Join Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Sarah Rose Siskind as they answer fan-submitted Cosmic Queries about our collision course with the Andromeda galaxy, how the Big Bang got its name, the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, dark matter, and much more.NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/cosmic-queries-our-galaxy-and-beyond/Photo Credit: NASA.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free, welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide dartle begin right now this is start talk and I'm your host, neither grassed ice in your personal astrophysicist and today's edition of Start talks is a cosmic queries. Whatever the hell came off the internet, that's what we're doing today. And my cohorts its say, hello, low near you, the first time we do in this together, and I hope that I can initiated. I hope that there is some sort of weird induction process, but you got
a comedy background right: do you have a whole communist with with the Harvard Lampoon was at Harvard? I did not do the lamp we didn't. Do the lamp oh yeah. They were jerks when I was there, so they then taking. How that works that actually here that they don't take you they become jerk. O Leary Lang lie LAW, the organ so we're getting the lamp who rejects you ve reached that low point at low point. Actually, my dad was on a lamp in and I didn't wanna join for that you have a community Dan. I, what is a dead joke over comedic dead at their words they better or their worse, there's so much worse. There's someone I get accused of dead joke are just say something I think is kind of funny on Twitter. Thanks dad it's like how did they What about that happen? Booze, I'm being clever, but I'm just a dad police. You have Jones there's no mom territory,
True, what's that about Romero? Just San standards here is the weight of the world is on the shoulders of mom gathered there a long time to Jack. It's not a time for that oughta joking matter so as usual. These questions are collected from our internet fan. Base from Eastern twitter and Facebook very cool hand, the street, it's totally legitimate, and I dont know if you Better pronouncing people's names in nice will decide that in this episode, yeah we'll see about I'm just going to say loudly and confidently and ethical be convinced that even if it's wrong, it's confident exactly- I mean they don't know they're gonna bust in the door, but no one else will know you mean Velma. No one else will no doubt. Yes what so? What's the first question I write so the first one actually has a guide to pronouncing the name. It comes from your Neve costs are patron patriotic and his name. He says more, get their questions answered for
Oh yeah, no yeah July. This right is class citizens that yeah bless me. His name, you need is pronounced, like young Eve and at rhymes with achieve that's what it says on the need for good mother. He addresses it to check which I'm gonna take as a personal my question to Doktor Thyssen. Are we near the center of the universe and as a personal, follow up? Is that centre as I've lungs long suspected me yeah? There's your followup! That's my follow up measures it's about the sirens bore the center. I made a better sir. You are the centre of your own universal thanks. Now. Aren't that interviews? and but you're, not the centre of anyone else's universe, nor the universe itself and while the the universe has no centre, and just because you can sit down in verbs together to make a sentence that sounds like it should have an answer, whereas
center of the universe are we there does not require that it has an answer. For example, here's a question that you know not to ask: where is the center of earth's surface? I wish your flat Arthur and think we ever disk which would have a center. We all night big Fan bridge very brief and what this spherical earth you don't. You know tonight even ask that yeah. You know this so it turns out. The universe has no centre because everything this universe was at the same place. At the same time, we call that the big bang soak a kind of had a center, but it's not accessible. Today you have to go backwards. Thirteen point eight billion years and the whole universe was at its own centre. In that moment, its intrinsic lie. The questions actually were kind of office topic and somebody even set explicitly. I can't imagine the universe as anything better fear it seems almost innate that we think of it as like, a physical space where the Centre Europe. So, but that's that's why
and I'm just saying that one way to two visualizes is take away one of the dimension, because our brains are too feeble. Imagine four dimensions are five damage is taken. By a dimension and put the whole universe on the surface of a balloon drawer little spiral galaxies. If you inflate the balloon, All the galaxies get four with all other galaxies and if you are on again Caesar we at the center nowhere The set. Are you at the center? Nobody gets to say there at the center. You know why, because the centre is not on that surface the centre, is when the balloon was smaller. When the blues infinitesimal Thirteen point eight billion years ago, eminent happen. Everybody was at the centre, so I was at the centre that ok
