Neil deGrasse Tyson answers fan-submitted Cosmic Queries about manned space exploration with NASA Twin Study principal investigator biologist and geneticist Chris Mason, PhD, and comic co-host Matt Kirshen.
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Photo Credit: NASA.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide nor talk begin right now. This is the start of cosmic queries. Additions
one of our favorite and my guest Carlos today is me
a curse. Man good to have you back on its lovely to be back on any slightly strange circumstances. I miss you, I must say I was sure I guess I'm just doing the show I miss being in New York, the idea.
I reminded your show- Was- is almost no
science. I we forget that if it's
this visit you doing this on purpose near its problems,
science is they show? Problem is solved
I haven't, I occasionally desires, sometimes Ryan sneaks it in there.
Nope, it's great to have you, as my committee, Caroused Lonely, to being an at today's topic, we're gonna focus on computer.
National biology in particular ways.
Which that matters to genetics.
They're. Just sounds diabolical, like you wanted
people on your side going it's fifty, so I've got Doktor Chris Mason,
The liner Chris welcome to start a cosmic where it's pleasure to be here.
Thanks for having me yeah- and you are your medical research prevent.
No Cornell, while medical center down in New York City, correct? That's right now
observe the Manhattan. I live in Brooklyn. You know it's the better borough of New York City of some say here, but
so in New York City and never lab at Saint Genetics, competition, biology and little blue space. The I think, most people
I certainly was new to the concept of
mutational biology. I know we have some at the museum anti Americanism
natural history. There's a lot of copied
biology going on there, but I don't think that's
when you learn biology and high school so too can give me
I have one minute overview and a computational biology means relative to ordinary biology. Yet what's interesting,
Biology is you think of it: in cells and organisms are wandering around the floor. If you see an ant on the floor, a bird in the sky, but more and more all of biology is becoming, would allow people say, systems, biology or really most about you.
Best understood as a computational problem. Where you can model what's happening inside the cells,
If you do it well enough, you can actually predict what will happen as you perturbed that system, if you add a drug to the system, safer cancer treatment or
if you add a gene, if you take a gene from one species in you, try to move to another one or even, if you just
the stress, something like say- put it in space or give it up in a mega, go for a ride.
So these are all things that the competition
Who was that you model?
happening inside the cells and predict what will happen and find new drug targets, model drugs and
just better understand the dna of the genome. So you are the futurists of biology.
There is always used to build models of inside the biology and a box when set all models, are wrong somewhere, just more useful and that this has been especially during the pandemic times, where you know where to turn to build models of what's happening. So this this might be an impossible
it was about how how accurate all your models now for it like. If you are how security can predict, what particular chemical will do to a particular sell. The great question,
I think we're not as good as we'd like to be so. I can't say where ninety nine percent accurate, that, if you tell me a structure of a molecule, I can tell you again
Equally words: gonna go in the body. There's interact
is a field of computational chemistry. This competition of biology. There is a lot of a lot of astrophysics of courses computational. In terms of how you mind the dad I what you're scanning for further while there is in the field, the how accurate can bioinformatics be as if as a discipline engender
if you get above ninety nine
I percent what you can do for
whether one protein will bind was another protein or whether one gene is in
the Genie or whether it's not active it. Can you that over ninety nine percent, so it depends on the question but
It's getting better. Every years we get more data, how bad
don't tell me you're you're here to leave out the myths and MRS, so I think there you know there is a big boy
but the reaper disability crisis and on all the sciences for a while, but ten years ago, and that was because people it
and take the same say: ok drug I put this in these cells and I can predict that the cells will grow as fast. So I think this could be a cancer drug, for example, and people try to reach
produce these studies, and one of them were fifty percent reproducible, sometimes twenty percent reproducible or something
dropping headlines, but that's because biologists couple
it depends on these cells that had been growing and dishes in some cases for decades and they're, not even human cells anymore. These yourselves that basically have mutated, haven't set of forty six chromosomes. They might have fifty or sixty chromosomes
If aliens came to earth and said, I want to show find me human cells that they looked at these cells and most labs- they wouldn't
only looked like human, so some of the problems of predictability is in and about Christmas.
Who says: there's a whole branch or biology that almost science
Then you don't really is filled manager. I gotta do happen. I got you covered the normal, the greatest threat in this way, because we're outside of science I mean I mean for christians- were almost a book. Is we're closed as long as
probably territory. Probably signs were good. I was very
press to learn that, in your resume included, published research on the NASA Twin study. These are the two,
astronauts. One was sent into space. The other was not
then you leave the guy game space for a long time in and then come back and you compare them so
Presumably was quite a treasure of data for you, it was
I have a dream, come true in terms of every molecule, the good measure in the body, every child
MR the Oregon Systems, the brain cognitive states, so it was
it was also a geneticist. I wish everyone had a twin that we could send one do one thing on one of the other eye and I would love their triplets even be granted. Quadrupeds, like all I wanna do is, is a separate out, twins and see what would happen so
It was a really unique opportunities that it now said selected ten labs to work together, and I it was really big team effort out. I was the geneticist in the study weeding out of the loop
a dna and the organizing what's happening as the body adapts the space
It was a real team effort.
