Why does the Moon have more craters than the Earth? What’s the Moon’s true color? Is the dark side of the Moon real? Could we terraform the Moon? Neil deGrasse Tyson, Chuck Nice, and planetary scientist Raquel Nuno answer fan questions on lunar geology.
NOTE: StarTalk+ Patrons can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/show/cosmic-queries-lunar-geology/
Thanks to our Patrons David Frederick, Jennifer Aiken, Jamie Boneleye, Kyle Walker, Evan Blackburn, Jon Mack, Wyatt Smith, Cole Smart for supporting us this week.
Image Credit: NASA.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Turn your great idea into a reality with Square Space Square space makes it easier than ever to launch repassing projects, whether your showcasing your work or selling products of any kind, with beautiful templates and the ability to customize. Just about anything, you can easily make a beautiful website yourself and if you ever get stuck square spaces, twenty four seven award winning customer support is there to help had two squares based outcomes. Last start up for a free trial and when you are ready to launch used, offer code, starred talk to save ten percent off your purse, purchase of a website or domain welcome, start on your place in the universe where science pop culture collide. Norton begin right now this is the start of cosmic queries. Addition caused jackknife pay. Nea was avenant vehement. You today absolutely man. So today's cosmic worries are there all based on the moon really
I know a little bit about the moon. You know little bit nearby aim but Modest Brenner, nor by no as an astrophysical object. Ok, I don't. I left nor wait a minute what what boring air
that is what is your yes, how ever its
so a geological object. Ah people who think about rocks and minerals in thin
Philip Gaze and rocks rights and creating their people who have
that expertise and that's who we have on this issue right now
oh Rock Rico. Welcome to startle cosmic queries, hello
such an honour to be here. Thank you for having me. Let's move
and so you are a doctor.
Kennedy, you see away
and Universal California LOS Angeles there stands for, and how much is your mother pay some by what it where's your mom? What's your law lie about, Delay was on the list season.
So a cable, I guess we'll find out
expertise. She actually has so you
you're in the Department of Earth and planetary scientists exe.
And are you doc,
we'll candidate, so we expect
a Phd in within a couple years, perhaps hopefully within the next year. My adviser told me once me out by genes,
oh yeah. Well that works. I keep having babies during Rascal stairway to delay the process the little boat, but I think he's like you're ready to have been a jury grudges school you successfully gradually graduate school. That's gotta turn right! Now you right away! You get something called degree
plus the speck, it's gonna be subject. You get access route, you get appeal. If you get a ph d plus
this mean, plus it is right that list
Well, congratulations on a personal level and which is in particular, you know.
To the astrophysicists and enter the biologists, the moon and just kind of a dead place and its
It's you know it's just as no color. It's an end.
This is the subject of european diseases. So what's up with? What do you see that we don't see
so it is my goal to change your mind rebuild just like your cousin I married to ever so Iraqis,
It turns out that we don't know very much about
The main we know something bad. We still don't know how it formed. We think we know, but it is not assault case and so for Israel.
Interesting to me as I've always look
At the moon, you know we see it when we go at made me see the moon and it's beautiful so it
It's been a thing for me to appreciate and I think that's what's so appealing for me, the moon is that ice. I've seen
ever since I was a child and just wonder label it is it is there? Are there
being a vampire. But of course there is no others. There is no life on the man, but it's it's. Some
that has been with the earth, since the almost sentinel
beginning of the earth, so everything that the earth has experience
Essentially, the moon has witnessed- and I liked
Think of the moon as a witness plate to what has happened
here on Earth Church or can I can I get a witness? Yes right, hello,
I'm the moon!
to watch its surface.
Like hell, you make a fascinating sore point of scientific romance. Where
You have an object of interests that you study.
And when you go home there it is in the sky. Just as there to remind you
to come back the next big Christmas, so much of science involves things you can see is too far away to big telescope and you haven't right there as this daily well poke and it's the only
place where we ve actually then near the end.
