Bill Nye the Science Guy is back to delve into one of his favorite topics of discussion: climate change. Joined by co-host Chuck Nice and Kate Marvel, an Associate Research Scientist at NASA GISS and Columbia University, Bill and company answer fan’s Cosmic Queries about our changing climate.IMPORTANT NOTE FOR STARTALK FANS: Hey, StarTalkers: How would you like to “Keep Looking Up” at clear, starry skies, from the deck of a StarTalk themed-cruise, along with Neil deGrasse Tyson and your fellow StarTalk fans? We’re considering a cruise, and we want to know what you think in this survey: www.startalkradio.net/CosmicCruise.NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/cosmic-queries-climate-science-with-bill-nye/
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Dartle begin right now, greetings greetings STAR talk fans, bill nigh here, I'll, be your host this week. Joy and why none other you're, not gonna, believe this? Will you probably what Nice is year unbelievable and our special guess this week is Kate, Marvel from Columbia, University and the NASA Goddard Institute for space studies here in Manhattan in New York, New York, the towns or nice they need. The twice, and so for this all star addition we're going to be talking about climate change, a yes, we are and shock you gotta
Questions from the peoples, some some queries from our from our fans that and take it from all over. The entire website will stand by a moment. So Kate miracle, you Kate, please tell your marvel. I like it. The marbles Awesome really cool essay. I can't live up to digest here. I just see a superhero senator guy. You think you have me now doktor, but then she because she's wearing her modus scarf right? I am yeah. This is this. Is the aleutian Islands cloud cover taken by my the modus instrument? Are good and the moderate resolution in imaging. But trot respectful, radiometer spacecraft, am I am I gonna blow the lid off everything. If I say we literally just google that over lid off, which you would blow it is since you're wearing the scarf
It is reasonable that you would know what it stood for. It is true terrible about cyber my lad. I was on my own land and how it shows you, the value of acronyms, easier than full dignity for descriptions and they're not just to show and they become a name and then we'll get back to work in a moment. The NASA itself has become a word. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is a word and sorts appropriate that modus his word now, but that set what is you're? What are you study clouds? I am, I think, a lot of things and it's a queer thing about being a climate scientists. Is you never get bored so I do it a bit of work in the oceans. I do a little bit of work with clouds. I do better look a little bit of work with China understand why rainfall is going to do as the climate changes. So I'm really all over the place, but kind of the unifying theme of my work. As I am a physicist. That's that's my training.
I use computer models and observations to try to understand what climate change actually means and listening to your sounds like water is a focus yeah. I am a big fan of water. I like to drink up for right, you know what I'm sands warmer there's more ocean evaporates more Clyde. You get the more closure of the more sunlight, reflected back into space which might cool the place. Was powerful greenhouse gases, water vapor, your habit. Clouds are so complicated that, because not only do clouds reflect sunlight, but they also trap heat from the plan, so that kind of play this dual role, which means it's really hard to understand. What's gonna happen to them as the planet heats up, we you'd have to be scientists to figure that out. So you right, your computer models, I work with You two models here:
do a little butter writing them, but mostly easing their output, some essentially a data scientist in essence, prisoners there are many data to crunch should are a lot of data, and so what is your feeling. What is the word? Goin. For here. I think the phrase I'm going for years when the curves cross the system the world's getting warmer human this seems focused are not doing anything about it. When will we do something about it and when will we of address climate change, no pun intended Oh boy. Oh, that's a really good question I mean I should I should say I am a physicist, so it's my job to tell you what happens when you put carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, so I dont really feel like. I have much special expertise and how we not do that or how we take it out. But I am an optimist. Blake I mean that's. Just my personality. I want to believe that we're going to do something about this and you know
think we have seen this here like weather. Has been in the news a lot we ve had made The hurricanes we ve had major forest fires. In California, and I think this is really getting people talking about this. Like oh hey, maybe there might be something to this climate change, then so along with something to this. I was always serve, would papers, I've, rodents and so on. Its very difficult ty any one? Whether event climate change, but then I guess was two years ago people said you can tie warm weather events, extreme he'd events to climate change. Now, are we able to tie for sure the fires to climate change. Because there are there so many complicated factor, as you know, cause is not just about climate change, its about land management. It's about our choices, and you know when we left air burn it's about where we decide to live, so it's really difficult.
