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Cosmic Queries – Proving Einstein Right

2020-10-19 | 🔗

Was Albert Einstein right? Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and theoretical physicist Jim Gates, PhD, investigate general relativity, special relativity, the process of proving equations right, and answer fan-submitted Cosmic Queries!

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Photo Credit: Ferdinand Schmutzer / Public domain.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Nor talk begin right now. This is stark talk of your host. The grass placing your personal astrophysicist and today's topic is proving Einstein Right Chuck? I needed you for this one of yeah. You guys at a man. I don't know how you made me, because I never knew Einstein was wrong. That's all I'm trying to figure out where where's the controversy the controversy about to talk about their controversy and brain friend and long time, colleague, Jim Gate JAM, welcomed STAR talk well deal it's good to be back in the presence of a star
James, please it's ok! Thank you. Thank you appreciate you copy I believe, leave what that one at that we're not so Jim. You been at this for a long time, but you ve been an Einstein fan for sure, but a theoretical physicist and your director for the centre for three particle physics, it Brown, University, Providence, Rhode, island, and That's a title. How long you been doing so When I was sixty six Neil, I was recruited from nursery privilege of Brown. I went around him, My friends are asking friends why? What do you think it was? An old car noticed that the ages to my image, Ok.
one of my first job, not an old car, your anti car and all oh there. You go the problem of illegal anti day. They all their value amateur, go one better than your friend James. You are vintage. My friend you in advance, which is The railways is. This is even more money than antique as well as well, I I I switched after thirty three years at my previous university came here and which was the previous university univer. she's Marilla College part of our everyday. Are you still on speaking terms because, in our view, kind of angry after thirty three years that you just leave me just leave our marriage after thirty three years.
there is a right and an independent of the baby bear particular we did. We did part I get her excellent exile and back I'm an american professor there, an asthma marriages, professor, I have thought to himself Peters courses on public policy, nice seizing horses up some of the terms If I remember correctly, you run Obama's advisory Council for Science and technology right. That's exactly right! meal served seven years on the president's counselling besides, that now ghastly Agnes PS this right off his right? So, but you were in the current administration they bid and invite you to back in there. I thought we were gonna, try to keep it, What are the up and up here, that's stillness.
that's our! I was invited to be on this current administrations Advisory Council on writing, jokes about technology, better served. If your director of the centre, that's not just showing academic title, it that's a job title, so you're also professor physics, and did you I Omar and adopt professor good branded. Firstly, the dominant force under so called Ford, professor of physics, I'm also fully mathematics, professor, and on top of that, I'm a fact. We fellow at the Watson Institute for public appears in their national. Their excellent excellent, a case study, oh you're gonna like this, we shall we should bring you back for seven other excuses. Have an avid other reasons. Forget the theoretical physics. I got some policy. We gotta figure out here now. So what we're gonna do is we structure this programme can spend the first segment is talking about. Why was I installing proved right or
but he need to be proved right and then we'll go to Cuba. I we gotta go to our cosmic queries and check. You got quite cosmic worries for I have two and three. I have two questions right here and I have to say these assume Many people are excited that you're here, professor air. Instead it excellent that we have some great questions does well. triggers more questions than Einstein and relativity and I'll get the man for it when I was Iceland relatively an icy at what enticing. That's. Ok right, I said such a view. You published a book in. A thousand nineteen called proving Einstein right and then get the full tat, the daring expeditions to change how we look at the universe cure, and you have a co author who was there. I do have a wonderful cooperate, babies,
EL it here. She lives in Alex Ass Being, which is just a right across walk into Canada, and this book is not what people expected music. You know to be meal. Your first book, as I recall, was partly autobahn. Graphical right. Well, there's one of my first that might want one fourth book at airports. So what I wanted to do with this was the do something I had never seen done before with business as usual, people talk about the wonder: majesty of looking nature that struggle and what have you got? What I wanted to do, and I had wanted to do this for decades. a book about the interior lives of the people who do the sites, and so this book is actually dedicated to eight astronomers, an Albert Einstein. And we just we tell the scientific story, but what we really want to do is get inside of their heads and tell the story of what they were feeling ass. They went through this almost decade, long struggle. So the book surprises me because of the book