And we looked at every possible molecules kid. So DNA Arnie, proteins, small molecules, behavioral changes- tell him years will provide talk about as well in everything we
It doesn't understand. How does the boy
they changed when you go to space and can we prepare for Mars? What were all of the different experiments likes? You
science ones or was like one of them- may be: let's put different hats on them and see how they look
there were three there's a lot of experiments that our preliminary you could not move. I'm done not just in our thirty, were you try
things out for the first time, but even these
a vast suction pants that's got Kelly warrants Base for which basically, they put together
vacuum around his legs to train pull the blood from his upper body down into his legs. Just to relieve the pressure.
I'm so that those are relatively new and they're kind of experiment.
No, but the astronauts really liked them, because it it just dick and feel better cause. They filled a bit like their back on
These four, though also it's sort of cheats. The effect of gravity by
Gravity would normally make blood flow more down than up and they re sheets, that's effect by with a vacuum
I point I mean we ve evolved in for hundreds of millions of years on this planet billions if you go back to their really early ancestors and where
is to gravity, so suddenly has gone. The bodies
had that much time to really get used to it, and so these pants era, one way it ran adapter that other other
because we do pharmacological interventions to try and get get rid of the stock.
On the body, a letter, the inflammation and the bodies, emails that weaken the others.
Ecological event is foreign and also sleep. It's hard for a lot of the asking us to sleep, so they take out I'm sleeping pills, Giveaway Chris. If, if, if we are perfect at
saving for being in space rather than on earth. Then you would
Have a job,
find out what's damage we we haven't had said,
we rejected life, you know, looks like you're actually or even though the
You know the factory donors and biology tell us to students and medical students, sometimes Ellison, that's job security. If we
everything about biology. Then we got word out there, so it actually is great, and so you mention one of them. Scott Kelly. I think Scott week he's been on start and I asked which are the twin
are you and he said and good looking so that
That's! Ok! We identify himself relative to his twin brother.
The name is rather was a good looking before he went into. Space are not like what what was their notes and will change and attractiveness,
on either when the first flight.
He did lose weight. Actually, so he lost about eight percent of his body weight and he got a little bit tall.
Some because the lack of compression on the spinal column and because of
activity. He is slightly younger. It was moving closer to the speed of light for a year. Then his brother
all of us here on earth and so
You could say he got taller younger and older
and a little better than our loss and waits is coming down. You know it's kind of the best program ever ex if you have to be based on time as the only
ignoring the radiation and all the rest of us
the rest of it all, but he did with decades that one of things we did seen a study was his work. Was Susan, Bailey was
where's got longer and we looked in her lap and in our lab we validated this in our falling of additional studies but
This really surprising results, because when you get irradiated, you being blasted an effective way,
stressful and should have really strenuous environment. We thought, if anything, tell him his wicked shorter
as they normally get shorter as your age, without we'll just accelerate this process. We also,
epigenetic age, gauge reckoned talk, bundle of little bit with just the dna package and how that looks older, but the
get older there either. So we look at all these aging metrics. He actually but the limit younger and I was surprising
because we thought we'd see the opposite is one of the first big surprise that the study where we all were scratching her head when we're getting the data like us this right, but it turns out it
the more we thought about and look at the data think about what he was doing up there. He was getting
good night sleep almost overnight as best as you can in space, when you actually can see cosmic rays shooting through his eyelids as Scott Kelly talked about in his book that he wrote that if you close your eyes
you can just see the districts of light goes based gives your retinal cells are being bombarded with radiation, which is kind of hard to sleep through probably for the very first time receiving that, but
that notwithstanding, the radiation embody eventually does to some degree adapt you, you know tell him
longer. He was getting a good night sleep overnight, getting a good meal working out every morning and there was no drinking. So if all of us live that,
Until we have the alive, we probably would have some rejuvenation effects as well. We think it was a part of it. So then
going to publish the astronaut diet and lifestyle.
I spoke is published, affords
book in a vented violin. A biography could do that, except for you. So we still have questions for my fan base and is primarily focused on is the twin study, but this feel is so fascinating. I hope this some spill
when we get there so met. You have all the questions right. I haven't seen any about a thing. I do. I've got them right hand. The first one I was going to ask is actually about Battelle amazing Chris answered it before even got to it. So thank you Chris. Let's hear it anyway that question
was is from jail
if one or one one on Instagram, who knows what that binary is
says hello, I'm wondering if there has been any research into possible effects of long term. Zero g exposure
how amazing chromosomes I'm cool
living in space, but also the rate at which tell him is degraded and become shorter. Do we have any? I
you have long term zero g exposure would speed up or slow down this natural process, in short, could living in
space, long term change.
We age physically, just to be clear,
italian mayors is, is an indicator on earth for
how old you are, because a shorter and older people than younger people in your genetic profiling at a fair characterisation,
is ok, basically they are a mark
of how long yourselves have been around and dividing, and they do.
Frank, as we age, we are also physically shrink as we are over, the old people are shorter than they were when they were younger. You know eventually, gravity takes its toll on the body.
