City, the Uno recalls the size of buildings. Israel's iron maiden lyric before given this universe, actual aeroplane is made of diamonds applied its last year yet so tells about there. What do you know of it so a diamond is a very, very debts form of carbon a lot of pressure and those who Adams all alive, that beautiful diamond, let us that we like to wear nothing that sometimes but planet. If you don't, let us hear criminalizing it actually yeah planets. I sometimes
ass of enough that the interiors couldn't presumably crystallized carbon? carbons, not rare in the universe. No sooner planets homeland in sections of the universe, where it's mostly carbon, their places where stocks hers in their effluence is will actually release copious amounts of carbon physical and here yet yeah yeah terminate the planet's would be it would be inside, you need to get that pressure and to a bunch of stuff on topside they'd, be carbon they got a different planet model carbon muddle woman and everything is diamonds. On that anyway, even on earth. I think we idolize them too much yeah coming to their they're, not because we have to do and, like you said in your city, there are no repels the size of buildings, but if you live in a small town you Don T
would be bigger than your house. One area could buy. I know you know this because I I think you assemble butyric skills in yourself. At the end of it was a kid you. I've got to get out so so so reptiles descended from the same answer. Was drawn, but also some moderate Algeria where not reptiles his heart. I understand they are basically closely two birds. In fact, birds eye dinosaurs really are birds more closely related. Sores than modern reptiles, are standing really from the file eugenic tree at Erica Museum of Natural history is that birds and dinosaurs, others will the same thing but the it was the brutal that's what I'm saying so rarely ever saw my birds being the descendants of dinosaurs without mentioning the crocodile, and is that true is at its product. I don't know
I was the worst bird Lapierre famously terrible, but neither of us is it is, is it is a biologists? But so I can say is I don't know Never dinosaurs the size of New York City buildings, that's all right and our allowances is. There are limits, to this universe. I would say: so lately? Yes, in that, not everything that can exist does, but so many well. How do you know that? Is it educated guess. I think what it was. I think so they can exist that you think doesn't, namely that exist. Well, for example, the man the medics of of of say, of relativity describe things like worm. Holes and quantum mechanics has its tat once these leaving STAR Trek, isn't real labour
like. If I may, I can't emit attack impulse outside an infinite universe, contains an infinite number of things, but it doesn't contain everything that you can imagine. I said the laws of physics still have to be a bad one, so I'm with you on that so you're not going to have an entire state building sized reptile, because I can't hold itself up with a very interesting about this. They teach this aren't they teach us outside of like physical. No one bite. So so, as you get bigger, yeah you're volume grows. Your weight goes up according to your volume. Yeah, but the strength of your limbs goes up only according to this cross, sectional area, so to matter area versus volume, Godzilla as cuts, it would collapse under its own weight into a puddle of
Yes, correct would be very bad reluctantly radiated just because all right, he was a radio that changes the volume area thing completely accurate and also its. Why they that's why big animals heavy animals have thicker legs. You can see. You can't just scale up an insect remit of this big, because their body that is great and the good, very gay, embedded in a completely negates path to possible visa the mating fit, So what I would have again to get what they would have to be looked stubby a few serious chemicals to be able to serve as the ant gets bigger the body weight goes so much gross faster than the strength of its spindly. Legs can support it and we just collapse under way. So you can't a scale of insects, get big insects. It's not gonna happen
never move. That is a fair I had so the laws of physics prevent that whose why you can't I've got Zilla right as big as goods and makes it a person, be they can you have a giant person this says of the building, a small zero, notably by any kind of life. I mean any kind of like right right. Replacing we don't need the fear like dry and elephants or king was does it another thing that involves Blood pressure? Ok, so if you're, really really big had to get blood to your brain brain is at the top You need a seriously pumping vows to do that. You had a heart, though, that was the size of a house inside your body that cynicism skyscraper. Would that be fine? I mean they could pump with that kind of Europe yeah. I guess so I mean what is your name any two or three hearts is what was
What would you decided? We imagining the creature here, but but but this adding a heart, but I think that this is, I think, that's where people problem is these things evolved from small aversions, and so they have to kind of co opt those miniature organs. Something that works on a large scale to come out of the box big, yet right is accurate, that are the biggest creature that ever existed it out like this. We know it is the blue whale than exists today, great so which fastening to me, as it mammals, have but the widest size range of any branch in the tree of life. Small man. It's like it's. It's like this, like this big there's a little too early in politics, but you go from this to the blue Wellnigh. Here's with a blue whale cheat. You look a blue whale and book well way for gazillion tonnes, not really because resilient isn't a number one up.