But even so they will hard. Hardly anything we
We landed in six spots on the millennium six spots on earth and say yeah. We got her gold soda, but I'm just like it's it's it's kind of cool that we can go there like. I'm surprised
we haven't gone back more and more to the nine that we can go there is that we once went there
I don't have to go there today. We got nothing I'll get us there
why you serious? Yes, dude come on
well. We can't go to the moon today,
that's. Why, for most of the last forty years, the comment we can go to the moon, but we put them in a movie and the answer is we actually can't any longer put a man on the moon?
This show has depressed the hell out of what looked like hell is here to swim, to write another day right granted annual dwelt forgot, the questions. Recovery solicited questions from a fan base, our social media platforms,
shock hasn't. I haven't seen them I'll, carry out check. So, let's get to
but let's start off with patriotic. We always drop the patriarch patron, because
Give us money that re social them to the front of warm thanks guys, because that's the american way there you go
its strength. Tracy scrub bullet,
as he says, what is the most surprising thing we discovered.
From studying the moon rocks and samples that we brought back from the moon also, have there been any I'm man missions to collect more samples to islands?
That's second question: does it'll be quick? Yes, there has been an crude samples collected from the
by the USSR. They brought back. I think it was about about
pound of rocks and dust from the moon. Where
or a pound earthly? Ah, I see what you did. Their rights with here is where I would warn, whereas the APOLLO missions brought back, I think,
around nine hundred pounds of rock so the
the Soviet Union brought back a very small amount by if you actually, if you go online and trying to buy moon dust, so you can't buy you can't
sell APOLLO Moon Rocks and ass a few legal, but you can buy the the Soviet collected Moon Dust Iraq's on the web.
Where a rosy red Moonrise! You know. If you have enough money, you can also by a nuclear warhead from Russia.
Confess interesting, so that a sample returned mission. I didn't know that it now for the first
question: what was there was, what was the most surprising and engraved from studying of samples? What what did we learn? That was absolutely shocking. So
We had no idea how the moon formed at the time,
there is a famous scientists yuri who,
his idea and a lot of people baby was a russian scientists.
Say you're, smarter than me just thinking the Russians on Europe, S, okay. So what did you say by who?
believed that the moon was a very easily. It was made up of prime dust and rock
from the beginning of the solar system, so he thought that doesnt these rocks had said.
Together and ended up,
here on the moon so that nothing had ever happened to the moon. It just a bunch of pile Iraq from the beginning of the solar system stuck together
and when this was actually kind of good, because people wanted to go to the moon to collect a sample of of what the solar system started out.
To be, and what can we do that on earth?
Presently we failed at the same time we did by what has happened. Is we have melted? We have we have
incompletely reprocessed. Our surface of the earth has been completed.
Reprocessed. So that's why, when we, when we collect certain types of meteorites, they're called Conrad's, we're very excited because that
made up of the primordial dust and particles from
beginning of the in them, so we can learn about what would it look like
when we got arrested because
his geologically active. That's right, contaminates Europe, the purity of when you change. If it becomes a front runner, also become completely different and so
I thought that the moon was just this gigantic peace
primordial dust and rock and
when we, the APOLLO astronauts, went there collector rocks it turned out that the moon
has had an incredible geologic history, it has melted
the moon was at some point completely melted. It was covered in magma, magma ocean. That's what we call it and come.
The friendship and ended up differentiated so that that heavy stuff,
to the bottom, forming an iron core and then the light
material. The light manner
Alison and rocks floated to the surface in that full use, a difference between magma and lower. Ok, so magma is love,
it has an erupted out of of its source
do you have a different words where you find the stuff right?
if it ever comes out of of the of the surface, then becomes lava still
trapped underneath and melted than its magma. That's glow worm college. So whatever
Whatever geological thing, it is once it gives birth. Now
It gives birth a lab. Yes, I got some dinner feeders brother Magma February. That's right
with an eternity,
theme I just had a baby a month and a half ago, how many kids you heard from the country that was my third.
Three little lovers so lovely address, ruin all over the house. That's right away with every area.
Yes, so so we learn that the moon has has had an incredible geologic history. It had been processed had,
melted and minerals, different types of minerals formed and it made us think.
