They could be transporters of life or harbingers of doom – Neil deGrasse Tyson answers fan-submitted questions on comets and asteroids with science author and cosmochemist Natalie Starkey, PhD, and first-time comic co-host Mark Normand.
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Illustration Credit: European Southern Observatory/M. Kornmesser.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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From the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming? All is based and start with science.
This: is STAR talk your host, Neil digress? Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist and today is a cosmic queries edition of Stock and I've got with me. Co host Mark Norman
Mark nice, the first timer a big fan. How to be here. I feel your local New Yorker Local got lost in the museum like an idiot. If you have to get lost anywhere it, let it be the American Museum in natural history that, during the day, yes,
We therefore want to get lost at night. Now I said
was using my night at the museum. Now
I've seen the movie using you
you're, you're, coordinate system from that movie, DIA avoid nobly we eat. You got here in one piece, which is excellent. Today's topic is comets and asteroids, and I know
little some about it, but animal as much as I should know about it to carry this episode alone. So we went in for backup, nice backup and is a good friend of ours. Who's been a guest,
before Natalie Starkey Natalie. Welcome back to start talk.
I knew I markets grades be here thanks for having me, we ve got you on line. You are unable to go. Not so we ve got her you're. The UK right now is a correct. Yes,
why am? I was over in California about three years living over there and now I'm back in the UK, so I'm getting used to the rain again and the cold and am very miserable. Could the rigour spoil that you were so accessible to us over those three years for German? Now that your basically UK person, so
so you're you're officially at science communicator, that's like a title that you carry for the open university just outside of London right. Yes, that's
yeah say I've been scientific research for about a ten or eleven years and not to go into writing, and I love communicating the science I d say I'm getting into a more seriously now so I sort of like a gonna serious science backgrounds. I know
quite a bit about commits an asteroid, say height flee. I can be of use today on hoping fingers crossed, so we ve got and I happen to have. I think what is your latest book called catching
addressed yeah harm its asteroids and the birth of the solar system, have it in my lap hold out for them.
I had to do a bit of product placement in exactly exactly where you to come back when they inside it. Definitely so we could call questions from our families. Yes, on this topic of comets and asteroids and
Let's, let's see what you got, not neither she nor I have seen these questions now. Let's check him out.
Out where the nerve racking
I'm a bit worried, I hate having my knowledge tested as to how it is because you don't I'll. Just have no forget idea, go onto the next question. These are pretty good. Read a few and I wanna go hand picked dispersal.
Kyle Ryan, toast,
it member richer, and we got to serve them first, yet only actually what it really be passed.
A hollow out an asteroid and use it as a starship
now how about that? One: ok
I'm gonna say no straight off just to be really boring, but actually one of the reasons we couldn't really do this with most asteroids.
Is that their either just too hard or they just not made of the right stuff say you know we ve
some stories I make complete metal, so I mean
the holy the out will be almost impossible. You know we ve talked about in a mining these in the past and we talked about in the shade quite a bit and is incredibly difficult to do that. So I think mining at a pure metal, ass rate would be hard and then the others that are made of either
Besides softer we describe, some of them has been a rubber piles that ecologists rock that's not very welcome
today is not very well put together, so that would basically break up as soon as you try to stop excavating anyway. So you'd have a bet.
Johns may be living on the surface, but I think even then you know there's no gravity essential
You say that kind of hard beast too.
When I don't think we're. Gonna live inside one, so very low grab some gravity,
right they do. They do have a little bit. Em back,
quickly- you would need to be tested on the surface of wondering. If maybe we went to the largest extraordinary biologists areas, the is about
thousand kilometres across sectors
he's gonna have a little bit of gravity, but if you jumped to high an EU he would probably just end up fleeting off into space. So it's not gonna, be a great environment to try and live on or
rather it so I think that the lesson there is just make your own damn space
MAC, but could you get a rudder on their I've been getting steer economy in a village? You wouldn't get any any
correction reality out meat. If it's just a hollowed out here, you need some kind of retro rockets affixed to the side of it, so that you can maneuver exactly rather than just like a homeless, shelter and inside a shell
we all there are thinking I've written question here, does a fun thought I'd? Let me thought this guy. He really a drill for Karl, you blew it locked nice job, Argyll, smoking
wade as it gets rid of that one picture on the outer covering all right. There's Rama, Michael Halter, men can comments, have different colors
diversity. Maybe when the ingredients in organic molecules are different, can they spread molecules for the beginning of life? Yeah, ok, say
I still have two questions as to the first, but was about the colors of them and give a sure when we see comments in the nice guy, they they calculated different colours and actually green is a really common. Color.