A team that climate change signal out of that noise, but the wearily to think about it. Is in terms of doping, so land Armstrong is really go to. Writing is by cry like glanced. I'm sure I would win by Cray says mentally, but we Oh, that Lance Armstrong was doping and it really make centre for me, it's not the right question to say: did doping cause? They answer to win that seventh toward a France, but we know what doping does. So. The answer is yes, The answer is probably you know, the answer is power, and so it's not really the right question. If this particular race would he have won it without doping, we say we know what doping dies and we know. What was in your bloodstream and so we're gonna, take away those titles right. This is in stark talk sports, but this is quite relevant. So what is the right question? I think the questions are doping, the weather and, I think, answer is yes, so in the case of hurricanes,
it's really hard to tell. If, for example, you know, is climate change going to lead to more frequent hurricanes, I think the jury is still out on that and you know, would there have been a hurricane Harvey without climate change? You don't like hurricanes happen all the time right now we wheat we get them, but what about the number of hurricanes and the intensity of these hurricane? Yes, but that's that's where you start to get on really solid physical ground, so warm water is Hurricane food hurricanes draw their energy from warming oceans, so warm ocean. The chairs, and we know that the oceans are getting warmer and probably continue to get warm or in the future I also know that warm water holds more or warm air holds more water, vapor, and so that means when hurricanes dump rainfall on areas like Houston. There is a lot more water that they can dump, and so that's kind of turbocharging thought how were doping, the weather, and so you know, would there have been
hurricanes without climate change. The hurricanes happen. Would hurricane Harvey in particular have happened without climate change, Probably wouldn't have been as severe does the oceans warmer than normal. So I got more. Food got my food then those more water, vapor and the atmosphere, so I can dump more rain. So I read a paper. This is several years your were, people are trying to in the case of hurricanes. Trying to decide whether there be more stronger hurricanes or would they yet stream move for so far South would essentially decapitate hurricanes in this convection situation wouldn't be a strong so hard to figure out what you have to win that lead to its own little special spate of unbelief, Billy, disastrous Let's go problem, a problem. If I understand it dark is the ocean getting bigger because getting warmer and so
Oregon coastal cities are gonna be affected, and for me. Peoples as a citizen. If you shouldn't gets her hurricane like this every couple years, every five years, Katrina every ten years or people gonna leave Apparently they did a study in its or ask yourself listen. Viewer. Ask yourself your she's destroyed you're standing there were we neurons or were in Houston. Your house is not destroy it's there, but all the world I'll have to be removed, probably has to be most. A torn down your cars ruined everything you own is ruined. You got a couple pictures that are soggy in crinkled up. And someone says you I'll- give you thousand hours for your house, which you paid In Houston area, three and fifty thousand dollars, many p
which go yeah, I'm leaving taken idea and where are they gonna go I'm awfully Matt New York? That's all I'm saying Why not because I'm here and its crowded enough, so you know- amazes me about New York you and I, the three of us, were busy? Who are these other people? this is therefore a thousand people on every drugs you people have hall. What are you doing out here has go home notice that this weird way This crowded city of New York is more efficient living then, for example, Houston and so on. So dark As you study this you gotta, be, king. The situation is getting worse and worse or more more pronounced. My situation climate is changing more and more rapidly than that be shown scientifically, or is that just intuition on my part,
I mean in terms of the you know the rate is is accelerating it it it matters. What Ariel you look like. Are you looking at some eggs, you acts or, let's look at acts that happened had an ex become deeper although some got something some tradition yeah. I know I read a bad thing. Drama time ago about algebra and the big question was worded are come from. That's where I started off the ideal gas law constant anyway, did it found somebody righteous math paper and its sticks. Few unmanned papers, but I caused us to digress. We pick a variable. Take it doctor marvel I mean, is it depends on what you looking, because I think a lot of people think o climate change means the average temperature of the earth is gonna change and- and that's true, but, like nobody cares about the average temperature of the earth re or certain shock, I'm gonna agree. You not do.