Ok, so it didn't form the way we thought it did. So how did it form
ok, let's so so so
your biggest surprise was not a question that had answered. It was
question that it left you
not knowing the answer to that loud. I think that's the most exciting. Yes, I know there have more questions when things don't leave too
The Anthony have more more things to explore. So what the questions here
as Robert Weaver, also from patriotic and Rob
it says my.
I'd daughters, Lilla and Paden would like to know how come the moon has. So many creators and the earth doesn't have any.
And you're gonna say Robert. You tell
Lilla and Peyton to go,
Look it up we're not here to do their homework so as to fast requested an hour. I I love that question so actually them the earth does have create.
So we have about,
is about a hundred and fifty recognised craters on the surface of the earth, but because, like
he said the earth is very geologically active. We have plate tectonics, that's causing the plates two sub docked underneath each other.
You essentially a race, the history of what has happened in the past on earth,
and the other thing we have. We have an atmosphere, so certain rocks, if their small enough, the does burn up in the atmosphere than ever enter
our hips hit the ground, whereas on the moon, anything there
Hence it everything large enough sizes.
Create a crater, and then we also have wind which roads any evidence of past creators,
they have water that also raises evidence and even life little craters, making their homes underground collapse. Crater features here on earth. So that's why we don't see them. We ve had
we have them. There is actually beautiful, crater in Arizona called Meteor crater that formed about it.
A thousand years ago, and it is one of the best. I think it might be one of the best preserved crater on earth, and you can really you can see it and it's cool
Yeah, you preserve not because there was a preservation society because it loose in the desert I gathered. There is not much were re loudly and it's a geologically dead area right back. Ok, let's super cool, so they
This is basically a contaminated crime scene. You can never again, never know. What's Goin reached being right,
Maybe you just made me nervous gallons of serious, like wait a minute, you know, and we know a lot about. We see Terry and I only wish to that. I went I worked in a medical advertising assignment. I I know about cleaning
clearly evident to us
as very what your meetings to adjust to summarize, I think, is if we
have these cleansing? Propped these efforts
We would look just like the moon, that's right, job like
everything that this is what I
and by the moon, being a witness blade is everything that has been sent out of the clearest instinct, exactly exactly exactly archer
It me some more right. Let's see here
canadian nope Canadian very funny the way they spelled it
the Canadian from Patria
hello, Neil, which stop blaming how people spoke things on the fact that you can pronounced their name, what else the mother to play, but all of this person is please, as MRS Output, your names, I tell ya, gotta find a way to
I gotta have some excuse. I hello needs out an Rico,
Future munitions end up really into the surface and its drafting a poor, simple, like we do on earth. What are you that we might find? How far down to believe the rock layer extends before we start
hitting she ok or oil? One around right example have value s brain.
Man as much as I love twos and wish I could eat some learn shoes. I think we have to go pretty far down
I not find it
nice job, like a misdirected. My letter read what makes you think the surfaces and sees that one out there are layers there. What what we find if we actually pull the coral yeah.
Depends on how far you go by the moon is a differentiated body so like
You said before its melted and it's it's been separated the heavy stuff
thanks to the bottom and the lights up at the top. So will you have you have a core and this
I'm sorry, you have your mantle and then you have your crust like you
here on earth, but just to be clear when people
we think of rocks as heavy things
because they go to the bottom of the pool.
But when you think of rocks you think of light things, matters metal.
Things are heavier than rocks. Are that's right? We're answer
there there more done so. Based on the lessons to the top the lax with bakers, what you're going to talking about here, I know that I have a very different perspective: does your geologists other species of person, but on top of that cross me have what's called the wrangling so because the moon has been bombarded by
billions of years of rocks hitting surface it's. It's broken up. The rocks tat were there before, and so there's this powder of dust on the surface that that its think it's between five and ten me
on top should show is not a matter of breaking up
The rest is completely paper whose rising them. Yes, yes, yes turns into powder. That's right! This is the same.
Stop there trying to get, they couldn't get all love. The space suits, that's right, so events are being very sharp because there's no water or anything to round out the corners. The these fragments are so sharp that when they stick to you, it's like impossible to get them.