others into doesn't nineteen, and if I remember my history, that basically the centennial of this big experiment that showed that Einstein was right, that's right, but the economy back up a little bit so most people, I mean physicists, no Einstein for for many things, of course, but for special relativity and general relativity, I think often when people think of Icelandic, they they think of the effects of sort of ordinary relativity like time dilation and this sort of thing So then what will happen in in nineteen o five? That's all right! So why? If there all happen, and it worked, and it was you know it was it- was smoking effective and explain, in our understanding of the universe. Why didn't you but he's a nice guy he's the man. Why did have to wait another ten years for them to prove some other thing that he did so let me talk about. I'm cited, nineteen o five and thank you for,
giving this opening. As you know, the EU in two thousand five there was the so called. I stand here, physics and there were celebrations all the world, I gave thirty seven talks on six continents on Einstein that year, so I could only five continents afflicted How do I get my I'd? Ask you I take you. I do have an article that, because that's what I've never been to delay penguins world will welcome you with open unhappy fate. Yes, but the boy was yes, you're right, you're national fighting came up with some amazing things of space and time and how they didn't work would have you believe You know that an ancient or seven he was still in the ballot box. People need that as soon as he. but because one was theirs, the world beat a path to his door. Saying They are hoping, you know whatever, but another, that's not. What have it's Jose causes the profit, but then is
praise, but I do know would submit position what happens when you go off script eyes. Anyhow, tsar, it's not all but you're right, but the boy was that he did. This group is work, but it took two years business community to recognise what he had done. While he was in the north is still trying to figure out how to get a job. As a is expert, he looked at the Women- want daddy, sauce and working on the roof, and he had this sort of story coming to do that. If the guy he wouldn't do is wait, and so it was that started Einstein thinking about gravity, you think it would have the death of someone working on a roof next door. I did not over
well, not be actual there, but very possible that would lead to adjust just his call to eminent down. Ok, I didn't know, I started this morbid side of him and our love, and you say I totally get a cause. I think about the death of the guide. It blows that leap. Lower outside my bedroom window every Saturday morning style I saw, I start start thinking about grabbing. So this is like an emphatic. was the happiest thought of his life where we saw so if such- and this is like Newton's Apple moment yeah, she sees the apple falling, and then he sees the moon and then there is. There is a desire Eureka moment in there and that's what happened with. I signed a nice, no seven so that they use cures, but I sign is: although people think about illnesses mathematical genius, every time he did something tat, you had to learn more mathematics, so he didn't actually had the mathematics to
what his intuition watch and he didn't get it right until my team fifteen or excuse me, you know Jim that happens to me. All the time have thought at invent new master. that's just it as such is thing some of us actually do. Let me get my father, Another whole story: it after you got that were made it anyhow. So he had this idea that took him almost a decade to get down to the methods, and when you finished it, it was the theory of general relatively it's the piece of thing that tells us was. A big bag is the piece of mathematics. It lets us. No, we live in a universe that is thirteen point eight billion years all and saw that came from that nineteen. Seventeen epiphany while predominated observer. Thank you no seven
right now, bout. Remember it's all math, it's all man! So if it's all there, how do you know he got it right right, just cause it. The math works doesn't mean it has to correspond to any objective reality said, and so, when he finally gets, is discussing together. He in fact, even before he guessed right aunt, you start talking about you start giving talks about and so very early on. Strong emerge realise what he realizes first, that astronomers would be critical to try to prove that his mare is actually, as you said, Neil something that happens in the real world and he be. Hence it by talking to this german astronomer name, Irving, Findley toilet. I've never heard of it? No one knows ever heard of
if I ever met someone named Irving Friendly for including yes, I remember that if they were pretty well well, I have set for your programme since and photographs of all the people, but that's the first guy. The ice died talking to seriously. As you know, I have a way to prove my man and he first are saying: if you look, a star lies: did you shoulda Starlight bins when it passes near dear Jupiter the astronomers doesn't doesn't quite work. Any start asking questions I was supposed to be women at the night sky in the morning or early morning early afternoon, could we see Binning Starlight around perhaps Venus to something The guy's nourished almost go back. None of that won't work so finely by this set of discussions with the key its upon the idea. And if you can watch starlight during an eclipse by might be able to see the light being by
The sun is otherwise see as far in broad daylight, cleaves Aouda was very special circumstance. So by the rich. Ok, so disbanding of Starlight would have been the first experimental verification of his general theory of relativity. Yes, and so so now that it's a wet here that I have was caught us. Is this a disk these conversations round to nineteen twelve or so that he starts telling people about this? Ok and that's how you get through the creativity of other people to help you figure out how to make it work bingo. Unless what our book is about us despite the other peoples, not really about. What's all this we here, but his wife possible.