Tell em ears at a cellular level inside your body or are no different. They get shorter and within a week we thought
it would accelerate and space. It turns out that actually
from everything we know. As was got Kelly is the longest. U S. Mission is the fourth longest in human history, because other the Russians have got us beat a little bit on that. But from the data we have looks like it's actually the lifestyle in space with radiation. Notwithstanding, it looks like telling, whereas fare better. However, it goes
back to normal when you get back to earth, so
doesn't seem to be like a permanent shift. It seems to be a mere
sure what we think it is a mixture of the invite.
And then the lifestyle in space which is, ironically,
healthy, elicits, regulated so well that it's not so bad. It could be.
The kind of earth based diet and say, live like you're in space you'll be you'll, be younger in some ways
but the radiation may to some degree, create somebody's breaks in some of the other.
When we talk about an hour papers that it looks,
It could even just accelerate the killing of weaker cells as another another factor that might be happening so
we did sorted cell populations to see which cells are having longer tellers and some of the time,
does get it more than the sum of the bee cells and other the whole blood samples I have it less also seems to be like
things in biology itself, specifically time specific, just to be clear? There too
variables here, one of them is zero g
and another is the fact that you are exposed to cosmic rays from space. So in principle, if you
the difference between one of the other. It wouldn't be simply zero g that extend your tellin ears,
would be your exposure to them
radiation and, if that's the case, we create radiation rooms and sticky when it and stimulate what what Scott went through in space
The absence of we can test. This is actually to it
That is where we see it interesting
even plasmoid. Him fell sick room. You know it's a parasite if you re
get them on earth. You can see they sometimes get longer. Tell nearest same with little worms called see, elegans an inch.
Do about like there's radio therapy, we think of killing cancers, but there's a new clinical trial.
It's actually a walk, or now that's actually doing very subtle radiation to prime T cells to activate them in a way that their
this innocent other quiet before so in a rage
she is, if you dont completely obliterate someone with radiation. Some of the discussion is what, if you have just enough of its actually activate the cells or get rid of the weaker cells. That effect we can see is with part of his will see this
feels like one of these things, the you don't really want that information to escape the lobby adds because people are gonna be selling
down in front of you MIKE Way for many minutes a day younger.
You know a robber balloon on your shirt and hold it against your head and you'll live five years. Younger cement
I have one more before we go. Take a good break. Also when I love this quaintness bit, I love it when it
comes from someone's kids. This is from the eight year olds.
Mason of patriotic patron Brian simmer, I hope I've pronouncing unreasoning correctly says: does zero gravity make it harder for the body to digest food or go to
offer him because everything just floating around in your belly, I'm gravity isn't helping. We actually have to take a brick, see what I do there: a tease to the next segment
Do that say, sir we're gonna find out when we return,
Zero g has on the food.
In your stomach.
And whether it aids or disrupt your digestion.
Rebecca Startup Cosmic, where
national genetics, the twin studied at NASA did, with two astronaut one put in space:
one state stay here on Earth Doktor Chris Mason, thanks for being on startup for doing this, we left off.
We last yes, we worry about it here, find Chris about the effects on the digestive system.
Of zero gravity, austrian question from Patria Nepal,
turn Brian them eight year old, Son Mason somebody how it is different eating is.
Facing digesting in space and going to the bathroom in space are all in a little bit different up there, and you know there is
some indigestion that happens with astronauts, but in general they are able to keep food down once they get used to it.
The zero g space you you do have a sphincter that prevents food from coming back up and unless something
wrong. So it's the foods days down, but we did
Yet the Micro biome in the gut as part of the study, and so with another researcher call of Frederick
who actually we like to see, will what speed
he's in the gut changed and did they actually go in a good dirt?
nor bad direction. We we saw from the twins
buddy that somebody, these kind of organisms are called firm, acute and back to your already. That is too big kinds of bugs
They they went in a direction that is not, as is not a you'd like it indicates what I've got this biosensors problems and
Kelly. You know you had a little bit of complaints and mostly he was fine, but if you look at them molecular level and was in the gut, we could see
things that looked like the despises, but
right back to normal, since he came back to earth with some Good NEWS, the guy,
the bathroom, I didn't get any specific complaints that he had. He problems would say are listening.
Colleagues, we didn't see significant dangers of diarrhoea, anything awful, but
going to the bathroom is hard in space. You have to use a vacuum pomp, there is actually a clampdown. Can it keeps you
physician down the toilet, you have to set out the vacuum in their cleaning supplies. It's you know it
the long process, and so we did see in some cases not die,
patients sharp and not just got another asked, not because it's not pleasant
What are the bathroom solar tried? Actually, they want drink as much waters they have to go to. The bathroom is my show, some of it,
behavioral avoidance of the bathroom which which creates a limit of.