And we are we. Actually. We have samples in our lab. There's people in our lab that studied optical properties of the regular, and
The samples there we got were removed from the astronaut spacesuits, so they brush, they were trying to save everything
It can do the gas crisis material, something zillion dollars to get to the bottom. You unfriendly very brilliant addressed here so when they brought the inner astronauts came back, they got their suits and brushed off their deston and we actually used bad for scientific research and you can find
but a fibres, and there it's it's, not mixed with their danger for the so called Debbie is interesting thing you don't use had chauvinist we'll take a quick break when we come back more start talk cosmic weary with,
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Do it today. We're back this episode from the moon is a geological object, not just it pretty. Things
times. God check, but we don't mind, we don't mind it s, a pretty thing in the name of their works, then we have rock hell. You know who's a doctor,
candidate at use your way?
Studying the moon coming to
as a geologist and that's a whole other species of scientists? Far as I'm concerned,
because you see the world very differently from the
astrophysicist. You know you,
You look at them when you see rocks on the moon. I like the moon. I just see a beautiful orb in the sky, that's all
if that, that's where it ends for me, and then I go
and then I go to Mars to look for life
so check. You got more questions, you're, so name this,
from cabin Kalkhi Guttmacher.
You just made that now I don't know what it is. Where is it says its s, cavern Calico mother, I think
and if it is called Kevin, calico marker, then I say a lotta.
He says what is it?
When the moon picture, I, like a big pizza pie,
no, I'm jokingly does not say that we did not say that again is what he says can can the moon have a move?
as why, because the question more for meal- but maybe you know too rocco- do other any, because
This is really kind of a really interesting question, either any
since that we find in the cosmos where
a moon also has
its own satellite, so we, I don't think we found when you at least deftly not in our solar system, but it is theoretically possible to have a moon.
Of a moon there's a paper that came out and they called it: a submarine,
or Moon Moon depends on. I think there is anything on twitter where people on twitter
well. I know we want moon men could because it hasn't been named officially. Yet
So am I? Yes? Theoretically, you can have
a moon of a moon, but I think what the problem is that
have to have the right conditions, because if, for example, I think it
The moon is too close to the parent bided like the planet. You can just
the its orbit, and it will either spiral out of
orbit or into the planet. So
Neil do do you have any more insights about that? You agree entirely. A matter of images,
think it through observe our moon had a moon right, and so it's going around our thing ass
comes to this side
earth gravity on. It will be stronger much stronger than it is on the other side. So
here's, the satellite. It's getting tugged
asymmetrically, as its trying to
orbit. The moon and this creates a condition for very unstable orbits. Whenever
stable orbit Europe here, your futures doomed either, as
Mercosur to fall into the earth would spiral
you need in order to have one of these
three body systems. What you need is a very
three big separation between
the planet and the moon, so that an object can go around that moon and not have the difference in gravity. Be so great that
but the moon and earth is relative to the sun right. Ok,
its earth is a moon of the sun, then the moon is a moon. Moon of the sun. Ok
but that's, ok, cause we're really far away from the sun. So so so you can do the math on the fabric of the of the stable orbits and you can see where you can put objects where they can stay and where you can put it
it's where their unstable sassy and now I am really not that I
do the math, because a curtain, but now I'm just thinking how cool would it be to cry?
eight a sources, the mathematically where you could actually have a planet,
planet, the moon,
all are in orbit so that
The gravity pulls just
at the right time to please everyone gets badlands like like those plight spent
As you know, I perpetrated the downloaded it did. Reputable shock is always wanted to be God he's here
right. Now I like these ideas,
this fund. Chuckling did there? Are these orbit programmes
yeah where you try to create a solar system- and you might be surprised how hard it is
yeah cause you with our planet here at the speed. Not that's gonna fall into this, so there's only a speed that works at a distance
in whatever is the shape of the orbits at it has so
back. The solar system currently from run Rico
recent model suggests that we might have started out with as many as thirty planets in the formation scenario, most of which have spiral off into interstellar space? The right number thirty's at a fair number to use that rings right
It seems reasonable by us that that was yours either to take away is there's more planets that we don't have that. We then we currently have that there have been dejected, objected out, yeah, ok, a right that is super cool. Ok, here we go,
Morgan Tangier, also from patriarch,
If there's no, whether atmosphere in the moon, where does the ice come from,
look, as we learned about eight is ice on the moon, so you job just thought you knew everything, but you downstairs nice still so much still than we think
under storms and far sighted scarcely Debbie. Where would we go
So what's up with the water on the moon, so there's different sources of water on the moon. They can come from
comments and a meteorite that bring water to the surface of the moon.