About the average temperature until this time right here, never really thought about the average temperature always concerned about the TIM sure where I am exactly exactly Hope you don't know, the experience is the average temperature right and you know like right now, when it's cold outside in New York. I think it's sixty degrees Fahrenheit, like that seems like a pretty nice temperature I'd like to experience at but climate change through all these other different factors rate. So we experienced changes and rainfall. You know, like you pointed out sea level rise. We experienced things like be no changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events and but not all of those things are sort of changing nicely and linearly. We are expecting kind of step. Changes were expecting really but changes in indifferent variables would so what's a variable, that's gonna have a step. Change or dramatic change does why you're sipping I'd like to talk
and briefly about make yes, so I offered both Mark Moreno engine. Joe Bastardi, notorious notorious climate? Contrary instead appear often on Fox NEWS, I offered to me to ten thousand our bets. The twins, Sixteen would be the hottest year on record that so far at that time, and when he turned twenty. Twenty will be the hottest decade on record and neither one of whom would take about forty thousand hours on the table. Neither one of them would it wouldn't take, even though they are dyed in the wool climate. Deniers abortion then take the job. Restoratives problem pathetic to him he's a Penn state guy, own Penn State University, Pennsylvania, State University of Pennsylvania, known for its meteorology Department, he confused the idea that Carbon dioxide, a small fraction of the earth's atmosphere with the idea that has a small effect huh
and so he's just did gone down a dead end there than the other guys just how to describe as a whole. Voice aims. Silk. I was a child. I should not have said that no now he's here, it doesn't have morals wade other people do. Interesting guy goes in that so Doktor Cape Doktor Marvel variable. Should we be look in it? I mean for me kind of the extreme weather events is. It is a good example because you have going along living your life. You know the way you do way. You do. You know beating up people on the subway when they were slowly are or whatever we do in which people was people off right,
Jacquette, even breathe. It hit him so with such profundity. Hit him so close so reflects all who work on the right side. People off the train before you get on, I know you're all new year after, but you know the thing it's like? We have all these modern conveniences right. We have in our partially functional subway system, we have roads, we have electricity and then when there's an whether event like a blizzard or hurricanes Andy. Can all that stuff goes out the window and were so helpless right like were so helpless in the face of at all of our technology, cannot prevent that storm from landing a camp prevent the blizzard a can prevent the hurricane and that for me, personally, like as a human, not just as a scientist like that really focus my attention on like. Oh that's what climate change means means. This thing can't control. It means more of these until very recently Mosul,
science community would not make any correlation between extreme weather events and that climate change. Are you saying that that is now not the case? I think what Billy said Bilbil said is right that any particular individual event. It's really hard to say this would have happened or not without climate change. We're talking about statistics here were talk about things like hundred year. Floods, floods that used to come along every hundred years now come on five years every five years. Every three years everyone, the and it's those things loot and those are These are viscerally terrifying right to think about. You know we live this comfortable life and it can all be destroyed by a weather event. They thought that that really focus as my mind I like that, I like it and I'm all about the scare tactics, that's what I say we're It is do not use enough scare tactic. It's not attack will not ignore and you're right, because here's appears what kind,
deniers they have one tool and want to only propaganda while they have what they ve done. Tell him the truth here. Well, what it is you ve been able to introduce the idea that doubt right is doubt about climate change is the same as scientific uncertainty examined to say, K K. Do you agree with us that the climate, contrary serve introduce the idea that plus or minus two or three percent in your computer model result is how will want to pass from one hundred percent and in the way To put it is, we don't know everything, but we don't know nothing. And no about Chalk Chuck, don't know nothin doubled. For me to confirm what you will love, but you I do get a little bit annoyed when people use the continued existence of science to attack science,