Indigestion or digestive problems, but but the mother
the species changing has got as well as we can see that from that from the stool. So we take those tools, samples and we can sequence the bugs
I just learn a new word from you'd despotic was without a word
The deadlock such as means we have a problem. The head of the family were saying as endangers weird Tommy. I would tell me you didn't bionic. Was they give you an idea to any word on your body? Just meters inflamed hazards allow their ended seriously, could just thrown around I've got eyeball light as befits. Let's go
question? This is another patron patron. John Baker asks what, if any caviar saw there,
in purposefully genetically engineering people to be able to
stand cosmic radiation that exists outside our sons, Helios sphere. It raises
pertaining to the furthest boundary of sons influence. If not, what does our sons influence, protect us from
while within our solar system, as sounds like it so half Chris and half Neil questioner.
I've been happy led off their instead, it son doesn't really protect you from anything at all. You know when you cross the line the edge of the sons influence in the solar system urine into collect your interest,
our space? At that point and there's a magnetic field there there's some cosmic
he's with those countries and come straight on, threw down to earth. So so you would
when the sun's influence you are subjected.
To solar particles that themselves have issued their solar flares. This sort of thing so
in the solar Helio sphere. You are
worse than you'll ever be outside of it. Sucks so swiftly,
Maybe maybe a Christmas next mission is to send people beyond PLUTO
beyond the purely a sphere and then have them come back a hundred years later see. If anything happened to him
there has been any aging effects,
I'd love to do that.
I agree with
We put on the labs website five heard your research plan of what I think should be happening in a lot of the students who, first
during lives going women. Are you gonna be around for the five years, but I of course not, but I wanna it's a very human capability to plan for a beyond your lifespan, sorting everyone's should have least one plan that goes longer their own life common man
vision is to have kids to do that. But the thing I would love to do, that's that, even even at an even especially, if I'm not around, to see the end of its actually grape trade of humanity, but
he did say so actually Niels right. This base stations protected by the magnetic fear, which actually gives you the most protection from the sun's radiation. But the cosmic rays come in
from all over the place, and so that, though bombard you we basically have. The study was done on the space station. So I think we really going to be interesting is
You know what happened to get to the noon or get out to Mars words much much more than the radio
from the sun, and you have much less protection from the Magna sphere Mars
does not have a magnetic furiously, even if you get there the best,
protection I have is that the planet will be under you further. We still have the radiation
but that it will be more radiation and then, if you engineers themselves to survive, I think will be published and papers about this and talk about it. If it is a big ethical question as to how and when you engineering and modified the human genome, especially for
Astronauts being sent far away, but I'd make the
meant that it might be. We might be ethically bound to do so because, if you have it could genetic technology that can keep people safe.
And you dont use it for someone being sent to oppose it, has more radiation. Is that on
you're putting them and if you're not protect them, when you could now that presumes that the
technology is perfectly safe, integrates with no problem
and maybe even removable. Another
things that we can guarantee today, but it is.
As a conceptual idea. I think things we could describe discussing
When you said removal, you mean reversible avarice. Our organ removal is, you can integrate chunks into the human genome, you can take of viruses and basically implant them into the genome and in theory you can take them back out with crisper type methods.
Come back out if you want to
you can even ever more efficient chromosomes like we're in among the most humans, have forty six chromosomes. What did you added a little bit? One extra we
listen, cell, culture and labs? You can have little but a mobile elements that can taken out, and so the technology to do this is? Is it really easily easily done and let her lips so I've ever quick historical story here that these
story of thinking that we should modify ourselves biologically in order to
Dress is under siege
patients that the rest of us don't experience generally lends itself better to engineering solutions than biological solutions.
For example, in the early days of fighter pilots. They do tat,
rules and the blood
would leave their head and go to the female pass out they saw. Maybe we can give
some medicine or appeal that will with a red blood cells
retain more oxygen, so little pass us and they just invented pressure- suits to prevent the blood from going into the legs? Was that simple? They went up.
There's no biological change in the personal and or you want to maintain the homeostasis in the body rather than trying to
create a different homeostasis different here here I saw a man without a right, so this is, I think, connected so Andy. Bracken on Facebook asks has spending significant times in space altered the genetic make up at all
greetings from Columbus Ohio, so what we ve seen as thee
we looked. Is there dna damage that happen because he wasn't space casino there we talked about
Very low levels can sometimes be helpful for priming cells, but generally it's bad and we did see more break
of the DNA. These sort of double strand breaks, her known fractures.
The chromosomes. We could see that even after
got back to earth, so the perimeter of
This is that it. You know it's not like. It went up a hundred times. So suddenly he was
if he was? Someone had been completely irradiated like a cancer patient, but it did go up.
To stay flatter, maybe go down, but we did see he had more mutations, basically that you could see, but were broken. Dna
and also we're looking at what it? What there's another aspect of aging? That's actually
cloning her matter polices which, as it warrants, means a clone in your blood, the Hamleys shadows, the Heem in your blood and police. This means to create something. So actually we
see in his blood. Different clones were changing.
Our time, and we note when I get nervous, good or bad for the long term. However, we can see these differences in the austrian,
genetic make up, and so these are things were keeping an eye on, but we're not to worry about them, yet the right
I admit when Austria, I, like this question, is its source of the opposite: shan't shan't,
as Miranda on Instagram hope. I've got that correct says what would be the
long term effects of living on a planet with more gravitational force than earth.
