Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Paul Mecurio are back together again to answer your fan-submitted questions on Saturn, Jupiter, neuroscience, tidal forces, lunar exploration, and the science behind your hat size, and more.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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From the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming all is based and start with science. This is start talking. I'm your host meal, the grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist and today is cosmic queries planted addition, but we don't just stick to planets this one is planets instead
And today I've got Palma Curio with me ball. How I welcome back. Thank you. I am near irregular. I please that's all. I want to be a guiding call. You irregular K. Regular did I pronounced that. Did you notice that we actually, I kind of him a little bit. I have a couple of questions about how I can fix that fixed the irregularities that our great to have you down this says. Let me back in an hour. Normal format is weak. We solicit enquiries from our fan base on different platforms and the questions come in. I haven't seen them yet does not stop me all day, but its if I dont know themselves say next, one I've never seen you have to say now. You shall have something to say about it, even a final fully. Nobody, I just to tell
What did we first meet on its even Colbert?
We first met because you can hear the warm up guide, warm up,
shows a writer on the daily show that go with even further Valliere and then the Corbett Report- and I just came to say I was a big fan once you are very nice and then I came back the next time. I asked for alone. You said it, Mr Big,
doesn't have any extra money egg and then
and then you and I have to come on my pie, gas, which is again like one of the top listens. Just is
really excellent. We exploit dark matter, and and and then U S,
for money. For that and we heard through it, I didn't have any reminded you have only now. So yes,
we go back such great. It's great to have you see. We are reporting now from you too,
New York City in the Google building has said, could you to production space and so their kind enough to such?
I miss all my books behind me. Maybe I can have
Lastly, the Englishman Edison slighted it you gotta, have them Photoshop and in its right above the Chelsea Mark market. I got like a ham sandwich in my part of the union cannot do without buying threw up exactly. I don't why any skinny people exist in this building. That's not possible is actually await watching his ears, pretty weird, but yes, great beer and it's really cool space. It and others was here,
I always say I will say it again of address a science. He showed me doing science today really seriously. I say that I don't I don't write. Caroline gets my way and-
because you make it accessible
your personality. You clearly comes brims of England. Bearing would serve you love.
And you explain holiday uncertainties have when your love, you have to tell the world. May I had a eighth grade, math teacher this bill, big hulking guy, he smoked in class and it was I and we made
battery with that was the big thing. Ok, now you put that thing over. There is like this. I rarely, but he was like one step away from going off track, bearing the Senate, and I just remember, being intimidated by him, and I think people are very intuitive from a young age and consensus. Somebody cares or doesn't care o denied, and that's why I think article two agreed a year.
I'm just looking just love you. I love you, but it's not your fault. Maybe they just a little bit back at you. I deeply respect your profession
the people who take information in the world shape reshape it handed back to you in a fresh perspective. It make you laugh at it
these? These are very special mirrors and I dont know how
Would be without them without the comedian who occasionally shows up his hat
you realize this is what you ve been saying in all my gosh all and re.
So this is why companies a fundamental part of what we do on startup loads. Thank you. I mean you know when I start on the daily show. We were just this little, showing we're just doing jobs. Trying didn't really,
Ok, we're gonna, have an impact on the region, and things started to happen.
And we were always factually based in r and D.
You have to start with the premise, so we were delivering the news with a non biased point of view, and just saying this is seem a little strange here. So over time people come up to us and go. I only get my news from the daily
First of all, were a bunch of areas on its remit: apes still use it. What the hell is wrong with you, but wait a couple a newspaper, but
it didn't becoming out, and then you know from that of the Corbett report. The late show Oliver issue.
Those same be shut your behold, the whole universe. Yes, yes, all sort of carrying the mantle of, let's call people you know to the carpet, and so yes thank chair. We really it was a nice byproduct of China have some fine and we get so much trouble to go too far with jokes hear her
a network of yellow, but anyway will talk about anything. So if you got for me, I plan to question. I guess: implanted questions arise very good ones and interesting ones in his questions and answers. I want to hear so: let's start with the patriarch,
yet for dry or getting we do this. Yes, he says we are facing up to the patriotic. Yes, members act with the Rhine. You are so handsome that sure you're wearing was asked to write a check.