When we look at these objects and for various reasons, and when we look at a comment or an ostrich, maybe in the night sky with telescope, and they can
green and because of the oxygen this in them, but actually sometimes
You see a meter coming through. Basically, he can look where an asteroid break off into space and then had to the earth, and you see that as a viable in the nice guy. Sometimes they can
Green am and ass for different reasons, so that some because we have
the key I'm nickel, which is burning ass, I mentioned we have these mescal asteroids earlier and Nicholas, is one of the metals that they haven't them. An action that bands of the atmosphere that plays green,
This is sometimes you see this kind of green streak with a make sure you're quite lucky. If you say I've never seen it so by no people too
about it and so that the nickel kind of burning up say: yes, they definitely.
If, colleagues, what was the second part of question? I forgot no ready. This is not the end of your life that I've, whether the the ingredients within the tale of economy are the right ones to possibly spawned life yeah I hate it.
Finally, so this has been quite a recent research finding. Actually there we discovered, with some other recent missions to comment say in particular, the European Space Agency send the razetta mission to go and land on the surface of a comment back in twenty eight fourteen now and they discovered that
but she Goliath seen wishes at amino acid and within the comment. So we know that is basically these complex carbon,
I choose within them and say does every chance that you know they have different ingredients for life, and this is why we still to say well united
in the past and we think was bombarded by Comest asteroids from space and sir. It's a plausible way that we could have poor life and water.
As we know that these objects contain a lot of these ingredients. Are we need asteroids contain hundreds of amino acid, safe, say these are
space there very old every what we call primitive that some of the most the only things that formed in the solar system, but I can't
in all the ingredients that you need to basically build a planet and am build life on that.
So that this is why I find them such fascinating objects, because they just there
everything we need, and that would mean that life based on what you just said, life could be vastly more common in the universe. Then people might have previously says
yes, so the problem is a bit of a leak from going from just having the amino acids in the basic unit. Carbon calmed compounds in the they molecules to than getting
if a case it, has a massively because the problem is we might
these ingredients in space everywhere and that they might get every solar system. We can look at, but a poem,
It doesn't mean that we ve got life as we need some very special conditions to let those ingredients become life, I'm it isn't just a simple step, so we fix or special conditions, maybe their common
This is very true. We have any safer, observed life once and eyes on earth by
Doesnt mean that in the hundreds of billions of galaxies throughout their stores that there isn't life some one else, we just
unseen it yet no oversee. We don't actually know, there's no other life in our own solar system. We just
I've seen it, but we were pretty sure it doesn't exist on the terrestrial planets.
One is the need to use of the rocky ones near to the sun like much ravine us a Mars. Maybe they had life in the past. We have discovered that yet, but that there is
that there is life on. Some of these
It means, like Europa Enceladus things, so we know sure yeah, but there's a chance. They could, because they ve got a lot of the right ingredients for life. They ve got liquid water. They ve got
an end that basically the energetic bodies they ve got. They heat that they're losing so they have all the energy that they could create life in and help it
get along and move along, so we just Haven'T-
yet when he's gonna, let cornice emissions to Ireland and in look at these places more detail, but a challenging environment to send spacecraft. So that's one of our problem:
at the moment as Frankenstein's new doktor Frankenstein he catches Heather bra ingredients. You need energy right,
and he had like lightning bolt going to railroads on the on the neck. Yes, that's all the time
that's it well! I was well done. I beg you.
Have you got there? He added I let's see well done
Also, nickel- I did know about that.
Nickel. Now please open those radical richly brothers for
are the fireworks. Ah, there's all these metals that get burned in fireworks
you're the beautiful colors. I don't know why nickel nickel copper, what are they?
and their magnesium. I think Natalie yeah
I think that together, they basically is a bit like doing that flame test. You moved on in chemistry, lapses school. Basically, it's the same principles, each element.
Burned with a different color they. Basically, this is the principles of fireworks.
Being an and what we see burning up for him from each as we can tell a lot about what that aspirators me
if we can see a glowing sire, yes, fascinating. Since all news to me,
is another one from Ashley not originate on earth. Instagram instead was
their water did not originate on earth but instead was introduced by asteroids, but
wouldn't the water evaporate away upon entering the atmosphere. We burn up burner communism
So we must not now said the whole
what's wrong earth thing is, is definitely a bit
open debate. Still, scientists currently really to have a good consensus on where our water came from. So there is the problem is that, if started with all its water from the beginning, so our planet is about four point: five Billy
it was born out of this cloud of gas and dust really close to the sun, and
We think that the early cloud contained water, because are we going to interstellar space where all ourselves systems are made from and they destroy enough? There is water out that is, as ice of course is very cold, and now that gets kind of sweat top into the future,
install and, and then all the planet's born out of the cloud of gas industry is around must also said. He
twice bad. It could then be contained within the planet's that we form, but the problem is the very
as few millions last billion years of em over planets infancy is incredibly hard.