Not always reason, but it's actually floating and what rights it is not holding up there, wait. So once you are in water, then is no limit to your man. Wait so could Godzilla exist, but only in one loves me in the water. He couldn't that exists today, but he couldn't come out and warrants our terrorizing, the town. In the same way, a crocodile these com is basically useless on the ground, and cargo hasn't will push up just to walk and then go back out cause for his legs are not directly under it, which is a big evolutionary vance. You don't need muscles to hold up my body weight because vertically I'm just going to support it said so to redo this Godzilla can exist, but not out of the water Joe had to go into the warrant. That's right!
why huge clumsy things are can be highly nimble swimming in the White China, squids jellyfish would just be a second ya. Gotta knows exactly how great a right that we learned a lot thing, and that was from whom that one's from Jordan Thomson, your thanks, Jordan. Yet Susan was that a patriot question nos Instagram. Ok, these are all sort of largely Facebook and instruments, as once we're supposed to be patron questions. First, let's give us money in the bribe us. No. I ain't there. Quite first of all, I'm totally with you excluding the part where I have no questions from Patria. Ok, I can make out. Ok, I want. If that's that's, that's how that's how you can drive us. You know I grating. Susan minnow from Facebook asks how sure we about our map of our galaxy in the universe in general. Could our tools techniques be map
an illusion and that the universe is much smaller or larger than we ve calculated. Your shows call space time. U turns everything we know about based on lies a minute. It could just be the dosage dome. That's painted kind of like the wizard of OZ, say right ends, arena separate it from a show, and I think that I also think that is the idea of the holographic universe, where you have this vastly distant Shell, that's a hologram, and that our three demanded the protect from two highly highly the physical and even theoretical, I, How do we do we measure the stuff with with many scientists working independently
making measurement independently in and getting agreed upon results. Some in the case of the method, our universe is pointing multiple different telescopes it a distant galaxies and and basically calculating red shifts, and so we can also getting distances by different independent methods. So I would add that we use a regular telescope that is sensitive to visible light and that's the extension of our retina and we see a galaxy there. Now. Somebody else invents and infrared telescope or microwave telescope were radio telescope, and we scandal, We find the same object but now emitting in these other bans. So this gives us confidence that the object is real, that actually there and some interesting things are happening in it and that it's not and then like. As you were saying before, I interrupted you and you that you can get the distance to this object by multiple Is there not standard ways you would measure distances on our utter? You can pay out the distant. You could get a little take measure you can.