Will our bones and muscles get stronger. Almost
Certainly they have everything we ve seen from the plasticity, the human body,
we know it loses out of the bone mass very quickly in space. You can actually see
in the urine. The calcium, coming out of the body of mass knots in space is basically Scott. Even too
private as if you dont, if you miss a morning when you work out and other aspects,
said this to us that you feel at your bones are dissolving. While you're
land the lack of gravity, so if you want to more gravity the bodies
Jordan early adaptive. It will really train reach that homeostasis and drank it back to its normal state. Very quickly in the Eu
stronger muscles higher bone density. You could see
We know certain mutations in genes, like our p. Five will give you this greater bone density in advance and so on.
I think you'd almost certainly see that is, if you get the same,
In summary, twice or three times the gravity,
and it would be, and in theory the body can do it if we could do ten times the gravity, but probably two or three times of adept in the catalogue of actual planets,
we categorize. The planets tat are maybe twice
size of earth or three times as still like and we govern and
calculate with the gravity would be. It would be a baby fifty
more something like that within its ineffective.
What I would wonder is go you be sluggish at first and then your muscles get strong, but will your heart keep up with your heart? Is now pumping against it? Is your heart is sufficiently
it's not the kind of muscle where you do it and it gets bigger and stronger, is it or not
I mean eighty parts of it can adapter did they can get stronger as a whole?
like you can to citizen athletes who were
but it, but it's not like a bicep, so you can suddenly gotta too
I the hard size just cause. You been there, for you, know a couple weeks in which
I'd be what they might be, what you'd need, so the other cardiovascular stress is something you can you see that?
we'll go, live on the top of the mountain and start hiking around its laws,
blood oxygen, it's already hard enough, so I think
yet I do. We want to be grew up. Their you'd want to land. There is an embryo and start surf in that way. Be tough. If you went, is grown person and then come back
words and rip telephone books in half and generally all kind of bees. Whether there is a question is connected to that in terms of growing up again, it's wonders from both a patron patron ends and the child. I said,
site, this is right. Macneil, patriot and his son Angus says a site
bowing density muscle, atrophied cycle,
Go issues with it
any neurological of physiological effects from long term space trouble. My son Angus is curious as to how children may develop differently outside of earth's atmosphere and if their growth process would help,
damage to the environment better than adults. How would you
spend their growth cycles in zero gravity live on a planet as an adult, it would probably be very difficult
you, you just can't so there there's never been a human baby Bourns base, as most people really know
officially never been Saxons. Basically between humans, they have taken
pregnant. My sentiments have space, there's been some
mating. That's been tried in space where the money
he's gettin zero g that just gonna flop around its very theirs. It there's almost cage on the ice S, that's kind of funny to watch for the on the record. There's no seconds basin there's been a pregnant might have given birth, though so we know, birth is possible in space. If you could grow
up in zero g and entangled planet. Assuming that all works, you would profit
a very, very difficult. It maybe even survive, and so I think you would get there
you'd be a really pummelled and crushed by the gravity.
You might not survive. So you could argue that if you do a people grow up
zero g. Have you
even in a prison in space, for they never allowed to go to a surface.
Ok or maybe mechanically. You could supplement them somehow when they get. There is an idea like Neil just saying,
and went to save them, but it is
It is a challenging idea that ideally you'd have the most galactic freedom
but you should be of the live anywhere. You want in theory as organism, but right now we're not their high that as the ideal I'd strive for better, they were not there. Yet, of course,
the film the space between us, which explored the first person ever born on another planet.
And it was a boy born on Mars and
his native martian, basically and Germany.
Comes to earth in August
jump high and do things on Mars and he comes to earth and he can't- and so you
art of explorers, explored and then of love interest in this, you gotta have that
but for those who have seen it just explores this idea of what happens when you cross gravitational boundaries, and how do you will adopt physiologically too? There is a sort of a connected,
as well from that dean on Facebook who asks biologically speaking. Would it be more difficult to procreate in space? What for
wise asian rates be similar
have, though there's not any good studies is sperm count yet safer astronaut. So over the years there is a lot,
Did you didn't help assessments that it at NASA does and also the Russians based Grub programme has, but there
we do not yet know the big impact on. You know what it is,
I'm counter or even just had
fertilization Workin space, the only the only ones I've got it. Work for fruit flies, so we know it can be done for flies, which is great but humans. You know we don't
but no heat humans are notoriously creative with their reproductive practices. I'm sure they figure it out in space, but
but it has been tried it in
the embryo genesis you're. The only example we have is that we know pregnant mouse gave birth in space so that the remaining parts of how you go from one cell to the trillions of cells. Now that process is very delicate and complicated, but it's him
to be at least in some most samples. It robots enough to finished it,
and so the big question is: can you start completely
zero, jingo, all the way through a nine,
and save embryo genesis? And that's a big unknown? It's been possible. It would amount to Chris it's an unknown, but do you really classified as a big unknown, because
smaller, you are the feminist, more anything. Is that the less susceptible
is to the forces of gravity and then
becomes just what's going on in the fluid your contained in its becomes a fluid thing, fluid dynamics rather
gravity so you're not completely ignorant about what what
sperm fertilizing, a sound moving through a tube
gravity is kind of irrelevant there right now. That's right, I think
isn't that the mass experiment worked, gives
I think I'm as probably gonna be ok. I would do it it's a big
I don't know you get a. You know a review board to say, as the sounds like unethical ethical experiment, to start sending embryos in space but but
point might happen if we really become interplanetary species is our going back and forth.