I knew that one mahometans Billy I needed in the past banks, but allow me to remind you that the the opening quote of my current book astrophysics for people in her which are really cheap plug for that. But but I have to say that you have to say: I agreed that a c c c minus three plus I open it, which has had such a straight and say The universe is under no obligation to make sense to you yeah. I remember that I love that introduction that that's all it is in that I put it in a book printed for the first time. Yeah. Now, though, is that was a fantastic introduction has was touching on a feeling I didn't realize you had like those get absolutely a really take that that emotion, ok, moving onto our next question this one
comes from user named Ali me. I m c D. Ninety eight on Instagram who says if all galaxies in the universe are expanding away from us than what is the cause for the interim it a galaxy being on a collision course with our own excellent question, our beautiful beautiful. So let's go back to a rubber sheet algae in a moment ago, the surface of a balloon. Let us all on a rubber sheet and others rubber sheets expanding. So I you're my neighbour galaxy and you're. My closest galaxy Let's say you move away from me: it one inch per second, let's say. You were to your neighbor, Galaxy and you'll, see it move away from you and one inch per second, it its neighbour go to move away from it at one inch per second I will see your neighbor Galaxy move away from me, a two inches per second. I will see that galaxies Neighbour Galaxy move where three inch
per second. So the farther way you are from any point of observation. The faster is the measured expansion because everything is expanding uniformly and its adds up. I thought everything was expand was excel. Greatest. That's that's another level of a top of this over time. That's on top of this that's happening. Ok, that's with that will neither we don't need to reference that now to get to answer a question. I sail basic expanding universe. We are expanding so so others, if you invokes at then I would say that we as you go back in time. The you'd be, would see that the expansion was greater. Ok, as the time had moved on because, as you look out in the universe, you are looking back in time right. So you see things not as they are, but as they once were beautiful nowadays, guidance abuse. Fact there was a time movie called LE correspondence.
Could you didn't come my correspondence? HU, I leave my voice. Mail message distort german ares. Ok and was a love story. You fan, or at its meeting I'm a big fan of it love story and he played an astrophysicist and he had I wonder you, like? Every terminal disease had to go abroad. His love interest did not know he was ill and he actually died, but he had pre loaded letters to arrive to her long after he died, so that his
His energy, would still be alive in her heart and this was analogize to starlight. The star may have died, but it's light. Continuing to travel through space remind you of its continued existence. Long after it is gone like what is one then and aiming at their absolute gorge area, so beautiful, so the key to more tadeusz just send a bunch of male their light, so the post office, when their delayed in their mail there just like we want to extend your legacy us acts because of this, the dew doing Purplish had exactly the question was asked about reference point of expansion, but I feel like I, since graduate from college, see my own reference point as expanding like I'm expanding away from myself.
So fat, so everything is expanding. Well, so you expand from what you once were s, provided you view college commencement as the beginning of learning, rather than the end that's true, I mean Isn t the last. The graduation speeches are called commencement, which means beginning you spoke of the whole celebrations are commenced right and it is a commitment speech. Right was its intended to mean beginning right, and you would know, there's a gate at Harvard where, if you enter the Harvard Yard, what I threw that as an undergraduate you were there yet another gate says enter to grow in wisdom. Yes, have you read the other side of decades leave to get dead, so it's
exit to serve better that country and that kind so yeah you exit and now you grow. I was funded ironic, though, that it is, there is a huge superstition about that gate, which is, if you go through it before you graduate that you will never get to graduate to me, it feels like a very ignorant superstition to have a better cape ethical boundaries, eager supervision for one of the highest behold. Fourth, yeah yeah. No, I was not into superstition yeah, but it still permits divers do persecution stupors. I like that getting back you're fellows question, so the nearby galaxy will be receiving from you slower than all other galaxies. That farther away fact number one fact number two all galaxies have movement relative to one another. And it turns out that the movement of Andromeda at its distance from