Use was now one of these. We'll lighting lies laser laser thing, so their multiple way, If you get the same answer from all those ways and others ways are completely different from one another give confidence, you have the right distance to the object, and so yes, so this? U combined, All of these factors we think them the universe is real. And it is what we measure to be, but you can get take a deeper philosophical point that there is no reality beyond the measurement. The measure becomes the reality of the universe that we describe So to say it really. Is this other thing you'll, just not measuring it. To me so say how Will you ever know that it's this other thing? I don't know the question, one being that it said. I think it's just that we are wrong. Well? How would you know that we are theirs? So so we quantum physics you'll learn. Club. This
reality of the world. Makes sense through the measurement innocence Beata set. So you cannot It doesn't but mean anything to talk about a world that is outside of a measurement. So don't you gotta, know what that's what needs cannot say access to what I think I think I think you know, for example, David Byrne and and and realists would would are you all right? I think the important thing is not to infused, though the idea that the we haven't a subjective experience of the universe and that that subjective experience isn't the universe different thing to the actual universe and but nonetheless The universe remains consistent, AL subjective experience of the universe, matches other people subjective experience. We can all make measurements that agree with each other, and that gives us confidence that there is something
the only real out there, even if we can't say exactly what it is- and I would add to that- the tire bo on it that I look at something- and I say, ok that looks read to me well, my andrew- because you're not so that the subject of reality. So then you devise an experiment to have an apparatus that measures wavelengths of light and you ve already calibrated to that this wavelength the red or reach, and I come to this and the machine measures read as well as the machine on drugs, simulated lesson I got red means this together to jump over here would read as and when we look at this thing that I'm looking at and so now we both query the machine. What color is this? The machine gives us the same so I've removed my own brain from this experiment and I'm getting the same answer so to a limit. Our subjective experience is reality, but we know the limits of our subjective experience and the whole point of science is to these two
Prob reality, reducing our subjective interpretation by as much as is here. Possible ideally to zero or refining the subjective model, so that it better and better predicts the objective reality, even though the baby objective reality bits it's a highly effective predictive apparatus. Right next to him, a traveller one more question: ok, segment, media from LEO Zuma, Zita uninspiring. How about the recent articles about the possibility, thus being part of a simulation and the big bang being just the ceding event of such simulation banks, I'm totally their identity. Every minute our own here on largely on his love it it will seriously whom I dissimulation some some some snub. Nosed kid in the past It's a basement of an alien civilization is born and, and there
more advanced than we are and thereby way more computing power than we are right to do. This is like little handheld Nintendo. You can t exactly is so they programme in enough detail. Completely stimulate every molecule in this universe, and we are here for their entertainment. Why else can you accept and things are going, won't just fine in the world, then, all of a sudden there's a complete disruption. This nano skin color politically economically complete disruption. I think that's the its they throw it in for entertainment. That's what I thought I'm I'm in a sound. I have two things. Firstly, I predict that you don't believe that that's my first broke Look I don't know. I thought you had an argument for why that that's more likely any other scenario tell you that a bit it but the numbers game. Ok! So the idea that, if you, if you you need produce one universe capable of producing universe simulation, that's all you're late, and if that universe produces billions of universe, emulation, then any universe that you haven't find is often is more likely.
Must we do we want a than the one university ordered at all if the way that, like virtual reality, now exists- and you know, video games have advanced, it is likely that and say a thousand years, whatever our virtual reality worsen, It is thousand and thirty years that whatever it was, would potentially be physically. We would be it. I feel wait until they wouldn't it doesn't even more, why are the noise? It requires that when you programme in there has an in your nintendo whatever it is, has enough complexity that, in the mind of the characters in the game, they think they're real rights. And not free, will count stimulate the whole universe, goes to stimulate universe, perfectly Unita Computer, the size of the universe, you dear yes, because I mean I do I hear aiming it's about the dwelling about nothing, Would we