Is it true that if one had an ocean large enough Saturn would float so. This is often said. I've said it. Colleagues of mine have said it. Let me restate that in a more scientifically precise way, right because technically,
can't happen. You can't get a bathtub one hell of a bad, but how about about hey? Why that couldn't happen in a minute, so the scientifically precise way to communicate that same information is that the average density of Saturn is less than the density of water and anything that whose densities less than water.
Will float Saturn. So the technical way to say it is a bit scuba
a piece of Saturn they will float honour on on a puddle of order, nor an ocean. It doesn't matter. So that's the way to say it
it's more fun to say, get an ocean or bathtub big enough. Saturn will float may and I've said that publicly lamenting that when I was a kid I knew this was true about sex
and all I ever had in the battle was a rubber ducking. I really wanted to rubber Saturn because it good
So so later in my life, we come back to my office. Someone mail me a rubber Saturn. Is there s? I now have a representative kid. I want to leave it to my office and we'll take it home to my bathtub, but I need
it's a rock doing in the bad. It's a long story, so I've gotta rubber Saturn. So the problem is, if you had a lake bigger than Saturn Saturn in the Holy would collapse
into Saturn run the water just spill over onto the shore. When you put many displaced the one I don't know what you're thinking that they exist independently of each other
Saturn will pull the bathtub into it.
And become part of Saturn always get such him.
Our on last spoke yet it's called gravity. Ok,
condescending. You little condescend, literally the sailors, larger
Such things. Gravity earths actually say that that sounds ass. The old joke knave as such, so there was a vote. I was so. The problem is, you can have a body of water bigger than sat
that's flat. The juniper Saturn it is a body of water would become a sphere and they collapse they fall into each other. They each have mutual gravity that will attract each other. So
doable experiment, but does get the point across yes this,
his lighter than Warner, I sat and we need a life jacket inhabitants Dodge,
rings for years now. This is
preserving again, not a cavity nice ray, I sought, so it is in fact true. It is the only planet for which that is true. Every other planet with think anybody absorb all and by the way, Jupiter is very gashes and it's it's densities close to that of water, but just a little bit above it now. How do we know this about Saturn? Oh, yes, what you do it s, great good? We go there, and so you too, how big? It is. What is density
how much mass you have in the volume that you occupy so literally Mass, divided by volume grams per cubic centre.
In pounds per cubic inch, there's density, those that the unit,
of density. So we know the size of Saturn and we
the Mass of Saturn we can measure it from its gravity and other things. You divide those two numbers you get another this less than one, and that means in the right units and the density of water is one yet by definition. Basically so
We now get a bit of luck and I hear something I figured out about myself just a couple of weeks ago. I was swimming a couple weeks ago and.
I was floating more easily than ever. I have in my life, but you, dear Lady, Harriet needed
it's a little shabbier than I was when I was younger, because fat floats and muscle sinks. That's the thing it's about the density, how much Matthew packing into a volume. So why
you think you can say how much is a whale way well aware,
There is nothing it's it's! It's
new, truly buoyant floating swimming in the water yet ass. How much mass does it have it's? Why the biggest animals that ever existed exist in the water? They will have to hold up their own weight against the gravity on earth surface. The whale is the biggest creature that ever existed in the history of life on earth, and yet it can flow.
MRS density is about the same as water. If you are less than water, it would have to use energy to stay under underwater because
What do you want to make a float, which has happened, see human being? But if you re,
if you're chubby you will. Your body will float. Ok will float very well,
and you take energy to go down below if you more danced and water
you will sink to the bottom? It'll take energy to stay. If love, if you're about the same densities, water, you can move through the water with no like the the ease of a trap, ease whatever the line goes in the song. So so, following up on that here,
interesting ready. You know the smartest person in the world was you raising her hand? No one of this most clever people and where was the first person to figure out you can build a ship everything you make the ship out of is denser the mortar and it can flow you can you can build a ship,
steel and have it flow that does blow me away. When does why didn't you change it and it changed warfare, and was it a specific
jade. What part you you pause on that sentence. Please change warfare, you don't
to build your boat out of wood
may which is susceptible to cannonball via ready. You can go
out of steel
how do you get it to float because the part of the boat that sits below water is mostly air?
all of the ship civil below water. So so what matters is not at stake.