like we're. Never gonna know everything and were are still things to study. I still go to work every day, but that doesn't mean carbon dioxide isn't a greenhouse gas like if we are wrong about carbon dioxide being a greenhouse gas, we were wrong about like all of physics and chemistry gravity. Everything is like this like a very basic thing and those fascinating complexity. On top of that, and that's why I love job and so fun, but like there are certain things that are just all basic. You say your job is fun. Doesn't get you down a little bit right now? If you people are really disappointed that I'm not depressed and I'm you're, saying Ritalin Kate Unrefreshed. You know because I'm depressed so I'm glad you're not because I am absolutely crestfallen yeah. No, I mean, I think, like every everything you're saying is true like this is a big problem and it really
scary, and it can feel really intractable, but also like the earth is this great amazing planet. I feel really great live here, and you know I like that is an understatement of this. So we are going to talk about this. We are going to get to listener. Viewer questions in the next few moments. Your listening to start out all start addition today talking with a marble from poor university, a NASA Goddard Space studies, and we will be secret for you, I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there, go to patriarch arms last star, talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
we're here? Another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking, I mean just saying, work abroad. Walk about you, you're just host will lie in this week. We are talking about a margin to call my favorite topic, but something that I am deeply concerned. I hope you are too I'm a change, and for that we not only have your beloved Chuck nice, that's right. We have this week, Doktor Kate, Marvel from Columbia, University and NASA Institute, gotTa Goddard Institute for Space studies, radio in Manhattan and doktor. We were talking about your optimism you're, you love come into work. You love talking about climate change, studying climate change even know climate is changing,
What has changing? That's for sure, but no link. This is this. Is a fascinating planet? how we have oceans. We have an atmosphere, we have land, we have ice and all of those things interact with each other. I love you, I mean I'm friar or may I got my mum Yahoo com my friends or from area for now, if its first saturn, you know in this or system cup, I'm all about her. I have an hour. You really gonna go to Mars and is too can be like you, and even my skin can be guys and it's not gonna go too far fewer this, but it is one or a mind all you Mars, buffs, it's real really cold- I mean it is really called on Mars and it's very high to get water, and this third thing I talk about this, there's nothing breathe. You will notice that right away sounds a lot like menace.
No Minnesota you can breathe just run and breathe. It sounds like a one star, Yelp review from Irish yeah yeah. Well, if that inside this romantic notion of going to Mars and living under a dome and then you go outside for a walk, you're gonna put on space suit, which will be your own dome right and if you ve ever warned the same clothes for two or three years, though star to smell, like that. The whole thing will be in it broad and camping trip that is not paradise, aright whereas the earth is Paradise Russ Human Snow shock? Yes, sir, we have come shoes from out there. The doktor Marvel Kate can interact with that's right, let's get one and we always start off with a patriarch patron because they tree on patron. That's right, a supporters financially and therefore they get precedent. So you're saying go ahead, and by your way onto the show, I I I did
so that's kinder. I do not say that the outcome of that statement, my guest, who will not back down from a statement, gets right. You can just like your congress. We can be bought all right he's. Is exaggerating. This message body you buy never ever done. This is Jason cup case from Buffalo New York and he wants to know this. He actually phrase it just like this town may adopt a marvel now: human, behind fears are contributing. The climate is dramatically. Was this inevitably going to happen? at some time in the distant future? Any way which is and to just put on the piggy back on what is a kind of what climate deniers. That's their go to hey man this year. We recognise that the climate is changing. But what are you gonna do climate changes so what
that being the case at some point down a line, if we didn't think you'd have we didn't have our own contribution, so I feel ache I met deniers lake to tell climate scientists, fat climber, always changes and where we know we told you that we are very aware of the fact that the climate of the panel has been really different and the far passed away. We'll be really different in the future, but we have ideas about what cause that specifically, I pages, are caused by the planet, sort of wobbling and its orbit closer to or farther from the sun called MILAN Kovich cycles and thus covered by Steve Buford.