The trips are sixty nine months it it might happen
I would also add that if you are gonna be born in
gee. It would be ethical,
train the person in a one g environment. We keep talking about zero g, like that's the inevitable condition in space, but nothing's going to stop,
the future. We have rotating space stations in his one g and then this conversation is look at the map.
Yeah one more question before we break well. I, like I like this one, because it is more about the the surroundings to the astronauts Christine's home
an on patron says this is a very simple question. I don't know
if it is what counts
what kind of things to support do support personnel consider when getting peopled missions ready what
They consider to optimize the health of the astronauts. Google
again. I teach that so going quick break.
Come back and find out what the pre launch prep the biological free lunch crap is gonna. Be for these instruments.
I would like to give a patriotic shot out to the following patriotic patrons Michael guess nearer and real somewhere. I e thank you so much guys for your support. Without you there's no way we could do this shell, everyone listening would like their own patriotic shout out. Please go to patriot.
Dot com, slashed, start radio and support us. We're back we're talking about genetics and space and genetic
the and what all that requires- and it's a cosmic queries
We just had an emergency question, just landed our. Let me did millennium jobs where we got it.
Reveal, strangely urgent,
strangely urgent, given it give it to us and it references a tv show now may by the Great Amanda you Nietzsche instrument. Eighty men, television on Facebook asks on the show, Avenue five. The engineers who built the ship used.
Sewage system, as a shield, more like army,
Around the ship had claiming that who is the best,
the easiest radiation absorbent. Is this clean, true and then
says later, there is an external rupture resulting in a poop ring around the ship and the captain Assent on an EPA to push the system as it is, is plausible, and is this scientifically accurate? This comedy cipher, I meant to say mostly? Yes, actually do you think so, because you need
I'm kind of radiation shielding and what, if you had
a sewage surrounding you assuming its contain. So it doesn't smell you would
she have a liquid, and if the water would absorb some of the radiation, it's coming from out in space and then, if
just water, that's fine, but if its water, with all the
Bacteria and sort of no small viruses in are more matter detritus. That's in there that gives you basically a buyer
Small water based shield around a ship that can give you a little bit of extra protection, and then you gotta put
way somewhere anyway, while you're recycling its emails or put it on the outside its actually. Not that crazy.
An idea. It sounds weird too
he continually surrounded by circulating stool, but if you're being protected from radiation, I think people
Ok, so I gotta get up. I've been here. I think most of the radiation is just absorbed by the water, and so, if you
water shield that you would use for your food and digestion and all the rest of that at a cop,
does the same thing and at our poop,
you have the complete cases,
people are they doing in separate us? You are you gonna, get their pre loaded to ask you what you ve done. Your concise, like you and I are scientists. Sperm is the day. What
nervous majorities. I've got a real mentions. It get you might as well make the most of that. We are very aware that it is now really fun if you everything color coded the poop and you get to see who's poop was shielding you from one cosmic, raggedy Andy beat. You could say that someone, I care to add carrots where elude and who didn't I just these corn curve, so everyone everyone didn't buy just but but Chris S interesting, that you added the concept of a biological shield.
Whatever the warders doing, certainly if, if
jurists ray? It's a virus or anything else, that's a little.
Protection, but would you don't want is for it to then mutate? The microbes.
And they come back at you through the vets and they
that's it like an alien rewritten right there,
hopefully they wouldn t they could be amended returns. I clean and at the end but says,
bacteria. They haven't seen space on the walls of the space station. We have
their violence profile, how much they resist antibiotics that's been published, so you wouldn't want you know, make their worse at all. Ordered is someway gonna, be
by aliens that you made around you, especially if they came from your bones to Muslims in poetic justice. So before the break, we teach this question from Christine told them about what the support personnel have to consider how to get astronauts ready for this,
concerns they might face, they are one of the biggest challenges it just getting that youth, the training of learning the Russian, as well as knowing English, for example, you have to become
I just have a scientist or a pilot, but really in
near in case anything it's broken, so the training.
Mental and also be prepared for the isolation and physiology
a lot of assisting and really good shape being having measure nutrition is preserved. They do going
the quarantine before they go up, and so, for example, in Kazakhstan, must here
at have a point where they say goodbye, their families, your friends, and they can
call them or video chat, but they can't visibly see them just to keep it
a virus before they go up, there is a cute little tradition.
Where they actually urinate on one of the van that take them to the launch pad and cause extensive, that's an old,
vision via you're, a garden who too didn't the first, the first verse man's basis. I mean you gotta, let it out before you go up, so that's a small but
Orton step. Yet your company sell some radiation shielding from us. I now have some of those now being wasted, so just to be clear is not that they have to pee on the van
you're a Gagarin just had to p and if you're out
If you out there in the open what's going on,
BP on the wheel of the car. For this would that's what you do it there's not a tree around fascinated that is actually became a tradition that river.