Who is heavier than water and air is lighter than what it is. What is
The average density of that which you have flunked in the water? Is the total volume devised by the total mass
Has less mass than you think is most of it is air aircraft
where most of its volume is air. So it's able to flock. Is it a debt? Railway demolition of density, correct, correct anything is floating, has is less dense than water on average period, and do you think that that was by mistake about a byproduct?
something else. If somebody figured out steel can flow, but now they were making canoes out of wood because with floats, and why would you make it out of anything else? But then the steel next
the steel in order for it to float, it has to have a significant amount of volume underwater so that the air can represent this ok, so so the larger the vessel
the deeper the house for the more generally as not can just be skimming rats going to sink in re. It's gonna respond to that. The fact that there is still there and then
down to the level that just right right for what the waiters we think, if you look at container ships, they have these lines painted on the side of the hall dependent on its gross wait it's carrying, so the more weight is carrying. Ok, the
Have you the thing is the total density goes up and is going to think a little lower into the water gas and they know when that they reach their mass,
it's so ice is denser than cork. So that's counter intuitive too in looking at eyes, verses court
Pork is from a tree monsieur, you know four, but is less dense, because ice or evidence of that is a corporal float almost entirely above the water brain is hardly anything sunk below it, whereas ice. Ninety percent of it is below the warder. Why have, I suppose,
You have the iceberg problem and James Cameron in Titanic. He didn't right, ok hitting when they hit by basically when they hit the iceberg. It's a little thing in the water is so little thing,
sticking judges little things, think of ninety percent of it is under water. That's what
at the side of the whole,
Oh my gosh, whereas in the first titanic movie black and white nineteen forty
wherever there is huge iceberg out there? Oh, my God has a hand reaches out new cuts. It's got a nice at night.
West side the story on the ocean? I once again
as always hated. So so, if you do,
Physics right, you don't need a big iceberg and effect this has contributed to. Why was one
several reasons why it was so hard to notice. It was it's actually small die. It was
It wasn't any moon, there wasn't foggy, but it was. Somebody is watching you to buy their found where we're going
In that sense, it that's, for my favorites, anachronistic quote, is a quote from Abraham Lincoln. We said no
trust anything you see on the internet, it's a medium
It's beautiful, he's, gotta gonna love it. You gotta come from in a lot of credibility,
a man who knew what the hell I restarted right at the start. I have mentioned above choice there about better than a buckle on a hat would approve what would a pill?
We need a buckle Anna had it wasn't it they let him out. There were two hundred years later. We can get your time tonight, there's a top hat without a buck up, but this is my way brain goes this answer that question Smarty past. Why do you need a buckle on a hat? Somebody lechner head out what no she could squeeze it down in case the wind blows tightens up on your reigned in the density in the volume in the whale. All I taught you too much you create. The mastery soon has become the man. You need that cookie
I got a quick one, single turnabout hat brims.
Do? You know the size of your own had that you, where I have a p happy like p,
he had all seven and a half small. I have a small. So have we not be a small? Had this a larger? Don't do you mean by
that's it. That's it! That's your actual! Now I know it's loaded onto our results and then it's probably six in particular tribute myself. Here is your head. Here's I've affected, so here's rebuilding, so
so I dont you knew this, but that had size as mathematical significant. Please tell me that in relation to my you know what love is not that. I know that you know what I know what you said.
You know what I saw his negative it take. It take measure and measure the circumference of your head right down that number divided by pie. That's your hat size! I just thought it was that
Are you going to buy? Give yours if discomforts every head of six and a half inches, you know you're, not you're, some other species.
Your recent monkey- I don't know my wife- would agree with that.
You know, I see my clothes
it's ok with endless learned, another thing, because I just don't want my head. Size was literally like you just mentioned, and on and on and on, and you must never really propose to numbers together. So I was in a hat shop because I've always wanted to own a top hat. You can pop
oh yeah. I was wanted what they may have, so they measure my fat head and they brought it down. So
you need a size, eight or something. So I said what do you know where you get this number? He said he'd unknown, I told him
he's a willing lily. So we did it at a glad that here
ethical. So then you can do the experiment, they don't isn't an then his assistant had it all came out. It was all public, and so you want me to write it out and I wrote it out and I signed it and is on the wall of his hatch. I don't
and the negative going home now: honey how's work well he's
it came in a mad problems, but I saw a foreigner I had so I guess it was a good day.