us is greater than the expansion of the universe between us, also it's coming towards, so it can overcome the expansion of the universe being so close to us. If the drama going to wear at any farther distance, the expansion of the universe would override it who so generally, you Have nearby galaxies colliding towards one another? Is there gravity overcomes the expansion of the universe? Is what how you colliding galaxies at all. Yet it was a great question. It is a matter of what is the distance to the object. It is interesting, cause I I was researching the collision course with the Andromeda Galaxy and our own and, as it said, the prediction, four billion years. He's a little longer than that, but because that sooner than the sun is like set to collapse. Yet so it's a it's. It's a technique. It's a technicality The systems are huge, the Andromeda Galaxy and the milky way their huge. So you have to ask
Where are you going to say, is the moment if they start colliding right? What is that moment and so is it when the outer reaches the suburbs hit one another when their nuclear I hit one another or when they settled down into one giant, Mass yeah doubled number star is that the two separate systems had to begin with and so if you add all that up its hundreds, millions of years for the system to settle into new galaxy, so it is not accurate to think of it as a single moment yeah time. So, you could easily say it will begin as early as five billion years, but all the action- and it happened later- ok, see him our patient. Its money enter next question from Lucas Lance on Instagram. Could it be possible internet lets? You know, I just had a confidently committed to locker because its fancy cause it says: there's a peripheral, Lucas, Long, Lucas lawns and
fishes. So I pronounced that officially o acres of green, its officially recognised on Instagram. Whereas what could it be tat? I could it be possible that a deja vu is a phenomenon where two different identical timelines into different identically. Universes cross, that's and create some sort of mental link between me and my timeline and me in the alternative Timeline des LAO. Ok and experts have been adopted. We fully understand days of Hu Jia was George Carlin, who said. Sometimes I go into a place and I'm certain I've never been there before that's a visa day figures
garland like that yeah, so I actually forgive me for not knowing what the literal translation of Digital, who is yet it means already seen already so. The rule is the scene, the adage of you. So so I don't have a problem with that during our policies. A using this, the theory of gravity right of relativity quantum theory and Freddy's theory right. They were Lucas LAW, Who cares on our arms? So I I think, there's more to learn from that. I think our brains are more complex yeah. Now we weren't we ve come to recognise how complex they actually are, but because something happens in your brain doesn't mean it is the measure of an objective reality and most of human experiences Do not is most of human cure,
Yes bring phenomena is not take root in objective reality, yeah. I have very low confidence that this idea will bear fruit. Yeah deja vu. Intersecting, parallel universes, simply because your brain, I could put you in a room, put throw some simple dry, listen to you and your hallucinate look at what happens to your brain with the tiniest of chemical disruption. You don't have a more acute sense of reality. You have a lesser sense of reality: yeah is measured by recording devices in the room that your happened to be sitting? No, I saw a green clown and shaded have you
I heard of a husband poem about a penknife. No, he says I need, but stick this in my heart and down will fall the sky and earthen. Heaven shall depart and all of you will die and it's about how he thinks if he kills himself that the rest of the world will depart, because that's what it feels like, I figured out there with the police. You really think that we need an explanation. See new a poem. Is this phenomenon where it was not one of the obscure power but now I ve midnight ride of poor remain up. His poem is about amending, all revere back road of horse at midnight. I note that some poems down, thankfully dont need for good. Whispered. The blues we're living older Neil. When nobody, I like your ear response to a question about deja vu and being in your head. It reminds me what the point is. Yes,
yet we read a lot of things. We see a lot of things and we don't retain active knowledge that they sit in our memories. We could have had things described to us and it we may a picture of what was described. You don't have deja vu every. I should go into faint and you don't even have it every day and once a week once a month four times a year, so all the places you ve been in It really is gonna, be one that matches up with some book. You read movie. You saw I had deja vu, whereas I forgot where I was in Louisiana somewhere in the south. And I was with in some conference and we drove by cemetery, not a big one kind of a church.