It's basically like a volcanic world. It really
wouldn't be able to support a lot of water. Less thought was sequestered away very deep within the planet. Maybe and- and it didn't evaporated the surface,
we're not sure whether we could have from the beginning had a water or whether shorn of it
We have a boiled off during the process and then we need to bring in later on, and we know we were bombarded by comets and asteroids about.
Four billion years ago. We just have to look at the surface of the moon, for that's actually, because you see that that beautiful created surface of the moon and actually
We were hit by as many things as the moon was hit by, but we have the single plate tectonics, where our surfaces
continually change and updated and resurface. We ve lost their evidence of all those.
Peters, whereas the means preserve them for us. So we know that we were hit in the past and sure enough. There is common sense
points contained water. Some of them did anyone know all of them and and they could, if they didn't, if they were long,
often they didn't evaporate as an explode completely on re entry through the atmosphere and remember our atmosphere was quite different back in the day and that we might have had much much within our atmosphere that didn't say them down as much and potentially
could have put a lot of water with them and for us trying to figure out where the water came from is very, very tricky because we need to find out, you know
The water looks like, and it's all mixed up now we ve got a mixture of all these different types of water, safe,
We want a measured now, it's very complicated, trafficker out exactly where it came from an and all the comments that different or the asteroids different. So it's we need to go out.
Measurable. These objects, then try and kind of peace. The story together, but it is important if we want to understand why
this here. Why were the only planet and also a system with liquid water? The surface is a question that we really want to answer to understand. Where life
from his well show that was a yes.
It is abundantly clear from Donnie Huss
one one, three o from Instagram, how much
material dash asteroids contain, and how much are they worth cigarette comedian? Who will sharpen then say of the metallic asteroids that have like metals? We care about
can you guess, estimate the value of them in the
the value mean if they're out there verses, if we brought them back to earth and now they're just on earth like value was just happy values. It is flexible thing.
This right is actually is sort of like the diamond ass. She like there's plenty of diamonds on earth. We can find plenty of them and actually lot of them have been mind, but then
the diamond mark is controlled, because if we release delays, diamonds onto the market and one guy with flood, the mark and the price would drop say in a big time in coming
its don't want that to happen, so they control that market, save it sort of the same thing with these asteroids and
one s story that cater there's a mission and ass, a mission that she going to be an asteroid. Could sixteen psyche annex may purely a matter? We don't understand a lot about sexual, but is quite large and actually
team the countries goes this asteroid of estimated that as well.
Ten thousand quadrillion dollars,
and not just the ion within that. So basically, if there was a mine that whole asteroid, which would be impossible because it's too large and may we did- we have no way of doing this at the moment, but if we was bound to figure that out- and we will all if that message back to earth- and
african reflect the market and it wouldn't just kill. The metal market would kill the entire economy because we wouldn't know what to do with their sight, so they're worth a lot better
one of these is
We don't really know how to currently mind than we don't know how we would extract that muscle and we don't necessarily want to bring it back to the planet to be caught on it
we would like to bring some back, but actually one of the reasons we want to mine in space is to fail to further explore space itself, so we could use these materials.
Tragedy in a make.
So we might have a base on the main, where we actually manufactured materials and spacecraft, whatever we needed and tools to actually go,
further into Space- say- there's a lot of economical
questions around mining asteroids and is not just the signs of how we do it is then, looking at you know how it works.
Some, what we're gonna do with materials that we get
rebuttal. Now it's it's funny to just a sign of value to something which, if you obtained it, would not
their value. Yet I see ass. It does nothing really glad we're a weird economic facts. Right ray of this, sir,
I never thought I'd give money out of an asteroid. The old nurse iron is not uncommon on earth right. So
can that leave that if you are going to bring a metal from an asteroid to earth, you bring a rare metal that we can,
use in ways that we can't do now. We can
If you bring all that iron is some Elsie gonna, do it
there were not already doing with iron nice. That's the thing in and the thing about these asteroids is akin to contain a lot of iron, but they can t may be less than two percent of precious metals that thing
platinum and golden these, these metals that we use in technology is the law and the modern day and nothing as they can
in very low percentage of days, but that is still a lot more of these precious metals them. We mine in any one year on our planet, because the thing is about them,
metals on earth is that their distributed throughout the crust of the earth and not very well concentrated safe to my name? It takes a lot of effort. We have to.
A couple of land in order to get these metals resident just went to an asteroid ILO easier to obtain and that sort of concentrated in and these objects. So these them
Those are very important because
the moment. We don't have a continued infinite supply, so the kinds of India.