Listen. You signed it. Designers, Antwerp is on its own, the one that's better than like a diner. That gets you to sign a picture. I don't know why but picture. We want to know you what
there's an advantage. You have you mean understanding came from your giant ghoulish head
oh now, ghoulish part of an adjective is my last time there in the show we ran out of time. It took to a second question in this segment: those when we come back. We will continue with startling very.
Hey. I've got a little secret for you.
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arms last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying.
Breathing space inside it down to earth you're. Listening to start,
Rebecca Ass, with very second segment of three or material it was good to have. You would do tweet at work without that Paul matured
one of my last name, Emmy see you are I oh yeah, ok, sure good do not permit curios in the twelve I had to change the spelling and my name because it no joke is an australian actor Paul Mercury YO and he got any actors union before I did so you can have. The same name still saw each asked first on my name, so mercury people still think I'm him sometimes he's hosting a reality. Beer show in Australia thing.
So yeah? He makes a craft beer, and so every cop grafter crap that what MRS didn't last others enabling their craft, the crap out of the Africa and I get every two weeks or so I get beer recipes from people. Think and I'm him leave me so anyone apple material.
I think to go for a Robert Weaver, also patriotic good, thanks very much for continuing to educate, inspire us. What news in science do you find the most interesting or important? Is it the private space raise? No, I know too much about the private space race for there to be uniquely interesting to me things that interests me are things I know little about, and so that I want to know more about my love watching the progress of neuroscience. I think the brain, our inner universe, in its attempt to contemplate the outer universe, presents one of the greatest intellectual challenges of our modern times. We. What advancements are we making right now that either surprised you or my view of the field?
which is a very unpopular view among psychologists, is that the day will come when the purposes of this that the day will come when we understand the Neuro Synaptic phenomena in the brain with such precision that no one will ever have to lay down on a couch and spent an hour with a psychologist has I did, and I seriously and like I did a lot of stuff I get,
your own work out bright, and some of it said yourself, maybe there's let me take up my mother. Sarah
so so they may be
these were people just need someone to talk to that's one thing, but if you have some trauma or some issue that you can't shake or some addiction you can
overcome, I'm imagining there's a day will find the exact spot of the brain is responsible for what we d prevent you from pushing that
exclusive of piebald away from me or to go into the russian or whatever
my own depression, especially depression, where or anything else
that's misfire. What are we doing to the spot? Are we going and unaware of rating? Are we taking a medication? Are at this point who knows is too much for me:
but that's misfire. What are we doing to the spot?
we going and unaware of rating are we taking medication are at this point. Who knows is too
not firing enough or does not have to be had to be another path into it that connects to this other brain centre and it helps modulated
I don't know I'm imagining that
future will arrive where we have
much knowledge and control of what's going on in the brain, so that you can just nip in tuck and fix all of these problems in. Why wouldn't
college is welcome this theory because it all go out of business overnight it because you know
I went to anybody office for an hour and talk to them for nuts you enough for an hour for whole suite of sessions that could go on for years that gets resolved in an afternoon. I think my psychologists is making up a lot of stuff. I think I'm fine,
really do and I think that what we do you know it's not just the whole communities councillors in and psychologists psychiatrists, this sort of thing,
what kind of almost there there's a lot of it
pressure that is not cured but addressed by medication, ride. We note what chemicals will leave you to depress state which ones don't and why
Is it the production of those chemicals? Well, let's go in a just year, your genome or your narrowed synaptic driver.
In such a way that you're producing your own Campbell. So you don't need the pill right, because prom with some of these pills is there's a sort of Wakeham. All you fix one problem in, and there Sir says byproduct symptoms of problem, correct, because the pill, gifts and just
and it goes into normal system, whereas, if surgically go in to one part of the brain for one, so now what one of the challenges to that future is
The brain is highly interconnected to itself
so at inability expressed in one part of the brain. Some of that is also in other parts of the brain, which is how you can
compensate worth some brain injuries, not compartmentalize, not as compartmentalized as we wanted to be for it to be a nice clean thing right,
right and while on the subject, did you see the movie? What's the one with Scarlett, Johansson and sure she,
The brain powers increase year round and Lucy if it useless yet Lucy yeah, so the product, the entire premise. That film is that she takes some drug turns out by accident, but it
boosts her brain power, not to something she didn't or any of us, don't already have it just enabled her to access the ninety percent of the brain that you're not using ok, but waited
Oh premise, come from and by the way, their whole scenes in this film rooms full of psychologists studying her as a phenomenon. Ok, it comes from some guy a hundred years ago. However, so I forget his name for
who, through brain injuries and other aspects of cause, you can't just go into our poking around in someone's brain. Can
so what you have written? Just stop that cries out of my lives. Yet again, my basement, we got a guy, I gotta, probably let him go and our eyes. So you what he said was what he published was. The brain is so complex,
We know only what ten percent of it is used for. How is let's using that became.