Being a bomb to his creativity? A lot of people have what does this one book? I sense why I think of the title, their long people who have positive, that is as having been important, but from my reading of the history. She was certainly his partner as he was working through in burning poor patent examiner China do visit. She was certainly a partner that a learned, the city in Germany, where the city Switzerland. Everything was given a right He was so she certain was his partner there, but the actual settling of the special areas, relatively from an eye I've read over doesn't books trying to get this straight in my own head, the preponderance of evidence is that he worked it out with a friend of his on a train wreck on a tramp ride. Thinking about the clock tower, the city of bird flu.
clasping story. So I what you're saying here Jim is had ice been a loner and not true. anywhere. You want to come up with any of his ideas that we have which life exposure is the right amount to fully real. why is you you're your creativity that can be expressed? I tell people all the time that being a scientist means that you swim in a sea of information. That information comes from your colleagues so you cannot be. I mean I know that the archetype stereotyped do is that as a scientist you go off in the corner, you shouldn't think big thoughts, but that's not what actually happens. I lived this life or almost for over thirty years, and you are constantly in conversation with your colleagues and you use them all into me. Fine, your thoughts and to steal your thoughts, encourage your thoughts and its agenda.
the active where there is that you are swimming in these influences, not drowning yeah yeah. So that's where that's! Why, where I work with Cathy Pelletier, we wanted to talk about these people that basically with using what Einstein inspired us win towards this discovery of weather is math. Wasn't accurate description of major, while the teasing Einstein had any doubts about whether it was all true. from my reading, no sort of said, though he sources things like if, if the theory of general relatively had failed to receive experimental, an observation support that he would have felt sorry but the good Lord, because that was really brilliant idea. What is it what's? His kindness say a kind of way of saying, like I'm smarter than God. So,
is that it does. year after Year Lion Joe now, I'm not lying a lot of our I'm gonna he's a very, very complicated character and with respect- and it's just that you brought up the issue Ok in the end, you did bring it up. I did at all I made to me when somebody says that statement. A kind of sounds like You know I'm smarter than got up front eventually. I says, although you can interpret that statement, that we'd that's not really what I'm so stop, because in fact he talks also about the illimitable spirit. That is a spirit with our lives That's so it is clear that if you can use the phrase like that, you're not putting yourself above such ok, I that's a very good point. We're heading used the phrase in their sentence, though, but ok not advance.
In a moment? He felt bad ass is all about its natural gas because it because it is you, know Jim before we go into the second segment solicitor our cosmic, Where is just give me a minute or two, I know it should be. Ours but give me a minute or two on the idea that mass is just something we invented as human Edit works one. What's up with that No, no, no reason that it should work at all. You know Neil. This is one of the most. This is the only piece of magic experience and seen in reality, I love that expired loved that its magic. It's a piece of magic, but it happens to be a part of our reality. I dont know if any other form of magic for which I can say this as a human created magic. The weak, weaker something at magically describes. Reality then enables you to predict.
and understand and extend it acts like a bird I for those of us with scientists it. Let us see things that are not suitable. Otherwise, I was there. I made a presentation at the New York Academy of Sciences about, three years ago, two years ago and is precisely on this point of the magic ability of mathematics, it's an hour long so negative, bore you with him. I would always it on Youtube or something or is it is available on you too about aims, will forgive me. I will find it. Ok, that New York Academy scientists of along venerated institution absolutely- and I was there with margaret- were- and we discussed this matter cool thing. This thing about methods some in the appeal today. What I wanna things were. So I said about is that of mathematics as people like me- use it it's the only human language that we know accurately allows us to describe
nature, however other conscious any other conscious being Beck, could produce. Mathematics will have access to this knowledge. So hence, The idea that if we meet up with aliens, we might start with the symbolic representation of what is in his sure and math could be the only way we can prevent ourselves from guinea, our brains, Doktor Burnham? Always many of us think that their tracks So when we come back more of this addition of star talk, we were talking about proving Einstein right way to go straight to our cosmic queries version. What are return.