Through technologies will looking and united advanced technology to what's develop a vessel,
held back by the fact. We don't have the infinite supply of some of these precious metals that I think that's the key point, because it's not that you just gonna, sell the metal and somebody's gonna then make jewelry out of it or something there's industry that uses metal. Yes,
so it in Naples and it no matter the price it enable certain industry that would otherwise be enabled keep what brats we should think of it, just as the metal as a pure thing, but the metal isn't it as a neighbour of other ideas that engineers would pull out of the box. We gotta take a breath,
mark you still here: oh yeah, Doktor, Natalie, Starkey, still air yeah out there.
Outside a London thanks for pipe in, and we are talking about asteroids and comments on this cosmic queries edition of Start or will see the moment.
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Unlocking the secrets of your world and everything orbiting around it. This,
start off we're back, hasn't equerries addition marked norm, oh yeah,
time, oh yeah, air watching for Doktor, Natalie Starkey, you still there with us
I'm still a serious or expert carnage and asteroids another topic for the day yeah. I know a little bit as she knows a lot earlier.
Are we brought her on for this, for this episode mark my words
subject. Have you got your questions on this?
Amelia laborious well what we term the nickel in the iron. If, if you request
you can do it I'll? I just wonder if you feel it never, even if
and tame diamonds.
And we mind them, and we got the diamonds and diamond prices went away down on earth. Would women still want them
thousand yeah I mean the thing is they do contain diamonds and actually is and more special than the diamonds we have on our say tat. She saw it like
interstellar. Diamonds are older than even better our solar system said it, but a tiny. This is the problem so that you know the kind of hard to find. So you ve, probably wouldn, T need a microscope tat. She say on your ring finger. Some by you could tell everyone, especially there was an air carrier brought US dollar
Here we are Kimberly
I owe on Instagram underscore Kimberly dad I oh, how
There's an asteroid come across our solar system? We,
She has, while we really know if his nostrils
a comment, but there was an object recently called a move which has a hawaiian word for a sickly kind of like foreign traveller or something and and its object. That appeared, and it was traveling gray, faster, our solar system and some as astronomers in in Hawaii Sore and found it fast, and that's why you gotta hawaiian name, and it was true.
So far the difficulty it shouldn't have come it can every region within our solar system, say there
You decided that it must have come from another star system somewhere. They have no idea. Where is it?
cleanest, affront to figure. That out am but basically
It was going so far sitting catches in a wood to our sun, so just kind of school
I am sorry it didn't and into orbit into our solar system, and this subject has probably been travelling for innovation.
She billions of years across interstellar space. We didn't have with only sailor system, its travelled through, but it's going on this massive long journey. Now, of course, the subject could have actually collided with the planet and we wouldn't have seen a coming because it was going so quickly and it was relatively small. It was very dark and really really hard to spot
but the thing we realize now is that we ve spotted it because our technologies got so much better at trying to spot things in the night sky is actually probably happened.
Poor. Probably we ve had these visitors from other parts of the galaxy many times before, but let us not seeing them and sure
of our income, its nest rights could be out there visiting other sources,
and it's just something that happens during the process of forming a star in and the planets around it. That is a little bit chaotic and so common asteroids are essential.
Some pieces left over that didn't, become a planet and sometimes cause their small.
Inga objected out of the solar system, all they got thrown in the sun and land and a fiery death, but some of them get thrown out and, and
the end up, leaving the sun's gravity in and they go off into
Asian them there's nothing stopping them. They're gonna keep going so say yes,
really cool it, we ve got these objects. If we can start identify more of them in the future and actually look for them, then we might also launch missions ago and maybe sample one one day, which will be amazing, is we'll find out about the chemistry of another star.
Stand, which is something that I would be very interested in, but yeah the moment we ve only seen one man it's kind of gun. Now it's exiting the solar system and its going on his merry way into the abyss, while its very work into the
That was why I look up homo or more. I think it means scout, like a first of yours, journey person onto a new life into a new place, a scout,
They have a nice day. When I get is it is, it is quick. Question may not be answerable from Paul Pimentos on Facebook. Can we track where asteroids came from specifically where they originated
the year. Definitely I'm so. Actually I mean this is
better than that. Sometimes we get a meteorite ends upon on the planet, so this is just a rock from space that will usually come from an asteroid.