We only use ten percent of our brain, but how do you know? How do we know he's right? It's a theories european.
You're in the wrong room right now,
What is not working there is
to music surveys. It doesn't
matter whether or not he is accurate, any probably was accurate.
This isn't the language centre here and there's another all he said was
Only the brain is so complex. We only know what ten, what ten percent if it is used for? That's all he said.
A completely innocent comment. We have
more, to learn about the brain? It got real quoted as
we only use ten percent of our brain, ah
what I want. I know you were paid attention to wipe it. Ok, sorry, if together, you think we use only ten percent of,
brain. This is the mantra for teachers. It was students, it's very hard thing too.
Correct when saying it incorrectly is what you want to hear.
Do you think we want to hear that, because we want to believe that we all have potential. We can grow into ok
is the under achieving student. You just using tempers oats, keep working on what using more of you re. You have vastly more petitions
right. We're into potentiality rang rights, especially in America. Now I'm going to teach you how to tie issue again in your six and seven years old or whatever you gotta do is get into more, so that then became the premise of this entire movie. She's now use
forty percent of our brain she's, not using sixty percent and eighty percent she's like flying through web pages learning, hold dictionaries in a matter of minutes, man she's even changing your hair color with her brain and start doing tell economically, which is weird like. Why should I
a person be able to move things with their mind. That's not an obvious next step for babies in order, maybe the objects feels intimidated by the green, but just wants to get out of this is where you solve problems faster. This smarter people don't have delegated powers
is really true at all evil. These today, I am so smart, toaster hunger me. This is not a thing
I was impressed by the other day, and it was a guy making TVS fly was crazy, whose are really smart guy, but with all of our abilities.
If I'm intrigue by that branch of Science has started the question so a hundred years ago, a hundred years is a long time. Why haven't we ve been able to get to know more
in ten percent of the main one being a brain, twelve percent fisheries. Twenty percent hard to study the thing that is giving you the thoughts to study the thing
It's very is very recursive right,
blew my mind. Had we want here. Another recursive recursion is, is very mine. Blowing ready so recently got a word into the.
An english dictionary you about the Manhattan hinge was in there just for
used by Neil Thyssen in two thousand and three, and so what took you so long? Sixteen years later, but I'll take it with ivy was ready. Manhattan hinge, you do know. Manhattan hinge on those two days of the year with the sunset aligns under Manhattan grid and now thousands of
let the street blocking traffic. It's a great, oh, my God,
think about all the other reasons. Traffic have been blocked, you know, is an accident or construction economy is digging New York's electric company, but now we stop it for the universe,
eleven it up to you. I took it worked. So here's a great every word in the Oxford English dictionary used to define. Every word is also in the Oxford English dictionary.
Ok, so I look up a definition of something all the words they assembled to define that word.
Are themselves each one of them
is in the Oxford was so it's not possible to have a word in there. That is not in the dictionary, but is indeed a word because then that's why it would be an addiction
redefined, but how do we know that they have it covered? We don't
but what we do know I'm the final. You know what I mean like you, gonna win, we we don't, but we know that they have covered better than anyone else.
It is their singular mission in life to record every use of every
words are mature, buys you gonna word and their right to exist around all day. Oh you're, so smart, Iraq's ridiculous. I see this I'm saviours of their mission statement to have every usage of every word ever in the english language. So if a word first appeal
there is now the first appearance of that word. If you use that word slightly differently, pivoting its definition that usages then.
Private it again it's gonna there does in this gets back to the point about the brain is the brain. We can get only ten percent, because the thought
she knew it sets nano forget. The ten percent is that it was miss information from the very moment Santa. But when I asked about why came with all this was one of the challenges how'd, you study the thing. That's right that
the thing that studying the thing might be. You can't just sit there and operate on people for scientific experiment.