there's more of this house with secret for you. When I consider singing all of the ads on this show there just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last startled and support where does at the five dollar level or higher, to listen? The star talk ad free, You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking. I mean just saying
we're back up Merlin Glove Dracula House by one April, your dream that new dreamer I've got a friend and colleague, metal down the global is. What is associate up if the American Museum of Natural history, day job I serve as director of the planetary, but he is, it is an affiliate of ours and but the professor and of his own up it lemme college whose rights are welcome and, You got your own view to channel jealous. You got a good you to jail. Well, my mother, my teams, Youtube Channel, I would say: okay, this period, you'll studio yesterday, studios very good title space time things we left off before the break You asserting. To my disagreement that you know
a computer, the size of the universe, to programme the universe, and I'm saying that the universe that's created doesn't have to be the whole universe. It can be just some other universe can be its whatever less than the original Univer yes needs to be to be whatever it is that I agree. They think it's their holy, that I agree with. Ok, then I think we have no discussion that will offer beer I do have one thing to say so this this whole idea recently came up. I think it a good bit of IMF, because even asserted that this was quite likely that we were part of a dissimulation by their just to be clear. This thought did not originate with him. Of course it goes back to the nineties and there are few philosophers who started who set the ball rolling and then of many others, many other and one of one of those riders whose name I blinking oral jam then might might have been
so? The idea was that we are most likely in in what he calls on your groups and when they had. This is good. Has a good So the idea is an ancestor simulation. The idea that some future version of ourselves, when we are more advanced rostrum is one of the original I got. The idea was that in the future scientists, your kids with Nintendo would choose to stimulate the entire into life of ancestors of it of you know. Hundreds of years ago, just as it is a study to study in past ecology, but that's all afternoon after They have to seem like only the the activity of the mind and import. All of this so long as they consistent that? That probably will be able to do? I mean brain doesn't have that many connections that we cannot intervene in a couple of more war, dumplings sort that out the problem with vote. I recently that more laws now no longer eighteen months is how our ears, in total earth until we get the next. I guess
creation of once we movie on silicone. Maybe upset you run by by top people check, I kill it. This. Might this might take very good people atop the location of we have dealt with this. So the order is it's not simulating universes you in as you suggested, but I think it. I think it requires a lot of assumptions that that future, for us will want to stimulate the entire mental life of our ancestors and in that way, will likely to be that. But my manager objection is that part of the idea is that if something goes wrong. For example, we figure out with part of the simulation then who This rang assimilation can edit it and that thought and business. As usual, Turk and so is the most useless hypothesis. People who disappear and no one knows where they, but that don't happen now now, but that would be. But that would be the russian though nice don't be silly. You you ve, had thoughts the popped into your head today. You never had previously in your life.
Away in a the conspiracy, can be proved or denied because you everything's programmed, including ever It's that we see that it is true people disappearing. You know, Roswell, all this stuff is brute brutally programmed in so I reject it because I think we need to continue on No, it's not like you did you go. You can be like we're, maybe we're simulation, but we should clearly live life as if were people, whereas we have, though you have free will. We would also still like, even in a simulation of mirth and when you go to simulation jail, which I'm sure it's terrible, considered next best far right, big dog D. One two to three asks. If Venus doesn't have a magnetic field, then how does it keep its thick atmosphere shouldn't it end up like Mars, that's good one! So one of the things that keeps our magnetic fields-
Ok, yeah is that down in our sort of semi molten iron core, you get carp, you get iron sort of move moving and we have an earth spinning, and so, since we spend at that relative once a day is relatively fast much faster than Venus ambassadors, Venus like a little less then once a year an end in the wrong direction. Right, it's been planned. Not yet, but it does so. You are few, were you, your days old on Venus? Then you are years. So that's so it's not churning. You know you don't get this sort of what they got differential rotation so so Venus right does not have a significant magnetic field. A magnetic field protect you from the blade. Effects of solar, wind and Soviet Venus closer to the sun, getting twice the flux