Can come for another planet. If we ve seen
coming through the night sky, incoming burning up through the atmosphere and then his losses are basically camera networks out there now and one of them in the deep australian outback em, and they just basically have cameras summer night sky to register these
taxes that coming in and what they want to do is figure out an exact trajectory for them so that they can basically backtrack that with amazing
and actually figure out where object originated and and trying to track it back to the asteroid. About itself we can so I've checked
our calculations in the same way by analyzing the chemistry
of those rocks. We can go and pick up that rock is basically that nowhere landed cause. They ve got that trajectory coming in on the cameras thing and pick that rock analyze in the lab and compare it's what we know about the objects and asked where that already say. Yes, it's actually possible
very complicated work by it and would make it much more progress, whether in probably the last decade or so, and that yes, we can deafening sought. Bigger,
and we also know if it came from another planet- ass, much easier to work out at geneva- came for another planet, then than any old to caress troikas. Those kind of billions of them about ass, though it does, it is tricky. Those westward with very few were planet yeah, thereon
aren't you many planets, but as probably like, maybe two billion
Freud survivor, kilometer in the story about, say: there's an old
of them in their millions, more small ones. I am there are love objects Alba, but a lot of them ass. He sat there in these. These groups there and families that are all different. They all their groups that share similarities and where they were made and on what they contain. It's like a twenty three
even for an age idea. It is even an android goes up, jewish
how large those from Renee Douglas Patria listen up. How large does a captured
asteroid need to be in order to be called a moon and cannot comment also be kept.
And so the first part I mean, in fact
I don't? U causes a memory because somebody asteroids themselves
means around them and we ve actually site is going to be found.
Two hundred means around asteroids now: cities, small objects, orbiting and basically attach too
destroyed in some way that them
associated with it. Now the thing about the asked reasons
Is that even the largest asteroid we know, all of which is sir, as is only about a quarter,
the size of our me, so even the biggest one, and even if you pack them all together
see all the asteroids, an asteroid, bow and put them all together in one blog
they would only be about four percent of the mass of the maid said those laws.
Out there, but that is not very big. So if you wanted to catch
an asteroid will you wouldn't be capturing one of the largest ones and because this sort of light in aid
thousand mile hundreds of kilometres in diameter safe they just to capture when master of accidents and studies looking at potentially capturing asteroid whatsoever,
I got something it sounds kind of crazy, but that literally with ass little planning, Orison group and and and looking on the ground,
forty metres am so? It's not gonna, be particularly massive and it's not gonna pose a problem if it goes
be wrong, although that would still be an issue. Is that collided with upon it, safe sea and terms of catching them? You
capture some really massive, because you I mean if it went wrong, need they really in trouble. Amistad collided with us czar
we know that more than
Why are we now? I don't know anything and I'm on my way right now, but why hit by more asteroids and and realize it and feel it when we do get hit, relocate or plows through now equipment from wrong several hundred tonnes?
of Meteor dust a day. Why send on earth? Just my ploughing through interplanetary space and does it make a dent know most of it just just settles as dusk has lost all its energy coming through the atmosphere.
Is big enough. The ploughman is like us arise, relationship
invest relationships, the bigger the asked read this:
heading four the planet, all it's gonna comes. We demonstrated the less frequently at heads
The really small pieces of dust. I literally raining down all the time, I'm an actual might for meat rights or basically start ass, an
he came to the larger objects like the ones that killed off the dinosaurs, for example, than daytime hit very frequently in every
ten thousand, maybe one million years or more and probably more in fact, for ones that size we hadn't events in Russia back in twenty thirteen. It was called Chelyabinsk And- and it was about twenty meter asteroid m- says only large s- kind of like a double decker bucks and that didn't kill anybody. But it's cool
while of damage in the region, and it had to speak Sonic bade him is. It came through the atmosphere and actually blue windows and everything in there and tell him in town and so on. We didn't it. I was coming because it was actually quite small. We didn't, we didn't see it, we haven't spotted it before arrive safe it. I guess they they have been enormously if died.
Caught Central London, I'm pretty faces Central London. That's about sixty miles across
Maybe if you take great London into account- and actually that would be quite honest
if that had landed in the Centre of London, save it just sort of lucky that most the planet his sword.
Empty, and a lot of these asteroids tansy land in the oceans. Semi, don't see them in that it causes any harm, but yeah they do
and though, just blood
ones, not often
it somewhere allowing Russia's the place
Is that a political statement or or a Jew geography,
stay glad. I don't know anything about collusion whispered country with the largest landmass, a good, that's what I was land, so it's gonna get more asteroids
or more common cause, and allow me to say that sounds good, but that's what I get for conquering
you conquer, you got a real and they bore asteroid. Go it's all right
I would also get ailing Natalie as from Frank Kay,
Patreon Member out of Orlando Florida
Is there a really clear distinction between comments and asteroids? I mean commas generally of
the moroccan them and asteroids have a lot of
poison gas in them right. Where do we?