You know Paul I to how you think
So can I remove your top heartier skull and put electrodes in your brain just for my science experiment? How much did you give it
you take over my more, I would add that very happily have you open up my skull. If my tiny skull
Size, six and a half we dealt with one. Another question is a follow up to this, which I think are followed. Why doesn't matter in Saturn's rings acumen?
like the matter in a protocol planetary disk. Oh, I know the answer is because a gift clean once a week by a guy with a sharp back
Yet? No as others, so the mattress centres means are very thin and their small particles and a very thin and the matter does collect
it collects into certain zones clearing out other zones, so in fact, Saturn's rings have gaps in them, which you
kind of see if you can see with a medium power backyard telescope and effect there there
So we get you to see like that,
the ball of Saturn through that gap and went to set the right angle. So you know they're no particles their release very few, so they collect.
A sphere, but they collect ORB Italy right because they have.
Stable orbits around Saturn and they're, not much mass there to begin with they're, not gonna, overcome this orbit and then color coalesce into one.
For example, when our moon was created, we had a ring that whole ring collapsed into a moon, because a huge chunks of material that were there whose gravity
and is the winner takes all if you have slightly more gravity than this other object. You
track slightly more material than this will in those larger objects in what was the ring around the moon came from just serve,
so we got nurse had a collision earth. We were site swiped by another planet and are earth's crust.
Got spewed into orbit around us into a ring and that ring than coalesced into the moon, and so so they have it. So one of the most depressing things I learn, I'm not an orbital dynamic s. Eye reading some papers from some colleagues was to learn. It Saturn's ring system might just be temporary. Why? Well, because the they check the orbits any orbits are not stable, that, through your losing them down into Saturn itself,
the idea succour to you as a second I'm using this words up, its arab gravity is pulling them in various incentives to your her wait, a minute
Saturday Lock like sex, not in the Oxford dictionary. As it says in went today anticipate when that might happen that
rings disappear. While so they suspected that it's a ten million year or so lifespan
which would mean the dinosaurs if they had telescopes sadder would not have things for them when they were sixty million.
There are long ago, then Saturn's rings would have so the rings in Afghanistan and the same I'm gonna Miss does rings. It has
times we had to give its intent gluten. The next question: ok, here we go, this is from car seller
by bonnets, you're, sorry from butchering that choices from twitter
since jupiters ninety percent hydrogen. Can we tell it's a failed star if its has failed? Oh, yes, we can't hold his feel star, but you
we're not until after this break see when I did their regular. This had approached arrive
okay, when we come back, we will find out where the Jupiter was a failed star by Starhawk.
As to the following patriarch patrons for helping us make our way across the cosmos. Tom Hearn Key and John
then gatherers thanks
let's guys and if you would like to get your very own patriarch shoutout had to patriot
Calm, slash Dar Talk, radio and support us
This is a start.
The back burner planets stuff all we last lift off. Yes, yes, we had a very interesting question from Twitter in this is from Sarah Zella buying surreal since Jupiters ninety percent.
Hydrogen. Can we tell if it's a failed star, so she knows that the sun is ninety percent hydrogen, so
These began his things out. There basically have their birthday elements in it. Of the universe is birthday
Ninety percent of the universe is hydrogen. Ninety percent of the items of the universe are hydrogen atoms about eight percent or helium
when you see that ratio and biggest
things there mostly made a stuffed. The universe was born with sir,
If stars are major, nine percent gas and Jupiter is, could you could have been a failed star sort of like, as it was on dancing with that we're all the veil stars and videos to have currency? People still talk about that people who career they need a boost bidding on animals
I met all the time to beyond answers would start. You have no idea. Why not? I want to see you and type in the mass in the volume of it you want
got my density filters, but I remember time whether some I pack as you danced professionally assembly you're, like a train dancer when you're like I was ended, performing member of three dance companies where they would like college troops. There were none.
It was not the Bolshoi whence you gotta again, but that was a chapter of my life, long garden, I'm not thinking of my present and future thing gee. I should dance again
this is these are not my thoughts went when I was dancing. I was not writing books,
was publishing my essays.
So take kindly the council of the years gracefully surrendering the things of youth.
I think you should there.
I've told you that's the best. You can listen to. What I tell you it's so you have a possibly avail. Star
more massive somewhere around between five and ten. It would have been a star and we would have to double star system
In writing. I forgot the latest numbers on this house.
It maybe five times more massive somewhere around between five and ten. It would have been a star. We would have to double star system.