You also have what I think is really cool. Is the sign the solar, so the sun is spewing
The massive amount of of charged particles call the solar wind and
protons from the solar wind, hit the surface of the moon, so hit oxygen that that's on the rocks,
the rocks and and and bond with oxygen forming water?
like a high, very little minerals depletion
is the nucleus of a hydrogen? Yes, since right hydrogen hydrogen, yes, combining with the oxygen in the rocks forming hydrated mynors, forming water at the surface,
of the many and those actually so wait a minute. Is this like water out of thin space? It's like
just got conjuring like article ray it's like well, given you just look for them: the moon to have a want. Just like it's right, water, that's crazy! Everybody is actually one other place that we get water from. That's actually from the interior of the moon, and we didn't know this until recently.
There there they did. There's these become glass, beads, they're, just volcanic glasses, that, from the samples collected from the APOLLO by
APOLLO astronauts and when you slice them open and look inside, you actually find trapped water molecules inside those those those glass beads.
So that tells you that there is water there, at least in the past, when
when the moon was geologically active. There was water trapped within the mantle
ok, but it gets very hot during the day. What is an older just evaporate? Oh that's a good question
so he took. I asked a good. Well, how do you know where I did a compliment? I didn't want it. I didn't want to break up the flow, but I was glad to say that to be a good collected, and can you imagine if meal asked the question you are like what a crab asked why man was
God I'm guided India. We did other girls Thyssen. Just ask me why why, without it
question so wet ends up happening is there's these places at the polls, these craters at the poles of the moon, so at the top and at the bottom them that haven't seen
some labour so deep, and they because of the way that the moon rotates they haven't seen some
for billions of years, so it's very cold. They actually
turns out to be one of the coldest places in the solar system actually even colder than the surface of PLUTO? And so if water ends up there, it gets trapped assent
please forever for billions millions of years and that's where the ices? That's?
where, where it where we think that the ice is is trapped inside these, we call them personally shattered regions because their so called. Essentially
Thinking escape at record. You can save the water is where the sun notion that expression. For that I saw it, I guess
if you're on a pause, the sun never gets very high in the sky, that's right, and so you can have a crater lip
the shadows, because the shows a red long by the low son- that's right at the end that those pockets or were you talking about that's right. So if we are to have colonies on the moon and want to use in situ resources, we gotta have some access to these two, these craters at the polls. That's an order to get the water and that's a lot of a lot of mission concept. Designs have been to go to bees, crater ran so you can. You still have access to funding
to power, your equipment,
and also now you have these
then we shall regions where you can go and collect the ice that we think is there
the moon assigning a little more interesting I've set. So now wait, let's
I have a question so when you, the water, that we're talking about that in the form of ice, whether its deposited there or is it just forms, is it is it is it potable is amazing
like is it, what is it just water? Can we drink it or is it? You know something else,
Besides, it is waterbed, it's probably mixed in with the that less than
It means we got all the mineral and all the other. Crap is Andy right where you may need to add and bring sound some filters weapon.
If they can enter machine, took to scoop up the regulus and have some universe,
yet at the end, but something's gonna have to process in tat right because because a lot of these is a true bodies are just sort of
isolated or just a few water molecules, yeah aim at the surface. Yes, yes, it's pretty much just
like a coating on these minerals that you have some coating of water. So you need to go to these permanently shadow regions where we think there's large amounts of water eyes, but we don't know how much and and that's actually really exciting, feel to researchers is sending more spacecraft. Ordinary people try to figure out what what is happening in these regions.