There is a connected question wherever the usual mouse. Strangely.
In the current situation, and there is a question from again:
I dont know how trotzky wastes
see Shea wait, trust
Something on Instagram has asked what ideas are we work
to help prevent or at least minimize, the effect of isolation on future astronauts and space explorers. Unlike the virtual,
Isolation is one of the five key hazards for space fight for human spaceflight identified by NASA near the other ones. Are the radiation which we talked about. There's just the distance from earth. Your your
Our ways of something goes wrong: there's no
you can do, there's no gravity and it's a hostile environment. Their due note there things go wrong, offer
but the isolation is one of the listed hazards and just being that, far from friends that far from your friend
with only six people aren't of urban and a road trip and you're with the same rights for people first say forty five days, some people,
bananas just with that contacts and survive
You know sixty nine months on your way to Mars, with only three other people are five other people to talk to him. Look at in the EFTA mentally prepare for that. The letter that stood the training they they select the astronauts very carefully and they train them for
but then also there's, there's entertainment up there now, so you know
you can get emails from astronauts. I've gotten many people saying had a check on emission program or or running
payments up there there very you can email with them and you can video chat and they can travel
their families and, if you think about it, I think isolation was terrifying ten fifteen twenty years ago, but you can get it
it's on, you know Netflix up in space, and so they have. It said I think, for long term spaceflight,
Am I not be that bad? What what? How good as their wifi up that? What speed is there any guarantee? A disease which is close to broadband, but it did states not you know: they're, not gonna. Do a high death streaming quite yet, but is based is but
I always remembered menace. Orderly episodes at Twilight Zone Cause, I'm that old
Many of the episodes explored, the psychological
of isolation, and I'm thinking to myself what you're gonna love
It must be really serious, and I thought to myself. I know people,
who don't ever want to talk to anyone ever at times. In my life, where I want, I feel the same just give me a book
Good state, a hell out of my life, and so I thought maybe the concern,
What isolation was over overladen
over we're we're all kind of in this experiment right now that the entire planet is undergoing this mass experiments of there's a lot of both helpful
little bit smug articles that I've read by various astronauts, including the Kelly's.
About like his how we do it so
Scottie was ended. It was discussed in the house was great. I was that as well as the best sort of like we ve, contrary there's. This is how to do it, but as also that sly like and we're astronauts
and you're. Not. Maybe that's just me reading it. Maybe that's just me putting my arm prejudices onto his ears. I am very aware of an astronaut was my dream job when I was a kid before I realized how much work
accountability was necessary to reach that point
Matt will you need inadequate stuff?
absolutely similar right established over the book, the rights they have neither the onto the the army, the stuff, the really didn't apply itself hard enough, but also
this notion of a video chatting. I've had the privilege,
being on space station astronauts female chain, Sir
oh that was requested by Nasa- has a contact me what I agree so that, when the pain
overhead? We exchange of emails, part of the the
the normal see
the normality efforts in order with their comfort food, this sort of thing, but here's my kinsman
as you go farther away from earth, the
the of having a video chat with any report today,
basically goes out the window because of the light travel time for the second,
So anything beyond lunar orbit. You gotTa Mars, is a twenty minute delay,
How you doing in this twenty minutes,
They are an twenty minutes back and forty minutes, but I'm fine.
How are you suppose, quite remarkable,
oh, but in a way the more advanced technology
and the further way we can travel the closer we get to help people
You indicate hundreds of years ago,
a hundred years ago or more is more letter, writing is sending
Long missives to each other, very perceptive right yet actually
which is your way there was actually kind of romantic back then cause you got so excited when you get a full treatise of someone's
What's in dreams and hopes, and maybe we'll come back to a more romantic species when its longer longer messages right, as does know just
still you up here.
Were you when you started to get into my ball? What does up really mean when you're in an old rover, good, very good,
Samantha more questions? You will. I do like this question again as it is
Charles to feel marginally superior to astronauts and
The methods on Facebook asks say you,
stay on the I s forever. Would you have been
we turn into a floating flappy sack of organs producer five. That way, if you were to stay there forever, just a floating blown
that also means you're there, but you don't go on any exercise, machine dance and yes, he does you don't do or you
Julia when resize machines. I bet there has to be a limit. My
standing is no matter how
they work with resistance based machines. There is an
elements of muscle deterioration, whatever happens right that
so you see some atrophy. That is really unavoidable, its unity.
Is tat when they get back to earth takes days or even weeks to acclimate back and Scott even set it develop. It took him six days
he said so it s really normal till seven or eight months later we fell back to normal nets,
these? Are the daily work out so
If, as you did, none of those things
that experiments not been tried for obvious reasons, because he could then you would be really are to go anywhere. I be like the zero g. Children really wouldn't feel to go to earth, but I I think most of your structure would stay
place like the actual
the organs and suddenly float away out of your body, or are you changed into a blog but
but you had really am, if anything
dependability nutrition. Does you you? No good luck.