Does that size suddenly make it because the bigger you are the higher the pressure is in your court because there's more mass, there's more wait, there's more pressure and when you have pressure in the core, the temperature rises and as a temperature rises. There's a threshold. We start fusing nuclei in the presence of heat. So,
nuclear fusion as we get their word from the sun is undergoing thermonuclear fusion. In its core they high pressures, high temperatures are squeezing too
other hydrogen atoms and on the other side comes helium, atoms and helium.
Has less mass than the hydrogen waited the Moscow equals empty, Squared became energy and that energy sustaining the star, Jupiter didn't have enough. Didn't that didn't in it the threshold, and forgive me if this sounds like a silly question being serious if its, if Jupiter is ninety percent hydrogen, yes,
it just as ball of gas. Could I fly through it or what I hit your shirt, so it there's no service right, so you fly straight into it. You just keep plunging down, but use
feeling higher and higher gas pressure above you eventually you'd get squashed or vaporized,
and when you hit a hot zone sooner than a high pressure zone, I said depends on
How resistant to pressure you are that could get you to deeper. If you have a vessel, for example, they get. You does deeper places where it's even hotter.
So it did so Jupiter, dig it hot and its core. Oh don't let that's not be unclear about. This. Did get hot just get hot enough to hit the threshold.
There are more likely or fusion. It would have fun to have two sons, though in our in our solar system. What would have been like? First bad,
essentially not as you go around the sun's Europe
closer to one at one point in the not so close to the other. That can wreak havoc on your the stability of your climate also agrees,
on the stability of your orbit, who
you orbital allegiance today, relative to yesterday, never good for orbits Europe GO and stable, and you
go into. One of the two stars we fly out
I say that all the times, never good for two orbits I mean then, which I bet you don't never go forward,
Next question expression. Ok, this is Ulysses. Lindblad, twitter,
do you get high and low tide on the northern and southern poles very good question it. I never thought about that. So we think about it now for the first time and I'm thinking no, because the bulge works hearing you wouldn't definitely wouldn't in
the first day. First, reinforced fall because on those two days the poles are
sideways to earth and the title bulge is a bold of the of the ocean
the of the the water mass of the earth and a title bulge bulges, both
Towards the moon and away from the moon, so bulges in both directions hanging this this way correct! That's why they're too high tides? That's why they're too high tides in a day right given different
the other area where we go voting about together to high tides and the debt. Why? Why agreement? Because it is too bulging one, so here's the moon or to the side is about its closest to the moon and, above its opposite, the moon to disable
The moon is tugging nodded. How could a balls the other way? Here's what's happening. The moon is tugging on
the water and on the earth, so is turning. The closest water gets older most, which makes low tide only on the sides of this, because the water
out of the EP, the intermediate places on earth studied the pointed points towards the moon, that's closest. It feels amongst gravity the greatest, then its earth that feels it
next greatest, then, is the side of the water on the other side of the earth that feels at least
so there's any longer. Nation
the entire system in the direction of the moon, and that these are called title forces title stretching earth has title
because the tide denies hides the water, but
It's a solid mass of earth actually stretches in this way, so I urge turns once a day as turns once a day. It goes through too high tides. Now these bulges come out from one side of the earth and the other. Ok, so the size of your tides are affected by several things, but also sort of your latitude. Yes on earth, I'm expecting that the equator will have higher range between high and low tides than other latitudes would. But there are other factors that affect it. You know that
swinging tides is the bay of funding. Why it up their funding, because there is a long is it a fiord is a very long track of land that,
two sides of the land that that has a long. I think it's a fee or in me, and so what happens is it's? The tide comes in and
its risk that the slope is very shower. So the Thai goes up a foot
goes in a half a mile.
Really calls you can run alongside the tide as the tide is coming in,
so shouted social and so the type which goes up afoot? It's gonna go up a foot, but if that is to go up a footman
good down shore. A mile
that's where it's gonna be when it raised when it goes up a foot. So the movement of these tides create friction
against between the waters and the earth
and the height of the tide, I think, is not so important in that case, as much as how much the tide moves and friction earth feels against it. And you know this friction between the oceans and time is slowing down earths rotation within the stuff. Part of this protest lies. What's going on irritation because earth I left something out this title boats. They settled
with the moon. It doesn't don't lie to me, don't play. I have to lie to begin the explanation of the wisest
its team, I'm ok,
Do we understand what I just told you that the moon stretches? This whole system principle stop yelling at me,
yes it can. I just say it quickly from my own, so I we're on the EAST coast, the Atlantic Ocean, so well,
anywhere near see? So when, where a lot, when, when
side of the earth that we're on death is sort of aligned with moons
when you're gonna get low tide, because its programme,
We're alive at the moon, it pulls it.