So I went back to them when I'd want to go to near one of those coal traps I'll riding around me when I speak to, maybe that's hardly made moon Aki woke like it becoming like it,
I'd check. What are you all right
this Evan Wells from patriots who sit in this dark Thyssen and Doktor soon to be lunar. I've been waiting for the socket for a very long time, as I am a big fan of the moon as well as planetary geology. Do you too, personally, believe in fear? Is that correct that my saying it right fire
Thea TH yea at the most logical theory of the moons origin,
Are there any other examples that you can recall of the moons that are exceptionally close to their planet, such as our move? Looking at different other moves in this in the solar system, thanks so much respect for
The space coast all took out his word. Yes, every excellent,
as a really great question, which we don't have time to answer back from this break, but I did there. I teach that, as with the purple prose do that you're gonna be right back star talk, cosmic hurries, the moon,
hey we like to give a patriotic shot out to the following patriotic patrons David, Frederick and Jennifer. I can thus thank you so much for all that you do to make star talk a success, and if you would like your very own patriotic shout Al Gore,
patriarchs, less star, talk, radio and support us back with Jack. Nourishment covers jerk. Yes, yes, an especial yesterday. Raquel knew no new know how I feel
spanish background and so to say knew no feels wrong. I now I hear you struggling with until it funny you know.
Do you have a portuguese routes? I d rather than corn, raise my whole family has been there for such little, however near in Portugal. Now we dont. So if you want to make that sound, it would be an end and then an age afterwards.
That's how they sound yeah, yeah yeah, but my name is just knew. No, just
I, where we left off, check that there is a question about fear yet
so having wells wants another to you too personally believe in fear and the other thing
is: are there moons in the solar system that are like our moon? So
fruitless. So the whole idea of fear can we can hear
Let me in on that
so? The idea was that a Mars size object than which were calling Thea
impact it and early earth, and it was such a massive impact that sprayed all this material out into space, and
it condensed out informed our move. So that's the idea so MAR size. I recall, fear, hit the earth and form
the man I just to be clear, fear is gone. Yes,
yes, and so some became earth and the rest
became the moon and some scattered. Wherever else. That's right. That's gonna wait a minute for this to happen. These that thing would have to be so
super ha like you know them
In fact, you ll get how just from against hearty I get so that it does you get there as a super cool water, they re carryin. That's that's what caused the all that that impact. So then, when the moon formed in all these pieces came together, it heated up the surface of the moon.
What how we got that magma ocean
melted, so you yeah, you get energy just from things and he got heat from things hitting each other
Our aim was the status of that hypothesis is embraced.
So yeah I mean it's the best we got
read it. I really like you didn't go with that. You want to talk about it in a multiple occasions. People said if I could go anywhere in the universe we would I go
and- and I suggest that include time- they said her as I wanna go back and watch Thea hit the earth and see the moon get form
That's cool man, it was so you say it's got. Good support by your people indefinitely has to get support, so we know that early in the solar system giant impacts like this are very common, so it makes sense that this would have happened to us
they would produce moons and an discs and theirs.
Pieces of evidence in geological record so
The moon actually lacks iron in bulk, so what we think happened is, when fear hit the earth the its core, the core of the kind of
sank into our earth and what you ended up. Having is both the mantle stuff so the stuff, without the iron too, to form the moon. So then there's the evidence for against it is the
the fact that the Moonrise or so similar to the ones here on earth. You would expect that you would see some evidence of fear somewhere.
And we dont so that we do not have any any evidence of beer material.
Around them here on earth or on the men. So we need an explanation as to why that is
then how that sure? Even if you found an asteroid stream,
the sun and you
looked at its ingredients and they mashed some combination of earth in the moon,
could be there
remains of fear. That's right,
or would still orbiting the sign? That is right.
How do you form to object that are essentially identical so
That would mean that the moon that the EU and the earth, where
very similar to begin with and for Europe, and we have a very hard time with models making that happen its
very hard because when we look at other objects, other planets asteroids
We is really different. You can you can find the finger print for each of these bodies and we really
and when the earth and the moon, so
what other moon in the solar system comes closer to matching Arab? Why does it depends?
you're trying to what do you mean by closer? So if, if you're talking about sites
so the moon is very big compared to the earth
because when you look at other means in the solar system, the planets are huge compared to the size of their moons. There is normally big computer, it's big compared
anything. That's your early other aboard the Moose Army, like in the top cited a huge.