You don't you between a cemetery Anna and I and a graveyard. They spelled differently. Yes, a difference, you don't really know you really done. I'm all products only learned it like a week ago. Ok, so a graveyard is attached to a church. Oh ok, cemeteries, wherever the hell it is, and since the yard, it's the yard of the trash we're not so I passed the cemetery, I might have been a graveyard. I didn't remember. If there's a church can I said it was kind of a twilight seen this before, but I know I never been on that since I had a deja vu and then the bus driver said and we just passed the cemetery. That was the backdrop. It Michael Jackson's, there you go out on the weird thing. Is we ve had this conversation before Neil? We take we break before we come back to cosmic weary
you mean have that secret for you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star, talk and support, where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here. Another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me sing if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying
We're back on startup erika, first time together ass. It is I who am I doing so fine tat people observing that cause truckers, Norton, normally right to make their people and the queries, or fanatically spelling their name to help chalk along yeah and you're up their real names. For I'm doing my best, I'm doing my best impression of chat. It's very subtle, collected from internet just grab back to feel. If I don't know, that's all just tell you: ok, ok, Juliet's loudly and confidently I'd this one's action. They favour question yeah, I'm just gonna
they're from Brandon Bagley on Facebook. What would be a more accurate name for the big bang? There is no more accurate name, o the big bang, jeez wow, and what many people don't know is that there is a great astrophysicist serves. Fred Hoyle, who was not a fan of the Big Bang back when there was enough slop in the data? to not have two votes only one way or another. He was convinced that the universe was was in a steady state. He HU, the universe was expanding. So how do you have an expanding universe? That's also in a steady state. You would have the universe spontaneously create Adams out of the vacuum. And then they would make new galaxies and they would mixed in with the old galaxies so stupid.
Sickly. The universe looks the same forever has been expanding forever and gets rid of the origins problem. Then the idea of a big bang arose This was consistent with Einstein, general theory of relativity and then there is no matter who is a belgian priest and mathematician he figured out. If you turn the equations backwards, all the universe would have been in one place at one time. There's a guy named George Gamma, who calculated what that should look like and be a residue left over. This moment, and it would be this background in microwaves and so Scott laid out and Fred Oil wasn't haven't any of it and he Pejorative Lee reference this idea as the Big Bang, he was making fun of it, but its status stuck stock and we are in it. That's like when you get a nickname to stack
you just you know you sort of appropriate at the up. You kind of even the candles against you yeah exactly right, and so so there was the fact that there was enough gravity to halt the expansion and haven't repeat that had philosophical attraction to people. Because it meant the universe didn't have to have a beginning when, in total we just on a cycle who knows what cycle? Maybe I've been going on for ever Erentz? This impression that Spain is this this this concept of a beginning. Somehow people people I dont really wanted they really dont want right to do so is by frustration of attitude towards it. Acts like a rorschach test of its people want to say is not my wife told me before she was my wife, but she is if a degree in physics
Some have still manage to be your wife. After this. No doubt she said she wondered whether there was a split between men and women about the steady state universe and the southern cyclic universe. Men don't have the cycles. Raymond do oh that's interesting suggestion. Just what is your philosophical, leaning towards an idea and if it that philosophy emanates from the life that you lead and no in resonate with. You can have this split between men and women and to she had policies that, though, then guys say like out so the universe is like Super beg, legged cycle. Trust me of the euro is no private, yet no friend. Well, actually like look. You wanted to steady, hovers motorcycle cyclic universe. You want to go standing,
Go steady, very good. You seem pretty good quote about it. He says that words like harpoons stick and are hard to pull out like that. I I think that an answer in a budgetary whaler part time. It was that he, dabbled in wailing USA, obvious for it or you nobody, apples and whale? I'm glad that I could get you on that. The whole Wales. As a hobby side, we asked the exact report time. Well, so once he he, he said, a pejorative lay still then he had no hear nothing on us at that point and then the observation confirming the prediction Nobel Prize was given ready, went to his grave, pretty much still denier of the big bang. So any so getting back to my point, what if the question was what better word, what I have to?