solar wind. Then we get an it, maintains its atmosphere so generally wait! What the what goes on here on earth. Is it's not that will blow away our atmosphere. It's that if there is a war, Are you high up h, two o the energy from a sunken break apart that water molecules separate the hydrogen from it? Then you lose the hydrogen. But I think I think part of it is also that man is much much lighter than Venus, and so Venus is almost Mester massive, as the earth Jesuits wherever it hold on to adapt monsieur ends, no, the it s, much of it, it's gotta, be losing stuff, but the timescales just much much longer. It's got nearly a hundred times the atmospheric pressure as earth. So from that, what each of you there you would you be crushed with seconds before you vaporized happy order, late, Emily Round. Sound sense, I don't know the full the origin of their rights,
a lot more of the record for a land or on venuses like two three hours before crumpling lucky at the end and the big Venus people were the Russians there, the veneering spacecraft they suddenly got to my funding. Yeah you get crushed any melts its. They knew this, but it was it's a challenge. While we will go to Mars, they were going to Venus right and we go to Mars Gazette Super easy conscience. He hardly were similarly hard because his clinic waiting. So that's why we're on the subject? Allow me to tell you the story Venus TRAP, as my thinking on started an authoritative. So if you're from Mars your Martian from Earth Mercier Earthly,
Venus your Venetian, these that we have these words? If you are of those places it turns out, Martian is ACT, is correct. Earthling is good, but Venetian. That's a improperly formed word wish stuck with that were because the properly formed word was already taken by a whole other branch of science the medical doctor? If you are of Venus, you are venereal from the latin from the left jacket as the janitor form of Venus, and so when doctors found diseases peculiar to lovemaking, Venus bear the goddess of love and beauty. Is it name at all after Venus right. That became the They were venereal aliens where, like we would, rather you didn't cause he's back their pissed off so innovative, so that so it's we should not be surprised at the spacecraft. The russian Centre Venus Walcott Van ERA soon's. It's because of
janitor form so to war wounds should be martian, like that's a martian cartesian. You see here, that's for at it's gonna, be there obese, less is about that resistant yeah. You have Martian wound very bad ones. Let's try to imagine Nelson from Syracuse in upstate, New York and also very Chuck niceties. He he mangled the names I gotta mingling anything people who is weird nice people like Monica word, I just based on common to codes, nothing up and also yes, spill s spaces we have an obligation to urgently. I read it big dog DE one tooth You don T want you to write so Nielson. Also accurate from Syracuse asks
Do scientists and fears have any idea how much time passed before the big Bang was their time before the Big bang. I gave you that we have no four. Can I do, but what you have I mean the stand. Wisdom was always at times started at the big bang and before There was no time to lose. The first second happened in, but I think its new thinking now. I think ideas like eternal inflation said the idea that that possibly this universe, just nuclear, out of some in rapidly expanding multiverse type thing in which time might have some sort of existence. Yet we know it will be time to be, maritime for them universe. Basically, whereas our bubble surely so beginning point a shout all that about one dimensions: I'd want to get semantic on it. We ve. I say time as we measure it began at our beginning right. But if we are part of this multiverse, then you should think of a multi time right that
actually is the master clock of all yet or its talk instead of chain of cause and effect, there was a cause before the big bang of some sort. Sunlight was roughly in our ears like forty five forty five, I wanna be inaccurate. Mister Finn Dil asks we created tools to detect and see different wavelength of light that our eyes can't see that's where they are there, any ideas of tools that would allow us to detect and see dark matter so many ideas, one on first reading We do see. The effects of dark matter has on matter. Dark matter has what rather mainstay of it has gravity. That's how we know it's there. It's my response to quickly, and I keep saying this never had been named. Dark matter has been called CALL Fred because we don't know anything about it. It's not
at our per se. It maybe matter, maybe not so, to call it any kind of matter is misleading rights. If you dont forget presumptive, that's a better word, thank you, and but what it actually is is dark gravity that is low early true, so so we see its effects on things and that's pretty good. That's so that's why we all know something's happening. They are right. So now is there some other way we can detect it. You're getting depends on what it is someone if, if it is really matter than its and some kind of particle, then people roll over so we want their destiny that, over under on that, is that it's gonna be a marble likely like some ideas that it might it might cellphone light when doktor particles, fine each other and that would produce very high energy light or or other particles that we could detect here on earth. As you know, little flashes of communities or cosmic where it was dark matter, something that's far out in space or is there?