Similarly, I it's very it's weird lonely later go earth
Thirdly, by PLUTO, no, it's not
planet, hardly move that we back
but it has a moon that is very large compared to PLUTO itself. So in that sense it is similar to our system. Are earthmen system is similar to that photo sharing system because of the size of the size ratios between the planet,
I'm right right, Jackie going here we go, this is will from twitter. He says: do you think there is bacteria
still alive and the appalling missions of God
leavings, I will say that the bad that they had to leave
If there is not time there have survived what with that need for future deep space travel
the sun. Guessing, I think I know. Ok, I think I know the question yes, yes, yes, so it
they didn't do that baby
Billina who begged the programme, because you could say that meal when I say Pooh pants people got stuck so here we are receiving. These
What I would describe for me, the bacterial back, thank you meal,
A question was in their do. I think there is any bacteria. Would there be innovative battery still, but just to be clear, they,
After on the surface of the moon, lay dead? Well,
we have to carry your poop
out of our national parks or what's this
places are the sole preserve. You kid
you can barely pee on a tree rest grape and often taken it up apart with you, and we can t pouponne among these. These. These estimates are like the neighbours that I have to tell a story to a dog eat dog barked. Ok,
the work of my labours reckon. I didn't know that
yeah. I guess so. If you had a choice,
would you want to bring poop back to earth or rocks back to you?
That is true in a trade off now you want to bring a brake on bringing the rocky bringing the rock so wait as very important thing when it comes to space travel and space exploration, so you're gonna try to maximize the
already of the way to get your hat show you to transport it. I dont think that there's back terrier life, so I know that the the poop backs bags had german Seidel in them to actually kill bacteria, so the banks themselves. I think they have to tear these pouches and important
you bet and mixed makes the starting line to attend and there's none, but there's other other reason when I think it's alive nothing's alive and there you irradiation is a really big challenge. In space, so it's probably been,
completely irradiated raft out there all these years radiation because it has no atmosphere to protracted write anything come in its faster and also the heat. So the surface of the moon can get as hard as I think, two hundred and sixty degrees Fahrenheit. So you essentially have probably
everything that was break I'm getting a little gm some parts
the feeling that, after this conversation, they'll be several young people are like the guy
gonna be a mass. Now we need. We need astronaut,
let's see here this is
What's he do it all?
you could present when Turkey as you damn right. Finally, somebody who likes me would see Doodle says doktor ties
Enrico and hijack. My question is: can you explain what is the dark side of the moon?
so there is no dark side of the mountain and the network of woodland. Latona result now alive, so we don't have a dark side. It's only aside that we never see, because
as the moon is tightly lock to the earth? So but it's not Jack a gets. It gets sunlight
That is why every morsel did it right with a name
this column was the far side. That's right and pink sport
got it wrong that enable the album was the dark side. That's right,
now a measure of science literacy. Yet we call it the fireside, that's what we call the what
a lot of people know as the dark side start too,
That's right, sir,
Manuel Dal got too and is actually the ghetto well done.
Get up there. It is man
delegates from Instagram says in the film time traveller, the moon, brick,
support due to my me. What would happen to the earth if the moon broke apart by the way that
I think the Umbrella Academy, that's that's the destruction of the earth to the piece of them,
breaks off and destroys the earth, but what
what we need is also true in the movie melancholia
the moon approaches. Earth.
And then they collide round eyes why my favorite book called seventy aims. That happens in the first page as well
in the first phase of it. I went back and picks up from their us. Haven't I fully support. What would we? What are we without the moon? It would be
very bad time on earth is if the moon broke up
the energy between the peace
is breaking up and hitting each other whipped the stable
Why is there orbits and they would end up crash
into the earth- and that would be bad? Very, very bad, as we know happened to the dinosaurs,
pieces with a than the ass, though it were the earth,
we wouldn't survive. Life might not even survive if that were to happen in, but if you
don't even take that into account. So, let's we don't worry about pieces falling into into earth. The the moon provides the earth with a very stable orbit, so we don't tilt the earth does until
very much because it has the the moon there to stabilize its orbit. So that's why
how very mild seasons
we didn't have the moon. There are seasons. Would we would have you
there's thousands of years of ice ages and then and life would
survived the same thing actually happens on on Mars, because Mars has small,
burns, they don't stabilize their orbits. So Mars is at least tilting over periods.