We're back started, moving right trucks. Thanks would be an error. Norway, leisure, always a pleasure began. Sylvester Jim gave a long time friend and colleague, whose and Einstein expert theoretical physics, expertise all the kind of expert you need for this asset lately. For this incarnation of start up and we're gonna devote the segment because we're queries, Jim you're you're presence on our show, was announced to our fan base and they get completely excited by this prospect amended. So I have five personnel. I have three percent overlap with gems expertise in the subject: scope if I can find
three percent way to add. I will, but basically this is all going to jump out, Chuck excellent and do it might not that it needs to be said, but I have zero percent overlap. Lamb read the question: what are we gonna? Arab? Let's start you know what before we start, let me just. quickly. Can you, professor, give us a quick breakdown between the special and the job when it comes to relatively. I think that might be a nice framework for anybody who didn't ask a question. Should we are going to thank you jerk, so let me start with special because it simpler you know if you were standing by road and there was the car that was speeding towards you with its worn blaring. What would you actually here? It will go on. like right, like big Iraq You hear that Japan, the tall, that's impossible you were dying, I was gonna say
all I can do better than the heroic yeah. Who plays a network with that and we will work with the catch now that it is our way and if it is fair to build that sound effects from the one a brother though so, but the thought of what it is, that of back is because sound changes, its frequency. If Europe, if it's moving towards you, That's when I bid or but if it's moving wait you this pickles! Now we are all hoping for the other points. Is it actually does the same thing with a white sources coming towards you? It appears to be lower than she is when is moving away from. You is appearing to be redder, and that is what the primary aspects of special, relatively it's about them.
relative motion of you and a source of light, and my car analogies this motion of the car, either towards or with you, so that with special item is all balanced if I'm moving you're. Not how do I proceedings hunting for sheep? Excessive was that's my five minutes. What class on specials it's cool? and so at their general generals and United suppose that against the general and the obligation of mass and are there, I saw the general theory relatively is something very, very different, and what the general theory of relativity is about is what is gravity you see in the special to me. We ve Einstein, wasn't thinking about gravelly you're, just thinking about how things would look if by moving, but in the general theory of relativity there have relatively. The question is: what actually is gravity
it's a very deep question that even Sir Isaac Newton didn't get the answer to and the answer that I'm Stein teaches us through his mathematical wizardry. Is that gravity is the space between moves through and time which we experienced a durations in our combined dislike thing he called space time and grabbing is the bending of this thing. So that's my short course of general call all right. There was great. I was great. Ok, let's go to easy roar who says we're just returned with doing Patria on people first, yes, sir. Thank you We just we always start with a patriotic question, because military on people give us money, Sir, and for that we are grateful and we show our gratitude by giving you special, preferably white waistcoat, which we took,
yeah, what's out by Congress, remove cast like your congressmen check this just in currently, all your questions are patriot and questions. I have just learned all excellent British just in this just to every single one of us, so guess where all of those go. So thank you to all of you, he roared meal chopped Jim? This is your friend by a letter, the astrophysics loving kid here in Birmingham Alabama my mom. Now you never ok cool. We have it excellent work. My mom and I have many discussions- have had many discussions about this scientists like to describe and stands general relativity as being incompatible with quantum mechanics. They say things like they mathematically, don't work out. I don't work together. So our question is why the happy is there so much occupied zone
but let me give you a second pillar. Does I gotta raises without about balance, so the idea that is often by the way, a k? Let me just say that may have been the most visits thing. I've heard in a very long time I've I've, gotta figure out a way to say this without the man amounts, if what you say, but I dont know, I'm sorry Speak English, Mississippi, democratic! Well, you may not know this, but you could tell you this often at the end of my email messages, I ask forgiveness for spelling of punctuation areas, because my first languages, mathematics, English myself, I I'm a disability when people ask me the top. Listen I've never heard a person admit a fault that makes you
better than both, but because we do patrolled these junk Maybe video casual? Ok, ok, butter, ok, but I'm transit, that's about bags economy! Ok! So what essentially happens? Is If you believe the universe is Quantum mechanical, then it forces you to forget about things like electrons, because electrons, we think about his little tiny ball, sets the classical picture that you talk in fact, come mechanic says now: that's not the way it works were electrons. You have to think of these things. There are a lot more like waves, except when they act like articles, saw death of Earthlink onto it, gives you this we weird thing, but just to give up an idea, except sometimes right, right now, when you saw, does a piece of mathematics around this crop shoulders equation, so I gotta bring that it and it tells you had occurred.