visit near the earth, or is it everywhere, meaning like me in this room, and certainly this row but dark matter so diffuse, it's me fast, only on very large scale, so it is oh dominated by ordinary matter, in normal situations of each this? You can live life as though it's not their say with our solar system. There is no! You don't need to invoke dark matter to calculate anything. That's going everywhere around us in deeper space, where there is less rigorous. Is this a more space and time just adds up over the area, here's the thing might we ever find it? If it is a political matter, find a dark matter, planet or dark matter? Something else the probably not, because not only does this dark matter, stuff Fred not interact with us ordinary matter, it doesn't even Iraq with itself If you don't interact with yourself, you cannot coalesce and become something. I know it doesn't interact with itself because it would otherwise stick to itself
doesn't their ideas that would allow it to near each other to to I mean to annihilate itself when it when they interact, but it it's a small, spread out that it just doesn't happen. Very often, you think it's only at that frequency issue by some models. Ok, that order or non interact with yourself, ok, almost impossible right, because we we our partners in which we make MILAN eurobonds, atomic bombs so as not to take stock and still we may molecules, and then we can be this fleshy thing called humans. Ok movements rests, not lessened, Bobby, really cool. They were like humanoid dark matter entities that alcohol, Did you completely transparent, zero, indirect light that could be right here right? They couldn't we all around us. Oh, maybe that's what angels are ok up, Athol back up what more real, quick witted rate before we break someone? Let my could be no judgment
Instagram asks. Is it possible for the fabric of space to be ripped or pulled apart? Couldn't over expanded black hole, then be the cause of a sword big bang as the matter rips a hole through the fabric of space. I saw that episode doctor, who neither so I'd love the idea that we might rib it's terrifying. Beautiful at the same would have written what we're doing now, but in the distant future, where this? This dark energy pressure of a vacuum is for it also really named by the acceleration of the expansion it that will grow exponentially. So I'm curious. Might there be a day where spaces expanding so rapidly that it's it's it's pliability cannot keep up with, what's happening to it and just rips. Instead of continues,
Release, atomic nuclei ripped apart and ends. So my if that's your favorite clock structure will be test, but, oh my gosh, maybe a new thing, I think even cool is I kinda guy, oh so the idea that indicates how do I was back in the vacuum: decays, alright, over the cultural side of its could happen, Anita over the commercial who cardinal black more stocks, because with that, the grass taste very graphic. Eugene, Mervyn Eugene love happen while staying later so long backs, and you call me or something Maghreb,
Where did you two studios? Why? Because you have you to show sure I do you call waste time great name. Thank you adding come up with the biggest digital studios and shrugged very good in so doing when I hear and something that keeps me good night is wondering whether the vacuum The universe is stable, I had one I've lost sleep largely to last night. Another seriously, have you I'm about we're going to make sure you join the club, but what is it so odd, so vacuum decay? Yes, it's scary than the big rip that might happen due to dock energy, because it could happen at any time it could happen spontaneously. So the idea is that you're, the vacuum. It basically a vacuum means there's nothing in it, but actually the vacuum has some tiny of energy. The fields that permit
The universe that give rise to particles are through the vacuum. Now what others feel does the Higgs field It's what did the Sab Subatomic Particles Mass, the famous Higgs, both on yeah? It's a bad. It's got to be a portal, that's the only way. God gonna name s nickname so there's your the idea is that that we await the quick explanation for how give mass I heard this war. I think this explanation works. Ok, think of a party in LOS Angeles, ok in Hollywood provided one but ok right, and so what ex field does, is it will create? a resistance to your ability to move through that sealed, depending on what kind of particle you are and the greater
resistance. The more you measure its mass to be ok, Massa things, don't move so good, a party in LOS Angeles and somebody. Nobody is heard of walks in our knowledge. Medic, ok, fine walks in no one crowded around straight to the bar has very low party mass beyond, say walks in there scrub buildings around her. She cannot move because people taken selfies getting autographs. Ask your question paparazzi she moved five inches. A minute takes her half hour to get across her that she has very high party mass. The party field granted her more ass? The models like child is a neutrino and beyond say: is it's a master Bardell Electronic exactly so the universities get your approval. On that analogy, I think it