No, I think you ve heard hoo hoo hoo and we discovered the like of its cycle. So the earth goes around not in a perfect, goes around lips, but there's perturbations in theirs: Warbles names, opposition and Jan, and just to be clear, so those wobbles they actually shift the earth just enough to create a what effect different climate. We get ice ages. We come out I say ages, and so we know that there are natural factors that change the climate. Those orbital wobbles when a giant vote You know, goes off and puts a bunch of gas and dust in the atmosphere that blocks the sun and makes it colder by. Similarly, massive tectonic activity can put a lot of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which makes at warmer Zora volcanoes. But a volcanoes where regional and so in the past we have geological and others corroborating evidence for those orbital, wobbles or volcanic activity, and all
that is not happening right now. So that's actually how we know that it's us we can. We can measure how closer and we can measure that solar Arabians. We can measure we would notice if a giant volcano is going off all the time and it's it's it's not. Maybe it's really quiet no doctor well, why they don't want to talk about urban seeps in methane. Getting me I'm sphere, but this can all be measured with extra, very practices. We can measure an ant. Moreover, we know exactly what carbon dioxide does so the getting back to the question in a was this gonna happen in the future If you know, if you wait for millions of years, I guess the climate will change and we know what makes the climate change, but right now what's happening. Is Bruce so sure that we can attribute to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and we know who put the carbon dioxide there it's really getting back to the question of rate. It's really that rate. That's incredibly terrifying,
This has never happened before in the earth's history. Never has the climate change this, So I think that answers the transgressions signal. The question it's like the answer is, it would happen and whenever a billion years, but not not for us we're doing all right, let's go to a facebook in this is Matt Eli. To know this. So you ve been able to convince a dyed hard humans have nothing to do with climate change per person. Otherwise, and if so, what has work so, and I would have you been able to convince anybody, and how did you do it? If you have? The answer is yes: I'm surprised media professional. Unfortunately, the person in question is my dad, but my
it is a Republican has always voted republican and you know just thought this climate change thing. It's nonsense, liberal, progress, liberal, progressive conspiracy, and you might I'd know is that I love him and I didn't come and then say you're an idiot, and I hate you and you Don't understand anything a well these on my it's all over town. You were you're here, a dinner on your slave labour Eugene your dad. I talk to my dad and the thing I thought real Convinced him is, you know who takes this really seriously? Is the? U S military and they are not a bunch of hippies, I mean. Maybe they are, but I don't. I don't think they are. Cut, their hair short of the hair short onto them
Military takes an incredibly seriously insurance companies who are responsible for paying out policies. They take this incredibly seriously and so the milk. These institutions, like my dad, doesn't listen to scientists, you live in Brooklyn. My dad listens to the mill He listens to large corporations and there are a lot of those institutions that are actually taking this really seriously, which we hope will trickle up into voters, brains and will decisions in the future to address this, like that trickle up, that try another question shark. If we got to her dad, maybe we can get to our listeners. You can get to our listeners at that. The answer is: everybody needs a physicist in their family boots. In the climate problem here, for you, we are physicists here for you're the STAR talk family out there?
John Reed is another question that was great. Here we go hey you got this Ah, the Valencia who wants to know this. What is the link between plastic in our oceans and climate change now is there any. It is already link so manufacturing link for sure, Does it mean when you make plastic Joe? doctor or say some knows just say we did both of them. That's yeah! That's nice link is rising, and now they are we dragged oil and we make plastic, make long polymers, oil will have a bunch of carbons linked together, often in go bonds, and then you take him out, and you may come into polymers very long change him. You know this. We have this expression high like your weight altered. A molecular Roy Perry
flame and stuff where these things are really long, and then you make him in email, milk jugs in in sweaters and when you throw the milk jog away and people don't put off the back of a shepherd and ends up in the ocean in the end, ocean, Gyre giant spiral, hate whirlpool trash. The thing is up in the middle and so who secondary flow, our favorite so humans. When plastic among which we are home, you'd extracting oil and you're gonna use fossil fuel burning to run the chemical process to make the plastic and then, when you throw the plastic overboard you're putting in the ocean and so that the link use Kay He hit the nail on the head. Is US I stick has improved. Price of water people? Let's face it, just the medical profession let alone just having food that doesn't kill. You is of great value and plastic helps us with that, and then
aeroplanes nowadays are made a plus your car is lousy with plastic. This microphone this installation all the stuff is plastic, but moderation, people, and wouldn't it be great if we could recover the plastic and not throw it away, and wouldn't it be great if we got Our energy renewable instead of burning fossil fuels instead of combining carbon with more carbon, foreign to make plastics, and instead of combined, carbon with oxygen to make seo to? Wouldn't it be great if we did some cool with it, take a check go back, pullback loved. I love it. I love it. I write so soon What you just said, their bill, Sub Torah coming to us from Instagram, says nuclear power.