but I have for it. There are people who, if the universe would recall, apps and then start as a bang again they they call that the big one I don't know why they wanted to say crunch. If you look up that phrase, it's it's their cause gas clouds and stars. They don't go crunch rate. Potato chips, crunch Quinci things crunch the universe in our country, so I just thought it was not the big one should be the big squeeze web address, the really big bang tick invaded his. I mean it's, it seems to me like, like it's also, even if it were the big bang price, it's not exactly an explosion. While we accept that the signature looks like if you exploded a grenade for example, or about the chrysanthemum I works. You know that one gas
all right well, some of them they they are volume, filling and so the outer edge, but how did it get out so far?. And reveal itself at the same time, something that only one halfway far out right. It must we're going twice as fast because they both sort of explode at the same moment, but one is twice as far ways it gets. It was moved crisis fast? That's an explosion that started this, so it's not completely wrong to think of it as an explosion. Accept that when we think of explosions. We think, when explosion in the pre existing in the face right, whereas this is the explosion of space and time yeah matter and energy itself, so it's of a very different nature You get a little bit of the ways of insight into it. If you think about it as an explosion, then you say: ok, I'm done with that. What more is it to me, and then you learn that it's the expansion of space.
Move onto deeper ideas. Yeah I mean well now the big problem of the term. The big bang is theirs trademark. Encroachment from the tv show oh yeah, so I dont you knew this few. Google, the big banks hearing the tv, show, comes up before the creation of the universe. The universe shops you for for me, I'm thinking I am I happy about this sad about. Is it good that people are watching to show tat scientists are my personal jury is still out on that? I don't know. That's good or bad agenda is well taken up, but they shall later I'd hate. This comes from Grady Butler. The fourth on Facebook he's got a roman numerous right, o does a yankee absolutely does so we don't mess around the chicks, dig the Roma numerals. I'm told how do I dont photographs taken and of all
I have no roman numerals behind money, ruminant, everyone when its Eric numerals. This is not a school, oh yeah or you can just do like irrational number. Numerals, yes to the pie, you eat the UN's Eulogists ice of the park. You have a son? Why didn't you do like the rest I and ii or send out you know, Cosette, does know how our role as I wrote. My name does not manifest in either of my two children. I've never understood that desire to be like that's gonna, be me property of sir right. I just now when I do yeah, that's good enough for me, but Grady, the butler, the fourth after we ve hated on his name from Facebook says hey Doktor Thyssen, so I've heard a lot about writing on his name. We were considering celebrating his name is wondering whether the it will come where they lose. Arabic, numerals, hey, Doktor, Thyssen's. I've heard a lot about cosmic microwave background radiation. Oh you're, just talking about a lot of physicist mention it, but dont really explain it. So what exactly is it?
yeah, that's a great question! So in the early universe, it was really really hot, so hot that the Adams were all ionized, so they lose their electrons. So you have the soup negatively charge electrons and Adams that want the electron but can't hold onto them, because the supervision is so high. It turns out that electrons wreak havoc on light. If you're like be me how to get through a crowd of electrons you're not getting through the electron see you will scatter you to and fro bouncy bouncy. They will push you scatter, you reverse you, so there are no free site lines. Through ionized. Gas is no free site lines through plasma.
That's why the sun is opaque. It's just guess: yeah punch your fists through it nothing's going to stop you you'll, be there Rise but pulling their complication aside right is not a minor sat, there is denied, it is most surface there for you to touch down on. It is a glowing plasma and I had a tweet reference to that with my end of the sun tweet a few you know when was that back March, and I forgot the whole tweet, something like in fibre Here's when the sun dies it will expand. Its plasma surface will expand any golf. The orbit of mercury and Venus will render earth, a burnt cinder before it vapor ices us, as we go up in a puff of smoke into the vacuum of space.