this result and I direct everyone's. Whoever said on space time, we do on the subject that takes only a tiny little bit further. Ok, but the cool thing. Because it s just like no I'll, I loved one hears what I only have never been invited to that. Finally- and I know I know me about that, I need to be afraid of cleaves, so the the Higgs field works because it has a non zero energy everywhere. This little bit of haziness everywhere in the universe, is little feel the garage owners. That's how I described yeah. I got it just a big just to be clear clause in case anyone whose watching this is really young and the only set of a vacuum is a machine that sitting in the closet, Russia that She creates a vacuum. Hence we call them vacuums right. So in space, unlike who was it that set it nature,
abhors a vacuum. Only on the surface of the earth do most of the universe is vacuum, so the universe loves itself, some back, ok, so to a region which is nothing except there is nothing. There is some little Higgs n he has ever go right as a win win things. The universe was settling down soon after the big bang that he exists. I she found a nice comfortable place tat too, to be resolute to take an and so to think of it as it it was it was falling, he'll in energy and found a nice dip in the energy that it could be in came to rest that that particular energy, but over that little hump? There may be a deeper drop in a much more preferential, comfortable, lower energy for the eggs. The Higgs field attacked a vacuum. Is it could get to that low Reggie point? It would go there because the universe, wondering you have, as does love to do, is being a low energy state? Does that something it it? It will do whatever it can, but it
needs to realise that over that little hump that low energy state is there one little part of the universe, to do to get the message that it can have a lower he snakes, always the universe. We at year end so the idea is you have this vacuum decay that little power vacuum the that, lower and state and all of physics Godaddy. No everything loses mass or particles, scan, suddenly move at the speed of light tat, weeks out, as we understand, we will become essentially photons and, let us say it, dogs and cats. Start dating one another. That reality is highly hypothetical, no one, no one leg of again: what happens to them?
universe realises that it is this new energy state an and nor will we thought that bubble expands and at the speed of light envelops. Needless, oh, but it but the universe is being so. Much depends where it starts, but if this is happening somewhere in the universe than well just get swallowed up in it, you are basically yes, what are the chances already happening? The chances we we have no idea, but I think it is lost or the vacuum state. Every time a slight over crater, like you know that it's the volcanic held there in this. Later there for industries awake in it does what it just sitting there yet ran to kill you now, if that water knew that it would have access to the ocean below it would go like that, but it doesn't know wrapped in this. That's good in this. In this it thinks it has reached the low ground, because water always true, finds the low spot, because waterways finds the lowest spot. It thinks it has reached a logo.
But it doesn't know that it can get lower, and so I, like I said I lose sleep. Wondering and part of the problem- is that because the the the new vacuum expanded the speed of light, we can see it coming because, like cut out pace it the first to get indication of we get would be like. So I felt like their innocence is nothing to fear that I'm just happen. I'm not going to help me meaning happening to you can't even watch it happened. Just may well have been, not a thing, that's not so bad! I mean I don't know for it, but where a simulation anyway, so like some, we really love being. I will also get guy. Let's from the internet address. Let's read this question ready de six ones
three six on Instagram asks. How was the Phoenix cluster discovered and why hasn't it devoured? Our solar system? I hope unity estimates of the Phoenix faster it miles? I guess that's another thing to fear well how about cluster? If you don't think, I know what the Phoenix Nebula of what is at its root beautiful stuff forming nebula on that score, I guess if some hundred, of light years away, its is is quite pretty bad government,
So I dont have this answers that specific question when it relates to it. If a black hole shows up somewhere, it doesnt automatically become some kind of huge vacuum, sucking up everything that it didn't previously. Second, before, given the mass that it once was, so black holes are not giant sucking machines earth if earth, if the sun became a black hole, all the plans will over centuries, sucked into the sun, but we would be harmed well, it would be cold. Very s. Only changeless super consumer call, as calls again as cold as is possible. So is this how we reassure people after the vacuum? Decay thing by people are afraid of science and more united and where there is the fear. So if it is closer than some black hole, they might have read about I've got the latest on it. But if that's the case, you needn't fear freshly form black holes because the great the gravity,