if you re a forgery, you got you can't leave out his cat? Is that That letter box was hesitating, and God knows a lot about three hundred metre, but that's what I'm about to get off it also go back. The meals deals with vision of our own as its approach. Is you What do you mean how so new piece of mathematics around giving up the other particles? and when you now Juba piece about medics up and try to do grabbing, you find out. If you just get into told him ass, they knew cannot calculate answers anymore, that take into account the current debate, and that is so that still does the disconnect. There is theirs for others equation once you remove,
anything does that not none of the gravity stuff works, because with a good sign and new in all those postal grubby as the ideal articles abetted in it, that's the problem, I got so I'd so whose, at the end of the day whose give is less gravity. Gonna bend to quantum physics, I see with their solvency did gravity bans, as you know, the annealed. This is actually a very deep question, or is there a third idea bigger than both of those that then encloses them under one umbrella? There are various, so all of everything that you have just said there were first off was gonna been there are people who will tell you
background, he's gonna be one that loses the discussion as if I had a bad idly in that way to ya, and there are a lot of people who believe that that somehow crappy is going to have to give way and in some manner, There are other people who have this third idea approach that you were talking about kneel and why Though, and sort of emblematic of that is a discussion that no way about information and black holes you're. No deal is probably where this, but this whole discussion about whether information is conserved like we seek energies deserve is information. And if you haven't universe with black holes, doesnt mean something Energy disappear me. Some information disappears. You violate accounts, outcast, Miss LA so there's a whole big discussion. Interregnum physicals been away underway for over a decade about black holes. Information covered. As I said, when you talk about information. Are you referring to cause? We just talk about this last week, any one! Second, please that when there was talk
about virtual particles, of the evaporation of a black hole, and if I'm not mistaken, then this article actually materialise does on the outside of the black hole. And then that is what escapes, and so then, if that were to happen, are you saying that that somehow messes up this whole idea of the compromise conservation, of information, trunks were really paid attention and that in this very like a lion Why you gotta do this job man as a case of air our case of that's what the kid that's no about. The point is that it is in a state of flux. We don't know what the final smash it will be, but, like me, actually think the string theory will have something to do with the resolution a k, so the stream people think this was not just during people. I think I don't know my
top of spring person, for example. I am someone who spent their life working on super symmetry and strings happened to intercept back. Ok. Well, I consider myself a string. Cheese persons rings easier through about his clauses and get into our. I call I dont want here we go. This is Paul. Bogle says recently between the detection of gravitational waves and a photo of an event horizon of a black hole. Some significant predictions made by an stones, general relativity, had been verified. What's the next big predict, made by general relativity that scientists are testing. Thank you. So it's a great question and it's a great question and the answer is following a naked, I wonder I shall refer papers among those four papers is one that points out that Energy
to be quite eyes now. We know that Iceland doesn't like quantum theory, but in fact, is one of the fathers of quantum theory because of this nineteen o five paper on a photo electrical bet that when you invest require hidden like because he didn't think the universe should be probable. Right. That's exactly what he wanted. Determinism as, whereas in his own mechanics, is no. You can't have the terminus after it was salute. Answer your question shop. is now that we have seen ways crappy? We want to see the quantification of the energy carried by them wait, because when we do that we will have the STAR Trek Groundwater DAS, in our universe,
so the same where we know light, has a particle. Are you saying that gravity has particle or wait a minute I tabled? It will have to be that we find this gravity particle. That's correct! That's the next big predictions them on to find from the kind of experiments watching graduates. You want to be able to see the quantification of energy at the gravity ways all that tells you that gravitons just like you here and start yet you know it's all the talk about gravity. Always at that point. It is no longer science fiction. It's a piece of science but ensure access to follow the line, so that a photon is a particle of light. but you can also speak of white as ways right right, so that so that is a proper analogy. We measured gravitational waves, never want to measure the gravitational particle my time and have the gravest on such so art I dont know in experiments out through to me. You're a gravity yesterday right works now nothing to mine.