Having now is that we, the point is, I am referring to the sun- is plasma. The early universe was once all plasma and ok at the temperature that the sun was so what happens as we expand. We. Oh now does not so much energy too as the atoms and all the electrons find an atom leering the deck for light to transmit freely now the free electrons and no longer there too bad to and fro the light that wants to pass through. So,
We now make complete atoms and light emerges a three thousand degrees so before there was a plasma state of matter, but no light now this plus x or its glowing its glowing just the way the sun is. It's like right of this definitely light could anyone's like if there s you just can't see through it. I think you see it you just don't see through it. A lot is expanding cools, electrons, join universe becomes transparent. The universe expands by a factor of a thousand and it turns out the amount you expand is a factor in how much colder it is. It was it was three thousand degrees in that moment. What's it what's one one thousand set temperature of three thousand three three right now the universe has three degrees, but you do in your mouth so
What color light is three degree light because three thousand degree lighters like reddish re ember. That light has now read shifted to today that temperature went from three thousand degrees to three degrees, because it got diluted from this expansion. What color is three degree light microwaves, LAO Period period MIKE we bathed in the microwave remnants of the formation of the universe, the cooling of the universe, cooling of the universe at nephew go back in time that there won't be microwaves, those would be read and- You're right out up to white ultraviolet is some ultraviolet it, but it was not that hot ultra violet thousand degrees? Thirty thousand fifty thousand this much cooler than that. I'm just saying that we see
microwave because of how how late we are in the universe, yeah relative to the formation of it, and we call it the cosmic microwave background. Which to me sounds like something somebody with munchies in college is looking cosmic microwave out of Europe When did you read recalled twenty fourteen point? Four yesterday I mean yes, fourteen nineteen worthy Pincher cheap. So so in the day, Were you had to get up off your ass to change the tv channel? If you put the tv channel between two channels before remote controlled happen, you ever collapse what God would have been lapse of space? Did we
you don't get clean signals that are broadcast night, but because this information coming through an antenna, and so what you have is what we call static ranks the snow, the acts on the screen. Some per cent of that's no, is the cosmic microwave Becker Y, all my two percent of it. That's your measuring it. It's everywhere, that's intense and so now that we don't have tvs. We have to change channels that your existence, him, you can no longer works. Should I leave my boy? That's ok. We have time for a very short question it, for we get a break. This one comes from tony Montoya, I don't think that's donor a month or two from Facebook says. How far must I travel to see the backside or the reverse EU reverse view of the Big differ who interesting right to
her way how far away the big dipper is? I just forgot to say something confidently, but I can tell you this that the big deeper stars not sort of in a line, yes and if they were in a line you who go to the other side and then see the big deeper in reverse. But if you're not in a line, you can't do that. So I've done this exercise with all the constellation none of them. Look like a lot of free time. Now, merely the universe go way back. You go the other side of these consultations with nothing like what they would do from this side, yeah they would from the other side from above or below fever. Yes, not just reversed. Here's something do I do this with crisis its one get along room that can go completely dark. Give seven people pen light our gypsy, though their smartphone will work and orient them in the shape of the big. Dipper brings
really close in some farther away, then have them turn on their lights and you turn off the main lights of the room down at the end of the room. You have no sense of the day. Since to them, because you can't see them right, just the bright just the brightness, who also you can see- and you see a perfect bigger but as you start moving closer to them, beekeepers completely gone, it's got so there's nothing real about these constellations, contrary to what millions of people in the world think who get their instructions further days, life from the start, so take a quick break, our less break before we get to the third and final segment of cosmic wary, exciting conclusion.