while the line very early at the other way round that the asteroids a kind of the rocky hard metallic ones classically, and then the comments
the icy dusty, does
stables of everyone's call them and then give us this sort of works am is, is a pretty like old distinction that we always fall back on
the brakes classical view of these objects are actually what we finding as we go. Look at more and more of them is that we ve got a lot of asteroids DEC
contain quite a lot of water ice and other I says, like method,
and things- and we have some comments-
completely dry because, for example, if they ve been around the sun a lot of times and
and they ve been basically having their volatile. Ices been awful, the time then, and there
be drawing. They sort of look. Therefore, like an asteroid say, there's a lot of this autumn is like a continuum. We think pretend
he's a continuum compositions. We got some things that deftly live like this classical asteroid, something that definite like a comment is great. I see
a lot of material and between them and at the moment we are still trying to piece together that story
basically where these objects formed and therefore what there and made off today and they ve also been affected by
the concern that four point six billion year history, since they formed surrogate, get. Basically, we have that distinction, but it doesn't always work, but we have yet to see or metallic comment
truth, but they do yeah yeah
we haven't. I mean if, if you had a purely metal objects, how there than its
an asteroid, in fact in this sixteen psyche, Astro did. They want scan locality thing could be the centre of our planet and that was kind of
blown to pieces at some point in the past and when a law, it might maybe collides with another asteroid safe, it had basically in the earth we ve got, is metallic cool and that's what happens to these. The large objects in this
the system that differentiate so there be of magma and then that the heavy metal
airline that magma the metal falls to the middle of the planet and the light.
He's on the outside, with they experience and impacts. All of this, what we call the crust
answer, which is the lightest stuff on the planet. It gets kind of blown off
as an eagle laughed with this solid cool, which is very hard to break up. So that's what we think
as one theory of what this asteroid could be, so we can study it actually look at the
or of a planet which is incredibly hard to do, because we can't drill to the core of a planet, say:
objects are really valuable scientifically. For that reason, outcome
could we fill them and watch them hate each other, like there'd, be a green paper very because very cool paper view bet on I'm late with the mob.
I got. Hayley did have a collision where there's a comment that was predicted to and of course successfully collided with, cause is predicted to do so.
The planet Jupiter. Why hobbled telescope and everything it was. It was amazing. Send me the link,
It was amazing our I now urge those accommodate got ripped apart into multiple pieces, so like a train of cars
one after another and they didn't hit the same spotted Jupiter. You know why jouberts big
Don't you rotate so rotate afresh bit of its surface and drew next? Peace would hit there. So by the time everybody hit
there was this line of impacts, cars in the atmosphere, Jupiter, whose beautiful beautiful beautiful beautiful I loved. But how did it
just don't you. I would not burn up in the atmosphere and increasing receiving the residue of that collision ice or the energy would vaporize thee. The volatile
but it would also vaporize the rocks to wouldn't it badly.
There's a lot of air. Had it gently
don't have depends. It really just saw depends what that thing is made. Also, as I said, if we just had a purely kind of fluffy comment, it was great ice easily. Imagine just taken a snake
adding a bit of dirt,
then compacting its gather, a little back is that you know came through our.
Atmosphere of any planet. I always say
He would break up very high up and and regional causing damage. I wouldn't get to the surface, but, as I said, this is sort of continuing
composition of some of these comments are a bit more rocky, so actually the moon, Rocky and the more metal components that object contains. The more likely is to survive,
embankment muscle! Please don't you re high temperature before it's gonna melter explained so silly?
this is why it's hard to predict what's gonna happen so actually being able to see that one eating gipsy was very informative. We can actually trying to figure out what
was made of and by the way, did reacted tee to deeds? Atmosphere, so is the same when they occur in heading two. If we think ones coming for us, then we really want to understand
is made even if it's actually can oppose any risk to us, because surely enough, you know, if it was just made of ice, probably is not going
it very harmful, even if it's an enormous is pretty.
You're gonna Disney homicide,
This is why you want to understand them in more detail and understand the composition and a structure as well. So we have to break with back for a third of three seconds of cosmic queries. Asteroids and come.
In addition with doktor badly starting
the future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal star, die
Star, talk we're back cosmic wearies, asteroids and calmness addition with our friend and colleague, Natalie Starkey.
Phone in from London, Apsidal London,
We miss you ass. They turned we're here for three years and then you just left us.
I know I know I miss California as well, but I'm is really far from home. So it's nice to be back in the reign of Joy said, though
ever level. She she briggs at it regrets that. Yes, yes, so so,
Sorry, don't worry so mark you, my calls for today, Vietnam, as nobody have for us here. We girls go
void Walker. Ninety two off Instagram are there any asteroids with their own natural satellites.
Currently known? If so, how common or uncommon is this and how to
the dynamic effect trap, tracking and understanding trajectory of the asteroid
Nice Jamak says redress unable to that Norway and urgently- and I say that quite a lot of austria-
tat means, say natural satellites around them and is probably other bits of material.
Same asteroid, but we're not sure because we haven't studied them in detail. One of the problems is that we can actually see them
he's late because they asked for themselves a small,
I feel that means around them, or even smaller, say we found about think is overdue,
trade means and asteroids now safe? We don't
you know that their we want to study them in more detail, because it will tell us more about the object itself and how the object food, you think, those asteroid, you think those moods dislodged from the asteroid itself.