We get high too. I'm sorry for you, my luggage at one of them, interesting when you're at the beach
we saw the tides coming and tides going out, that's not what's happening. The title is always there. In space
you're on the solid earth and your rotating through tat. So if I
pick the spot in the ocean.
Tied is always that
I have noted all spot in the ocean. You pick a spot in line between
Earth and the moon pick that spot that will always be ocean of water at a certain height Peter and so an earth
system and earth is wrote. The solid earth is rotating in that until one way
it feels like high tide went when we did it. We save hydrates its tied coming in and out, but its earth rotates
into a high tide, bold and out of a high tabled wit,
We ve already got his plate and was so it's the illusion that something is coming towards us and away from it is you're rotating into and it s
I said it lies with the moon, it doesn't its ahead of the moon, and why is that
earth is dragging the tide. This whole bull.
Wants to align with the movement. Earth is not letting it it's polio in front, so that so so the title balls is ahead of the moon. Its gravitational
It's the end! User, Itzhak Nora! It's the friction!
in earth and all of this water that is
shoving the water ahead of where the moon is the
who is trying to resist this by point,
I'm about to meet. I know I'm pulling it ahead of you. This battle between earth and the moon is slowing down earth rotation. It is the source of the occasional leap, second that is thrown into the calendar, because,
slowed down by this process, because the moon is breaking the tides and the tides are resisting what earth is trying to do and what would earth be like if that did not happen? If Sweden have tides, if we, if that this, if it didn't get slowed down by this friction, is happening.
If you think it's whatever, then the duration of a day would be stable, but it's not the length of the day is increasing very slowly but you're not going to notice that you're not going to care but clocks care, GPS, satellites care,
that matters, but a days in twenty four every day is in twenty four hours a day more, it's slightly longer than twenty four hours, and rather than increase the length of a second which would create its own problems. We just wait till that increase accumulates a second. There were just throw one in nets them so on the leap second years, this last minute of that year has sixty one seconds in it just to make up for things, because the tight, because we are dragging our selves through high tides and low tides and space, as this explains, why I'm always late
the tides! Thank you. I got to the budget. We only guess who for questions we wouldn't be quicker and quicker than it will. I think we ve actually run out of time. Ok, let's try I'll give a sound bite answer ready, give it to me. Ok, this is from Tropical Troy. Sixty eight incipient hello. There guys I love the show. Can you tell me what you s, taxpayers gain by going to the moon six times of from nineteen sixty nine nineteen, seventy two other than a bag of Rock
throw down. Take me back home me back.
I give you another. Quite I dunno I said I was only I give a sound bite answer. It is ready, so I could speak on this for an hour, but I won't let me speak on it for one minute and we went to the moon to explore the moon in turn around and photographed earth. We discovered earth for the first time all major environmental legislation that exists in this country
Is traceable to the years that we were landing on the moon? We went to the moon to explore their moment and we discovered earth
my gosh earth, not
as your schoolroom globe showed it to you know not with color coded countries. Know earth
as the universe intended you to see it with oceans and land and clouds and we're all down there together. It is the greatest of the gifts of cosmic perspective that we have ever seen.
Only when the photo of earth from the moon was published to say, hey,
maybe maybe we should ban let a gas. Maybe we should ban DDT. Maybe we should
clean up the earth. Maybe we should clean up the water supply. Maybe we should clean up the air? Maybe we should protect species. There were some versions of those acts that existed earlier, but the
comprehensive version? We everybody's behind that all happened, making
sixty nine, seventy, seventy one. Seventy two, the Environmental Protection Agency, was founded in nineteen
seventy which still go into the moon. So I ask you: what is the universe and the cosmic perspective? It provides worth to you this, I'm in trade,
Frightened at I've been your house near the grass Thyssen Palmer Curio Extra being on the answer.
As always until next time. I did.
Which you can listen, the star talk: commercial, free, joint star talk,
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.