I'm not! I don't know. Anyone whose is this are gonna have to be an exquisite experiment and we're just at the stage of it just being able to see the gravity waves. So oh you know, there's a fifty years is a hundred years. I dont know what is our technology improves? Someone is eventually gotta figure out how to do better detection, and then we can stop saying that Captain Kirk is really only guy who gets stuck by gravity earth. So, if just a quick question, if we have gravitons and gravity being the curvature of space and time has no meaning in the presence of a gravity. year following along there for a lot of people. The detection of groundwater will likely necessity, we'll be thinking of one of the gravest I've already I mean some us already are there. I don't actually think about gravity in terms of geometry: its field theory ass, the tool for people, S Eric.
So what you say is Einstein's curve space happens to be a convenience in certain countries. certain situations that gives you the right answer. Yes and you're good with that. But it's not the total story. No! Ok. While you go ok, yeah, that's just like let the record show check the delegation einstein. Tat it had a possess, is have you just said that monopoly as funny Jane? a web server, inserting like almost like secular Levis meal, professor lifecycle loves the meal, not so bad. I actually we'll take a break when we come back, will go to a third and final segment of cosmic queries, proving Einstein right.
I would like to give a patriotic shut out to the following patriotic patrons Beverly bellows Christopher Mank, guys. Thank you so much. What would we do without you, as we make our way across the cosmos and create this show for everyone to enjoy, and if you listening, would like your very own patriotic shot out, please got a patriotic duck. I'm slow start talk. Radio and support us back to start moving time, starting right and Chuck is helping me in his because he's,
you're a big fan of special general relativity. Aren't you are without a doubt? Are you giving me a good one in its area, of course, I mean, of course, some some people like real tv I like Relative II. worth Ratner did so do not work separating pursued, but you you're social media with which your best place. We will confine John Social media at nice. Comic. Thank you start please nice comic even have a. I stumbled honest. You never told me this. I stumbled on when a year you have a TED talk technology in the future. I technology and the unintended consequences of human inter actions or the absence of human interaction via tat. All of us I stumbled on. I just run. I'm angry with you. Gonna tell me in advance about their final on my own
we got Jim, gave an expert in theoretical physics, Jim. You have a social media platform. I do it's a doctor, Jim Gates, you see all does a twitter. What version and Facebook version, but it's got doctored suggesting the are prisoners d are right, will win mind you there and you ve got this book, proving Einstein right yeah and cooperate with Cathy parent here, yeah you're, not so We're continuing our cosmic queries before we begin and check. If we read one in a you gotta background there, that looks, it looks kind of spacey actually but then not quite could you give us a minute on that yourself I'm a big opposition. You wear it looks like both of my twin children are gonna become businesses, so this issue
You know this is not something I set out to do, but the the right, not only software okay, so my darling works on a black hole, and so she was actually started. Publishing and I just want you gave a talk, is weak, so big problem, a daughter, remains Delilah, but also gonna get big problem. I said the background image Looking at these green little splotches are artificial neurons that he's been growing at the laboratory because it looks like he's: gonna be a pile physicists as a whole is get shot, he's he's peace, creating the next generation superhero or superhero villain, and yet, without a doubt, the black holes and growing neurons size it. So I say that I did that utter, will harnessed the power the black hole in the sun will in view some some being with that When we look at a number of you were worried about outside the dark, so there it is,
Who knows Jimmy breeding the dark side. Also, this is it an actual photo. Words looks like none of it looks like I want. This is actual photo of pass, some, the first successful cell lines that he's been growing, that where you see the evidence that the developing countries, like your brain, swayed wow. That's amazing, wilder space as so important. Ok, I just get the next question: jerk bid, brain stuff goes in their family of our aid we go, let's go, let's go let's go to LISA Hansen and she says hello to you all from the Bay area. Strength theories are so involved and fascinating I love trying to wrap my brain around them. I'm wondering what, if any, other scientific disciplines are involved in the research for as evidence and proof of these theories, what those clues my
be well the exclusive it really universe. Children in one thing that that question came up because just last summer I did something for the first time in my life, because I tell people, I insist that the boundary of mathematics and physics, so I'm a fallen mathematician in some sense. Last summer I published a paper along with my colleague, step on Alexander Eared, Browned University, Evan Mcdonough, who was one of our posts, docks and my post that constitute a scooter like us, as well as our greatest student Leah Cheeks, and in this paper we set out a premise that strings might be able to write structures, create structures that could potentially be observed.