my black holes are scared because you get very close to them. It was a very small and we need to close them. You feel extraordinary gravitational effects on you If you maintain the distant you ve always had from their object, makes no difference to like. Oh, I always in Chicago. Would we be I'm here in New York now, because the black on different size of nice shoes oh and invest in yeah, yet it would be would systematically to earth I was out of the eight now be like the massive Jupiter Oceans, gay area. So there's this is about diet, monopolies or what it would have it was the size of a diamond that distort the earth. Tat would be the massive moving you I notice is earth, is a black hole, the size of like Terry? It's it's not normal. In diameter yourself, pomegranate seed, the black hole food that sounds that sounds rather to the types of black hole at the lodge. Collided, would produce in its when collides beams, those it be so the infinitesimally small that it shouldn't be a problem,
they should decaying to very run so the thing so miserably, ok, basically probably be ok. I promote yoyo right when it comes to the multi. Verse theory. Is there? any way to know the ages of the various universes, or would they all be the same? A wow So I think the answer is really no way given it there's no waited to test whether they exist. So here's an interesting of science. Generally, if you don't know anything, your first question is the simplest. Does it exist right then, when you confirm that it exists then you ask the next round of much. How long is it existed? Rail die? Then you know how big is it? What are the properties so right? Now we don't. We don't even know if multi versus exist right, much less are handing out ages to them and they the idea is these things pop in and out of existence forever. In some meadow clock,
right right into the assent. We want. We you how come when you know if there was another universals depends on the type of multi, even assuming their many different type, to choose from. What's what's what's sample of fighting in recent weeks, easy we're so there's the multiverse the idea of many worlds that that that the universe splits into to multiple realizations of itself at every little subatomic decision. That one is the same. There the same age because they will started from the same branching chain. Then you have the views of the famous many worlds interpretation. So then you have the if the multiverse that that expands from the war mentioned earlier in the show, the the eternally in fighting multiverse, one part of it. Just stops inflating so crazily fast and
just a regular big bang, inflation and those. Why don't you? Just need appearing or time in that credit multiverse one cool thing about those is that it may be possible to detect them. If you haven't have to, Universe is the convict he'd, like champagne bubbles and overlapped in the end We begin intersected and emerged. You would see, like rings on the coast, microwave background of coffee, stains of where they interacted back intervening, and we haven't seen them yet We must keep looking coffee one, where the actual space time that you're in has pockets of non causally connected expanding sections. In other words, we look out to our horizon, but beyond that,
rising there's a whole other universe, butts part of our space time, but we can't do will have access to it and so that there is huge fabric of space time and just universes dotting the space within it, and so an attempt should be as all night all should be, the same exact. I would say exactly they'll be the same: Big Bang, the birthday directory, but my favorite one is the one where it just as frothy foam. That is birthing, universes back and forth, and just the complaint number five, the second. Firstly small and with black holes when they form they create universes, because inside of a black hole, the mathematics tells you a whole other space time emerges on your side after, if cause you fall in you'll. Get to that after you see the future history of the universe from when you came unfold, no yeah, so yeah that ownership is just then I always knows we don't know. That's all right is a really great.
We gotta stop it here, so you ve been watching if you ve seen this on Youtube or otherwise. Listening to start on a cosmic queries. Addition, I've been your host Neil digress. Thyssen. Your person astral physicist as a huge moment, Eugene thanks for coming back. Thank you very much time. I will write reports. Do not start texting you, science plus a book. I know you are a lie. I gotta pick you up. I will gladly universe, we're friends. We want to know exactly exactly. I think, my friend and colleague metal doubt it who's, got it its own Youtube channels and PBS Digital Studios, and it's called space time based, I have ever space. Time goes to you type. A strangely doesn't go to Einstein's theory. It goes to you win,
real something like that. As always, we should listen to start talking commercial free joints Our talk on patriarch for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot com. Slash star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-22.