Or renewable energy. So what what are the advantages of both and which is preferable? given this not all, then they would. I know you're relish embellishing, but given the current needs of the globe and the fact that you, emerging economies where there are people in two different continents. You're a nerd now I can't help you love it, where you have a billion people in one billion plus people any other, and they all need energy, and we give them a taste this in their gotta produce, so that it is? Is it fair to say that nuclear power is something that we want, or do we Let's go the renewable round, Kate, you ever union cares. I do, I would love to hear you Kenya, and because I will get yelled out on twitter if I have an opinion by it by a whole different set of people, lawyers prom with nuclear power. Look, it looked like a great idea,
These rocks up pure by their fish in them and put them back in the grounds we great fabulous. But which made nuclear power so expensive is the so called low love or secondary waste. All the rubber gloves in overalls and everything they get radioactive, my god really. I've never heard of puts a big expense, getting rid of bombing well and then the biggest problem, everybody is nobody wants. It says greatest thing ever. Nobody wants it in their name. My backyard men here so just consider the following: ok bite my head off whatever reasons but my fellow twists, we don't right both of those down very well perfect, No! Well, there are about Four hundred and thirty, two nuclear commercial nuclear power plants around the world, the Eu S Navy, Bt Dubbs- is really good with its nuclear material. As long as think really good is bearing it literally in Idaho, when you're done with it
in remote areas What we consider remote areas here in the? U S, so that's good, but commercial plants for Thirty. Two points are war, foreign, thirty, three with workers I blew up, and so there's only for to return right, so three mile island, which is right at the end of the runway at hairs, Harrisburg Pennsylvania State Capitol almost blew up and the evacuation plans. Had this side of town go in that way and that side of town go in this way and so would never of work. Then Chernobyl blew up amen, Fukushima got a wash and a mess and then you can say as a proponent of nuclear power. I am hip, I'm dumb chemical engineer who doesn't love thermodynamics more than I know one. Are you sable these these kooks just won't. Let us have nuclear power, but everybody you would not get in the car haddock. Atta Strafford failure. Three out of four.
Hundred and thirty two times you wouldn't even occur to you of You can say about the nuclear industry should not put that plant in at the end of the runway, but they did put Fukushima geologic fault, but they did you're not allowed to get hit by the tsunami. They did they engineers in Chernobyl shouldn't have allowed the graphite overheat, what they did, and so This is the problem, is a perception of nuclear and nuclear industry makes it so nobody wants it so what I would prefer is for everyone no work. It's the cape Marvel is our gas chuck. Nice is our commentator, but I'm ranting momentarily. This is a good ran. Am I I'm done momentarily? Were there is enough? Sunlight of wind and geothermal energy and enough renewable energy to run the whole? place right Now- are not foe,
the boy energy to run the whole place right now, and I courage, you to check out the solutions, project, dot org the problem is gonna, be the opportunities, we're gonna be moving the electricity around. Storing the electricity overnight, but we can solve these poor if we just go after him, and so what's not shut down existing nuclear power plants, but what's deal with the reality that it takes ten fifteen years to license one? This is startalk all stars, I'm here with Doctor Kate, marble from Columbia, University and NASA and Chuck nice and will be back right after this. Welcome back to start jarred all star addition. I'm your lawyer, guest house this week- and I am here once again with your beloved Chuck nice Thank you and worry our guests this week is a doctor. Kate Marvel from
Columbia, University and NASA's Goddard Institute for space studies. And she is an expert on climate so which we have here on earth, and We are, of course, as you might expect, are talking about climate change. So we are in the yard segment of the show in which we take your questions. Let's take one, more chalk and Kate. If you will give us you're amazing insights shortly Joe the Phoenix Josephine Gear from Facebook once and others is there of volcanic event or system that could cool Venus to any extent. I'm not sure I could cool Venus Venus way. Does everybody venuses so hot how hard it's so hot lead, would melt and
this where, when I was in school, been ensuring school back in the day. This is where climate change is really discovered was exploring Venus James, as an johannsen was working with Venus, so the mapping I studying Venus? the different jim here? Ok voices lousy web page? Can you talk about the role of volcanoes writ large venetian or terrestrial yeah cake, Go back to earth because I feel it does not say what we're terrestrial yoke at great, so volcanoes. The volcanoes experience. Kind of over human history mostly have a cooling, in fact on the climate, so a ninety ninety one Mount Pinatubo and the Philippines exploded, and just put How much gas and dusting