We're back start off. I'm here the graph station we are in a position of STAR Teixeira, keep coming ok, I saw the first one comes from Lynn, Hughes and false any washed, and she says I get discouraged by all be anti science rhetoric these days. How do you stay so positive? What people ask that gives you hope and what responses are most helpful when talking to science sceptics he's also sneeze assigned sceptic Just a dumb ass, they say I'm a gravity, sceptical, yeah yeah. I'm scared, Dermot Sceptic that the sun exists. This there's no such thing as a sign, whereas science sceptic sceptic, is what you are. Yes, yes, I think I understand squared. So what do I do well, mostly positive, I'm it's because everyone likes beating politicians over the head and they see
We bring forth the in ideal case, and in most cases they bring forth the wishes of their electorate. So if you beaten about twelve, on ahead. You really attacking the electorate as an educator. For me, the target of my affection and interest will always be the people yeah and not the politicians that they left flank getting mad at a scale and I've got my own repeal the law gravity, because I gave three pounds last week works, so so I think of myself as an educator in that context and to equip the general public with the methods and tools to analyze the moving frontier science to process information about
What is the state of science in the world and what is science and how white works and hope springs? Eternal, my favorite quote of them, or was it and this too Chapin that's pretty again, How did they go over with your kid? You have been grounded right, so yeah, I've, the anti science it'll come back and by everyone in the ass, a bit of people. Had, I say, look if you dont like science here the consequences you will die sickened, hungry and poor, but just that just that, that's it, innovations, I've saves a zillion times: innovations in science and technology. The engine of tomorrow's economy. And not only that it will assure ten, you access to your health, you wealth and your security, without which just move back into the cave and through rocks
because that's where you belong, if you were always a person in denial, I think tat the question she asked about hasty, so positive. I know for one thing: you have a great sense of humour about it like us. Some people will correct that. No, no, I don't have a sense of humor. I don't think of it. I think of it the universe? Is hilarious? A hundred pairs, and I'm revealing this Adam reveal this to whoever will listen so could I might actually telling a joke right yeah. I told her. You know that the, but the universe is funny. So I found of their people, learn more when they're laughing or the least when their smiling as a minimum. So why not sell right, the whole clarity of the universe in ways that have people enable empower people to learn evermore and go to a comedy shows where the comedians they'll learn about the universe me comedians, yeah, ok, so
moving on sort of in the same vein, Sigh Hunter Uninstall Graham asked: why do flat earth there's still exist? Question mark exclamation point estimated by the serve flatters I've analyzes problem. Yes, I've concluded the existence of letters is the manifestation the simultaneous manifestation of two facts: one we live in a country in the United States that protects free speech to we live in a country. The failed educational system combined. Those two minister, you have letter.
The the flat earth or hypothesis for the existence of clatter theirs. I kind of love that applying signed some. They exist in an unstable state. You should be stable, so so I say: go ahead. Think Europe is for promoting. Stop you to free country. We wish we tell ourselves that so free country, so It, but you should not look for a job to head NASA right, the certain certain job categories you should stay clear of, and not only for those these folks who are like afraid of the number thirteen right there. Elevators thank on, don't go to the thirteenth fly more than five elevators have no thirteen floor. I'd die studied it. Oh my god. I want Broadway in Manhattan. You can't good every building for broader has plenty of tall buildings. It statistic is about. Half, so did is that floor
empty, or is it just the forty four some buildings? There goes from the top floor to the forty four yeah for some buildings for other buildings. They put all the mechanical on a floor. Oh my gosh was still a floor, yeah so floor, but they hated it leg mechanical yet so now what we talkative matters are still executive yeah. So free speech, the redhead. I look exhausted by this time. In order periods, it's I'm not going to fight you if you think about it. You know you're just gives you know the Peter Plenty a job for you if you're superstitious about the number. Thirteen that plenty job for you go right ahead, but.
Then, let's hope the people who were hiring also know how that should go down if they don't work. That's the beginning of the end of the form, democracy. I think that there is a lot to. I people think the earth is flat because it seems to be that's comforting, like can spirit, see theory that, like scientists, are trying to cover up knowledge that we don't know yeah just odd, that anyone would think scientists would be leaders in covering up knowledge that somehow would be conspiring that some we're conspiring to make the world looks like it's getting hotter. Right. We might say well why what's no advantage exec could possibly motivate us, as I do.