Lose what you might become just more bony in skinny. But if you eat a lot and don't move at all, you could be,
lobbying and add as well.
We don't have any doubt on this, but you know that you would like lose the structure of your organs and how they are related to each other, but it would become more blob like what there's a cat connected question.
I think former Victoria Del Piano patriots who says
Do we know how the cerebellum a middle, let air adapt
Oh oh, zero gravity as they are,
the developed, because I'm by gravity has
its windows in space being studied for this an greetings from Chile. Great question: does the weekly
evolved on this planet. Under this gravity and the
is a great way to maintain the proprietor option, which is the ability to sense your body in space and not
in space above space, but also on here on earth. I why you are relative to other objects, their university
you could tell us that there is an adaptation period, there's also when asked transfers given space or something called the sort of up the puffy,
they get where there's so much fluid. That goes another upper body,
trouble oriented themselves trouble moving around, but amazingly the body adapts easy within a few days and they can maneuver quite well. You ve seen people deftly jump round and zero g in the sector having fun. I've got killed,
one point had a bare Sudan that he wrought warned around the space station with so you can.
Get pretty used to it and some others
because the out of their fluids are contained within
small miniature organs and structures in the body that keep in place and the body.
It has an amazing ability to adapt and
One was examples where you think the body would would do awful, but it can adapt after a few days. Actually, I'm a member, I know there
psychological effects? I remember Chris Hadfield, saying one of the things
had to real on how to do when he got back to earth was too not just let go of things of rhetoric,
good because gravity you forget that things won't. You said quietly drew
nearby area. You forget that a coffee cup that impurities
do you know how company on exerting its our thinking,
you're too to favour. They generally, you know, really enjoy it. I think it's in other there's also
in the eyes that is also part of it. I think, of the structures in the sciences and they had to change the eyes experience a lot of pressure as well.
It was a question we actually got yes from Erin SD on Facebook says. I know the lack of gravity changes. The shape of the eye is the effect permanent after the astronauts.
The earth. So for a lot of s, fancy
looks like it isn't eleven and a boring glasses. When they come back to earth, they biscuit depressed
whereas on the eye is much flew, goes up into the internet. Cranium in your head, it pushes
Hence the eye in ways that are not normally done, and this
as well as other just stresses spaceflight, I thought to lead said something: called sands is space flight
associated Neuro Ocular Syndrome, which means
eyeball Idas into my eyes, hurt and some good, and so it's
fancy waves things you look like you're retina has problems or other old said, and so the most about looks like it's per
what's interesting so far, it seems to affect men slightly more than women
so there's some discussion and maybe the first astronauts. Tomorrow's might be a mostly female crew because their eyes,
and seemed to be as affected, but this today
ex ever alone, as we only have about five hundred. Eighty human beings have ever left her things.
But the hundred kilometers so you'll be begins.
Definitively to stop these statistics by this seems like you're. There are differences,
people were some people don't get affected, but most of them do plus
we set if the next ship is rotating, and we stimulate one gene again that all this is moved his moods neutrons other, then you know how I ball: Idas is there any difference,
in how you it is a question for me, run for many of our business, but is, with the body, be able to tell the difference between.
We're taking spacecraft, simulating one g ends being on earth,
yes, you would but are in a very
in a very particular way at the point, if you have ones if use rotated at the right speed, given
radius and you have one she at the floor that you're walking on sure, but
standing up your head, deserted
different radius from the point of rotation. Then your feet are so you're.
Edward feel a slightly different cheese and your feet would be so the large industries crafted less. This effect will be right. The larger than retained their effect would be correct. Correct
Why is your body would have no physical wait? Another different the
basically the size of planet and then moved backwards,
you're an earth. Why is it that there was a movie? Why wandering earth like you know? They made the earth mood in Salzburg that they put a bunch of
engines on earth and moved to another solar system, because Arza gone cocoon
cool I serve its big enough, then the differently in your head, your feet, a small, but until then
That's an unsteady problem, Ashur Natsir PAL.
We'll do it. We ve actually run out of time
but Chris now I know you're just right around the corner from
Brooklyn in the house. I love to get Europe back on and do more of this because you are on a biological frontier and
he's talking about Space- is a tiny piece of this. As you know,
we want. We want to hold, shows just orbiting your resource, specialty, ok, and continuing that, if you, if you with your permission,
I'd be a pleasure to come back as there's lots of genes and the genome. There's lots of cells in the body. Everyone has a story, so bad a dog one.
Some of them are being taken from one species being put new another some for radiation. All kinds of things definitely be a pleasure and then,
to tell us, what's going on behind the locked doors of your lab, has studied web design seiners confidentiality agreement, then again it up
what creature will crawl out of the door said Doktor Christmas, and thank you for being here.
Our talk and MAC person
sometimes science or maybe science or an unreasonably science? My right of China on its ways is it have big science can only love, yet we let us get. It is as fully bakers hopping excellent thanks, guys, forbear non starter
The queries, nine Neil digress, taste in your personal astrophysicist, as always
bidding you to keep looking up
Do you think.
Transcript generated on 2020-07-20.