To become a mere one option, or it could be that they capture them, like you say, with some of the means that we see around planet three, the captured moon, so that formed somewhere else in the sailors.
So that planet and then a basically that planet was large, and so this gravity attracted other objects to it. I'm around mean, for example, didn't form in that way.
From the earth itself during a massive collision about four and a half billion years ago, and had it basically threw off about our own planet and then it coalescence were made and it was then Ebay trapped with the earth
so this different ways to form them, but we need to study more them to figure out exactly how they hold. That's crushed well said: well, Sir, Richard stand house from fake
hi, guys loved the show kisses, I'm listening on specifies in September.
Earn twenty eighteen, whilst I'm at work and I'm as far back
season. Two can't get enough
regular Natalie is to get to it anyway. My question is there a point between stars were comets or asteroids
under no influence of gravity at all and if they somehow
lost momentum. Would they hang in that space till the?
of time from North Wales, UK. I love it read the question,
Question Mcguinness, good. I actually Amy found out recently myself that some of the comments
Are we not all cloud which is that the cloud of materials,
outside of our break
surrounds our solar system, so everything and also the system is on a plane, is on a disk or the planet's nor comets newly asteroids
and then we ve got this all cloud around us, which is always icy object
which we actually have never seen any of them, because that so far away and some of them
edge of that will cloud, a faraway that they're almost not gravitationally bound to our own son and they're, always closer to the next hour system. So secure enough
I don't know what happens at that point. I mean, I guess, maybe some really clever astrophysicist, maybe figure out what is happening to these objects out there, but am, but yet I could easily be.
Yeah, I'm perturbed, we would say they might be pushed around by the gravity of another star system and then and then EVA thrown out of our solar system completely or pushed in that they are. She come in and visit
the sun and the inner sailor system? But that's a great question. You're there susceptible motion, we, the sun, the planets and everything that the family warm orbiting. The
and are the galaxy among other stars. So even if you have a precarious,
we positioned comment at the edge of this or cloud and it doesnt have a gravitation.
Allegiance? Eventually it will career move, we're moving past other stars. Somebody's go snatch. It
yes and or perturbed and descend back.
Into our star. He, oh so yeah,
things, are always in motion, if you're, without allegiance that wouldn't be for long, I'm so jealous anxiously glance, oranges, name for a guy named Yon or who is a dutch astronomer, midcentury mountains restroom, who first proposed
was the existence of this reservoir of comets was he gave a little theoretical like when you have this later there? It was there and then stone already proven as such.
Not really seen it say,
A faraway will never get. Baron unitedness does space about the now voyage. They're, not gonna, get level tens of
thousands of years and say yes to trick you I'm. Could we get
go pro on one. I know you think what process was mid twentyth century ass if he was persecuted for suggesting his this out
those are relatively few fifties right here,
precisely. For that reason they were very religious.
Then right to with that
We go bread, Larue, also patriarch.
We were a mine, a significant amount of a comment. Would this change its orbit? And if so, how could we be sure that would not
said into motion future collisions that would result in a major earth impact o.
Generalised that question as we start
poking around with it
landing on them.
Mining them. What risk does that pose to taking what was previously a safe orbit and turn it into an earth crossing word it that could then kill us
yeah it's it's a huge risk. It is a huge risk, but this is why the people there
doing it probably looking at facing on the smaller
through its all comments, if they want to look at comments, but is generally asteroids we're talking about a moment and because then, if they were to dislodge onto an orbit, it was then hazardous one for our planet, then it hygiene.
An open atmosphere, nor causes any issue, but in terms of mining there
we probably wouldn't just goes in the mind, and we want to drag them somewhere. What we would consider a safe all that and say this might
near the moon. Why? Basically, you can just kind of dump the staff and it just sort of sits there? Is this gravitational sweet spot where the thing is? I believe, a small enough
Jake does not gonna go anywhere and then what you could do is have a base on them.
It and go back and forth to the object to mine it gradually, so it basically just want to get
I must say first because sure enough, if you start mining it, you are gonna
You probably gonna change so that in some way, and then is hot predict how it's going to spin and we're going
up in the future question? Why are rightly becoming fascinating stir affair
she cared when the US
How did your way your care show that Germany come the most important people in the world today that out of seeing the bruise Willis movies that less than the maybe nobody double generally jaws, because you guys care so much about you. It makes you learn
the die alone and an aid, because the air, by leaving I'm dead inside Doug Bartlett on Facebook,
I know we have found organic material in tardy grades on asteroids. My question is
Are these tar degrades, thriving quota
quote on these asteroids or in a state of hibernation. If alive, could it be possible that two asteroids collide or contact and cross breed organism organisms
Ok, I'm not entitlements. We have found high degree of asteroids now. Also that's true. I could that until living them- and we haven't found anything living said he turning areas like these crazy organisms can basically survive anything there insane and picnics survive extreme
she's in temperatures and they can also just gains hibernation, for I think, like
tens of years unless it is based.