First community of scientists- and I don't know I'd, have so I'm too tired to all. I can't tradespeople I wish now. These makes we're tropical, unfortunately there, in a sense estate condition. Ok, let's see here is a very interesting one. I've never considered before Mr Mate CAP on Instagram ass. Could there be a universe inside a black hole? Yes, oh wound their mission next merchant lightning ran. Ok, we got one
so the equations of space time as you follow them across the event horizon toward the singularity, allow an entire new universe to open up in front of it. So, as you fall into a black hole, your time ticks slower and slower and anti aging take yes, it won't, while she- yes, yes it at alleviating and about the export we re. So so you do this and time changes for you. So as to change a few you will see our future history, the universe and full before we realise what, as the new space time opens in front of you, it's very hard to remain funny and have jokes when you just constantly blow my mind now. What so are you tempted, then too, like go into a black hole, because you can
if I had to die, if you would go, oh you better get hit by a bus or Dinah cancer. Some o abolition of die fallen into a black hole, yeah right specification, ok, so egg! Moving on to the next question, oh I like this one Roger Wretch about on Facebook, asked as equals empty square. Does that equation, work with dark matter and dark energy. As far as we know, we have no reason to think it, wouldn't so, whatever it is, that's causing the dark energy, if it one day shows itself to have mass, is going to join the rest of all of the the mass out. There is a constituent If now dark energy, we don't know what that is
simple. If you take a spring and dissolved in acid and then measure the temperature, the acid you get some value, if you take a sprint compress it first pumping energy into it and put that in the acid and dissolve the acid, the temperature that ass, it is higher than the temperature. The answer that you deserve the and sprung spring on cancer takes the energy than right on energy right and put that in the acid and dissolve the acid, the temperature that ass it is higher than the temperature, the ESA? You dissolve the UN's sprung spring. Ok, so it takes the energy than right on energy right, so equals empty squared that ie and that M work, no matter what, while it is completely fundamental to all phenomena in the
yeah it I mean it's interesting. I tend to view dark matter and dark energy is sort of like normal matter and energy, but would like an evil, goatee twin cousin, and then I imagine, equals I'm see squared Rosanna go to evil. I dont know I'd be early illustrated. The devil may be had gucci attention. I dont have somehow got the the branding of the goatee went down hell. Oh some guy, maybe who started at the mustache. I feel it is making a comeback urine, like you know, mustache soul, patch situate, Can I be open in that car mustache I've never shave the upper half of my mustache Miller, the upper grow. Oh yeah can it kind of hovering around the lower half of the upper lip. So I always figure that equals squared would have sums. Like inverse relationship with dark matter, dark energy- arduous. If it's me
at all or energy at all. It can fit into the equation in converting la ok, no matter what it's more evil. It's dark, Gimme that really ok all right. Let's see my next question and I think probably our final question for retired from one more question: yes, so deserted waiting around here, we didn't do aligning our open source. Last one comes from King James Matthews on Instagram. What are your thoughts being yeah? Apparently it's a king. So thank you, your honor, your royal, your highness fur. The answers on Instagram of what probably Instagram I'm guessing or his moms basement are the king J Matthews on Instagram ass. What are your thoughts on China planning to get rid of all the space junk with lasers here about this? So so it's free shock is bad.
I think we haven't been visited by aliens to has soda space said. Forget that your message just read, write right, but my ship at risk as your garbage. Yeah so could I think you can do with lasers. You can vaporize the tar You can accelerated out of out of orbit. I put on a different planet it the way you can do multiple things, but I will say that that's a big clean up job because it's not like a spilled thing on the floor. Yeah your kitchen is scattered all over the solar system. So scatters all of its own, and then you hope it doesn't come at current to kill you again. Dealey mood vacuum it all up and send it into the sun. Where will they pariahs were bury it or something that somehow feels like a cat
about its amount feels like you know, we should just be having less junk. I should have had a long journey. Yeah pass the buck to have some sort of cosmic sweep under the rugs immortal, those famous books ever written on gravity. It's called I don't know I was expecting the rotation, there's a they took on a black hole and how you could use it to cycle garbage wages. Again, we see a black hole. This, like giant cosmic phenomena beautiful causing families to put our garbage right case. Earth gets to feel that with carbon non biodegradable garbage just tossed into the black hole. This year we gotta call it. I think we do take you your first time I survived, I'm still last real was ok from take it I'll take it. We need ups upside potential. There you have been watching and possibly more likely listening to start talk seriously.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.