dirt back into the stratosphere that that blocked the sun and that made the planet alot cooler, would you say a lot some fraction a degree Celsius, yeah yeah, but no noticeable a huge Otis about exactly on a huge minor. That's it it's a big deal so over the kind of risk. History if you take humans, the equation. Volcanoes have been vital. Few I wouldn't mind, take your. I am I right those people on the subway, so you if you ignore human stand, for Cain owes are generally the biggest external contributor to climate change, but we can ignore humans rights on the basis of about. Why was it run, but my understanding, if you're a volcano- and you want to affect the climate- you have to be in the tropics, yeah yeah, so not ever,
if all Cato is going be able to effect climate, you need tat, you need to be in the tropics. You need to really get that plume really high off your volcano. Drew a volcano like you I say now once my beloved mounts ignorance was not didn't, do much. Anything, really right, familiar limit it. It did its past guys, but not for climate. Spectacular. I was living in washing stated that time so chalk. We have another question. Yes, let us move on. This is from Cosmic Lee curious. Ninety seven on Instagram and Cosmical wants to know this. We are going to cause or her. I think I'm going to call cuz yeah yeah, that's a good one, but but not not the cause. Cuz that would be in a little trouble right now? That's quite trouble exactly. We currently working on ways to reduce our emissions of co2, but are we attempting to make any strides in the removal of seo too. That is all ready and the atmosphere and with that
It reminds me of a statement that I heard from Rex There's an hour now, secretary of state, but at the time he was c o of Exxon Mobile and he said Jackie, said We can engineer our way out of this problem. Shore short sea, two may be eaten anything, maybe a contributing factor, but if that is the case, we will be able to end mere our way out of the problem. So are we making any surprise and was Rex tailors and right? Oh dear so I'm not sure that this is the first part of that question. We currently working on ways to reduce our emissions of co2? That was the first part I wait. We do not live been to have been north. Fortnight Murray, Alberta, shell oil company- is doing to things there too.
Can carbon dioxide out of their waste gases and liquefied it. We're getting a really cold and pumping it underground This'Ll, be carbon sequestration. Ok is taking it up before it gets so the atmosphere yeah, but the thing of it takes a tremendous amount of energy to do this and the demonstration project and they're getting a big cats, credit for it and the oil up. There is coming from the tar sands, and this is so by one reasonable estimate a canadian citizen, is among the most environmentally responsible citizens. Smallest footprints. By I'm reckoning, smallest greenhouse footprint of any country in the developed world. But if you take into account the target Hence a canadian citizen is the worst. So the tar sands
is there just this extraordinary place, everybody in Alberta where the ground, The right under the topsoil is made of sand full of tar and there's a and to call it oil sand and I've been there tar everybody what his get over it. So it takes about thirty percent of the energy and the tar to melt down and and reform it into synthetic oil. It's just everybody Like extremely inefficient way to get energy well, it's yeah, but it's just limit That's the deal at nineteen, eighty five when they started doing the it as the same there was the bad news is: will never run out of tar while never run out a call yeah. But this aside, here's a question: Kate Writ large In my opinion, which shock, as you know from all these years is correct,
We are already engineering the planet. This, is to say we have put the the old, an analog should I would make. Is you get this rose too. Even if your vegetarian, you ve heard of Turkey, they put rose in the oven, does not go down, that road right? Now you take the rose out of the oven the heat continues to move towards the inside of the roast baked in you're, not gonna. Let go of that. The carbon dioxide is already in the air is going to continue to cause a world to continue to warm light. If we stopped everything right now right, but you can turn off the oven. You know- you, even though the heat still you know in the case of the earth, the heat is still gonna move into the ocean. It takes that deep ocean a really long time like centuries to heat up, and so we, I've kind of put a time bomb in this system for ourselves like, even if we leave me and hopes ups are the increase in emissions. Even if we programme at the current levels, we would say