He's a vibe anything, and I come back to life again. I literally this is the very edge of my knowledge about these things. This is an area where asked revival of age is only do, but they have
A thousand asteroids, but I think the theory that talking about his pants permeate where we basically looking a transport
biological material around the same system and for one object object to another, and- and that's one of the theories of how life got to earth, in fact, is not that. Well accepted, and in
I don't know I don't. It is fair to say that, but I mean I don't believe it personally. I don't think that's how I ve got to earth
either. There is a chance that the basic building blocks for life than the more basic carbon molecules came from
commenced. Asterism were delivered to earth in that way, but the actual organism
Cells went as far as I'm concerned anyway. Well, but you just said that the tardy great can survive anything so create revive a trip through space.
As I stole away in the nooks and crannies on a rock they got catapulted from one planet to another,
So you said that earlier in this programme, I tat- I did you say
now you're saying that you're not by an o colony. I call on you out, so I think
the issues we need reliable scientific proof say we need
did you those experiments. We need to take those books into space, and I mean I'm sure she on the outside of the international space station. They ve taken organisms and basically seeing how they react to that radiation environment, because this nor eat em some pressure of a sea weed
radiation. All biological cells can't deal with that. We get cancer, we die very quickly. In fact, you know the actual
space there, a much higher risk of radiation poisoning than you would be on the planet say. This is one of the problems that by
monsieur hasn't space it we need to do those experiments. We need to take these bugs out into deep space,
If they survive in and see, if we can grow things out there as well,
So until we do that, I'm I'm not sure that things can survive. Indeed,
No son lie for
billions of years the wine that we require, but you know I'm I may be totally wrong.
That's a good way to end every statement, although I prefer the term special needs grades target
great you. I see what you do there well done overcoat theory. This is quite a speed date, so so that we
we're running out of time. Do you have any sort of reflections, simple reflections, you'd, like the viewer listener, to take with him as a as a lesson for this programme?
yeah. I think I am, I think you know someone like me:
Probably right wondering why I am so interested in these objects. I think it's just because I'm inherently interested and where we came from anyone on this planet for very long most of us a hundred years, if we're lucky and and in that time I think well, let's give a purpose- twilight, had loved to figure out why we hear how we got here and and what we leading to our future descendants and if basically, we may have only got here because of comets asteroids
and actually in the future, we may die off because of consciousness
They could collide with us and in a devastating,
all of humanity. Since I want
understand these objects for men,
reasons because of how we got here, but also to protect us in the future, and we need to understand what these things are made of and what their orbits are and understanding such details that we can actually protect the planet. I think it's important idea which is concerned about it, but not worried. I don't think we'll be worried. Its moral, we're all gonna die an asteroid impacts other. It could happen
something we need to be concerned with statistics and if each has not we're not leaving, I'm ruined planet to in maybe it'll be ruined and other ways, but we're not gonna leave it ruined with an asteroid impact in the future, and we can actually do something about it and develop an asteroid. Foreheads I'd like to think picking up on your point. Naturally, it is in truth, it's an intriguing and under appreciated fact that asteroids and comments may have been the breakers of life among the ingredients of life, but perhaps even life itself, and yet they can also serve
as harbingers of do for the very life. Then it brought while his usual, and that is a cosmic perspective
when listening to possibly even watching this episode of STAR Talk, cosmic queries, asteroids and competition. I want to thank Natalie, Starkey friend and colleague, who went back across the.
On a good luck in your your new science teaching exploits
at the opening diversity. In the Uk- and
I was going to help at how to help people find more of you out there,
I'm stuck, he started on Twitter. Instagram Isaac choose my name, so struck his first great banned from the sixties.
And you are
one of our start? Our all stars, I,
Yes, why? How other shows that you can go and listen to you? I've had about fallen out. I got some water in the solar system and asked for a lot of extra staff. I'd lictor the miles inside mission, which is actually more than a moment, said as a few things you can check out nice very good and
a link to their shape in the description were excellent. Virtually a mark. You argue you get
I get around on the road every weekend road again my comedies dealings and accommodate club near you and I go to Mark Norman comedy dot com and I love her dates. Are there is there in cipher and clever and funny? I love you
What more can we ask for what the world needs today
your big inspiration, air traffic, light tweet. I concur that sensible joke. That's a very old! I am obsessed with jokes. That's a great show! All you! I tried joking put its don't, then always land, but no I'm coming from thy love it. I lavishly german, our right! That's room, start off in your hosting photographs, taken your person
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.