Millions of years, and yet so bad bad thing, but but but to be clear- and this would not happen if you're just with nor
Oh lining techniques, you don't have enough energy to actually break up the memes that we don't have to worry about that unless they find Roca for cheese and they put all out as have the mass of the moon, a wholly just Adele totally mess up the moon. We confessed earlier in the show you how to do very deep to not fine she's. Very thank you said the other, but where do you think he'll if, with the main broke a part that that's terrible ray?
right here here, but I think there are access, would go and stable on a period
times longer than we were civilization anywhere,
tens of thousands years, not just a few thousand, so I think
astronomers would love it. Cuz, the moon, completely messes up our night sky. We can't see anything when the moon, full moon is out, so I would love it for the time until we all died would be great. That's so funny
Our aid, as wormy, were next visit. Deston decimate from Twitter says what color,
Is the moon really? Is it is it
oh really, gray, either features in
different colours and and why why so, then he says just Chuck. You get ten cosmic points. If you say my name correctly well, guess
but you keep your points as you know. Damn well, let's see, deter me. Ok, that's all I can say
maybe that that might be your name. Ok, ok,
they ve got. Somebody have retail,
What's really interesting. Is that how many peoples
TAT, the moon is white or this very light gray, color.
When I do outreach events, people and I bring moon dust with me. People like while it's so dark,
I thought it was way
it's knives, actually very dark thing in the sky. When you look
the nice guy using these different regency have the dark and the light regions and in the dark regions those are ancient volcanic plane so that those rocks are like black lava rocks. They use,
in Hawaii or in Iceland in their there, almost as dark
as a newly paved road, so it's very
very dark, those rocks are very dark.
And then the lighter region of the moon. Those are the highlands of those are made. Up of
minerals, there are lighter, but it's still a dark grey color
the fact of the matter. So bright just means the sun is really bright. That's right! That's the only reason end. The other reason is is a relative thing it when it's in our night sky. We look at it compared to a dark background
It looks even brighter to us.
So what's around, it is darker, and that makes it look brighter. Yes,
There is also now I'm gonna use the same black as more effective.
Indeed, the track is more like it. Here we go
this protocol? Prateek
protein wants to know this. What would it take to make the moon
habitable. Is it possible for
or a colony.
In the near future. Yes
can have colonies on the surface, but you have to add to mitigate all kinds of issues like the heat and the radiation, but there there is theirs.
Lava tubes on be on the moon that you can. You can say it can go underground with colonies.
Which is really exciting, but you cannot tell reforms that you cannot,
change the moon to give it an atmosphere
running water, because it's just not enough gravity to hold an atmosphere on it.
The other thing people think actively about that. We take
for granted that there's air here available for us to breathe. Without
thinking that the gravity of earth is keeping the atmosphere on its surface. That's right
and saw the moon. The molecules are just escaped, absolutely
so you can have may be very, very
for a time where you might have an atmosphere, but in the solar wind and be we'll just blow it out of the way just blow it out and the gravity won't hold it in place should issuing a person. The dozen things happen to you.
You can easily just have a colony not apply,
ignoring those other complications ray. We gotta call acquits there.
Thank you for being on show. Thank you for having me. I love talking about the man that, like us, so this what we value out, a good, that's why we did this short, always good to have you. I was a pleasure, tweeting, Chuck, Norris Comic! Thank you, sir, and Enrico you. You do to public suffrage that you have active social media. I mostly used Instagram to do my science outlay in your handle, is at best space, geologists, come on
declaring on the nose of greater have. I think this has been started. Cosmic queries, the Moon edition.
Neil Degrasse Tyson. Your personal astrophysicist has always been to keep looking up.
Transcript generated on 2020-09-09.