I'll, see warming in the future, but that doesn't mean anything. That's an excuse for despair. I don't think that's what I'm we can throw up our hands and say: oh, it doesn't matter. Let's just keep increasing emissions because even though the rose is still cooking. You still can turn down the oven. That's funny and as from standpoint. What you just said, sometimes when you turn off the oven. If you leave whatever is in the oven, cooking gets overdone, because the other may still radiating now it is the thing is, I think every was all of us should consider. We are in charge of this planet. There's seven point three. Almost one point: four billion people today by twenty fifty they'll be twenty will be nine billion twenty sixty. Maybe Ten billion people we bring charge. We are bring the place right there on the science fiction show where they go to a planet in the whole planet is ice. The whole planet is tropical jungle. The whole plan is this a net
we are running the whole show and we have to look at it that way. So what we want to do is stop. Carbon dioxide in the air. Clean water, renewable electricity and access to electronic information, internet everybody in the world and, dare I say it, cheap? in the world that little beep chuck means it's time or the lightning round to arouse Doktor Martineau Kate you get Why do you jump in there this for correct? this for not so much of our no right we go. This is Merkel, Mark acceptance or suspend Son Spencer, more expensive and more expensive from Facebook says I've been told my whole life to recycle paper and other, its, but if landfills are so bad at DE composition, is it just talking things into the ground and sequestering carbon underground so that now that in landfills,
not are still exposed. I'm not sure what you mean. I means when you when you cover it all over is not just sequester things underground yeah, but that stuff is going come carbon dioxide anyway, there bacteria are going to attack it, but what I want to do with a landfill- is capture the methane. That's all the rage these days so Answer is the longest journey begins with a single step. Some landfills are good, some of em, not so good. To get an answer. Ok, here we go J links. You got J D, As in J, why D says? How long do you give the human race if nothing changes humans are extent will improve their does. They're gonna be here, there does mean I care about specific comments. You know, I think climate change is gonna really affects specific people and people weak about thirty. As a race were we're gonna be refineries. We find right, it's good,
this is bad news for, as I'm concerned, take a John, exactly Lee p S room could be you forget about me about the hole in the ozone layer. How can there be a hole in a layer of gas Whitman, just big it's getting thinner. Cape the hole in the ozone layer mostly lives over and article because of the way the the, regulation of the atmosphere transports ozone and the really good NEWS the thing that makes me so happy about the ozone hole is that it's getting smaller Why getting smaller, because we did so about a star pumping foreign aid, core funding, as is the ever goes into the atmosphere. We got together as an international community in the face of massive corporate opposition, and we did something about it. So we
regulations for the common good. That's crazy! Take it shock, you communist cosmic kid. To ninety eight from Twitter once you know, this is train cyclical or is it in? early caused by humans, our current state. Is it entirely caused by us the percentage of warming. That's attributable to humans we have observed in recent history- is over. A hundred percent were over a hundred percent. You get over eight percent. Without us, it would be cooling slightly that is the cause. Kate was Kate that was really about right. Those of my rob was now? Was the bell ring horns? We are here. We go Mohammed Linsey wants to know this. Can we reset the earth. That's not try wow,
I assume that are being dropped thing. We don't, let's not try. It's just too big a problem array. The legendary patent forward. Kicks on legendary, very banking. Sober game, yes says: does climate, its cause. Any specific health concerns very good question. Nobody ever even talks about all that are not going to talk about it. One thing that pops minus tropical diseases the tropics are expanding and the diseases are gone with it and tests for crops in North America. Show up earlier and stick around later, takes more pesticide, more herbicides deal with it and our crops are, arms are gonna, have to move north from, control? U S into southern Canada. That's a big effect on a big thing. Right,
we're getting down to the last question here is the last one. This is me handmade INA wants to know this. Does the cosmic rockets that burn their fuel impact the ozone or climate change in any way, when you shoot Iraq it you have to fill out environmental impacts that your burning kerosene, like a crazy thing where we are may your tax dollars a work. This has been our. Also star addition Doktor Dr Kate, call me University of NASA's Goddard Institute for space studies. Chuck nice has been here reading your happy questions that you can a fascinating show. Thank you so much for joining us on Bill Nye. Your host will see you next time on startalk wish. You could listen to startalk Commercial free, joint startalk. It ran for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com last star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-20.