Cosmic microwave background. We call these structures Susie meals a day like this funny patterns, if I hoped people for me, but the sea and be its is microwave radiation that you could detect by looking at the universe and what we ve shown in our paper is, if you take string the ideas of string theory seriously they have away, writing a kind of signature and structure. So what kind of size you need me to be an act of business, someone who could? Actually, look in microwaves at how the universe gives us some when it comes down to the astrophysics in Asia? absolutely astonished look I've no way I mean it astronomers, her hair, I bring remained well need Ashraf businesses. So that begs the question in that collaboration who is Batman and who
was Robin Africa, just members, Stefan Alexander Disney, he's the jazz musician. Isn't clouds luckily right step on is a professional level jaspers, and although he is a physicist on faculty here at Brown, you ve, I should say, their differently he's also urges research. If you re a book, the jars of physics or the physics of drivers and having a jazz physics decision occur, or I will call man alright, alright, stop that's crazy! Don't let's move on to just be who says who has more impressive mustache Albert Einstein or near the grass ties up? Do you know I gotta say any time a month ago to shop in a movie or in a documentary, and they put you in here you know, and so they do the make up fine. Then you get to the hair and they say Can we trim your eyebrows a little? Can we get some loose hairs out of your mustache? This. Is my einstein? Look.
gonna be all trimmed and mass scale. You need a weary unkempt. Just why I'll, get my staff, so what's with their looked Jim, that Einstein supported. So I must but the question is no work with That is the answer. We just move works every suggestion that we allow let's go to sample meal. Perker says we're went away just about eight years ago. I just want you know I was nominated for the Mustache Hall of Fame. We know you re talking about gonna return that I was once in it into being look sure association. I think it wasn't that Ok here we go. This is from Samuel meal. He says: hey, Doktor, Thyssen, Haydock Brigades. What's up chalk on my question is what do you do arise that the strings is
to string theory are made of love you guys. I will give you money, and I do Samantha from Earth ass an earth that my question is people, rip patriarch on this ok, ok! Well, I almost got explain to me about nay, they are well. That's all you Jim said before there so think about string theory, which perhaps this incomplete understood that we don't think strings were made up anything. They are the fundamental thing. If it's a correct picture of the universe, they pay everything everything. Also, Meda, That's right shoot. Therefore, you can say what it's made of. That is the thing that everything is made up in. That's all we know now tat feels like a cop out.
I was about to say that's a little circular and slightly circular monopoly on Chuck you're right, but you see, one of the weird things about mathematics is that you have to take some things on fate There is actually a mathematical, thorough, but says this is called the one of goods. So this was a wonder, really weird things about math people do not appreciate. I want a lot can be fair if it's not that you have taken on faith is that you have to assert that it's true, have you not research? It is true that everything else were written assertion is not she. I hope it's too now you just. Clear that is true and then take harrowing from there. But but you can move, you can't prove the thing that you assert. That's true, that's not as an important element of meal at all
What are you faced an indifferent? I know I know you. Do we not have another discussion about a whole facebook, getting, I said, has got to back seven other ways without a doubt, I'd love to talk. You forget, I say we got rid of the business to resolving if only George Michael, we're here to settle this debate, site pop culture, reference price in the body here we go. Seventeen eighty nine term truck helpful. Oh you, looks like that meal. He does. He did you get it the oil of all day oil of old, exactly ok. I never heard that before I like them. I heard everywhere for animal oil of old age. I like it, I shall we get up, and this is what he says after seeing meals enthusiastic responds what our gems thoughts on a cosmic gravitational
background. Are you just talk about the causes of Monterrey, background and string being able to be visible, and that's what about a cosmic gravitational background Do you have to do this would be the poor print of the birth, of the universe expressed in gravitational way? Right would be, and I dont see I've never actually heard a scientific discuss nothin's but the idea it really seems well grounded that what did it matter now? There is one thing I mean look because my way back on his electromagnetic background is microwaves right when, just like the microbes, you cook is light. It's what I as a former life right, but but a gravitation background the gravitational signature from the big bang, I don't see no reason why that's not possible. I have not heard of any scientific discussions of the costs about support of why the the cosmic micro background is so useful to us not only that it exists, but we have a map, a very detailed map of its structure.
And right now and we D taken gravitational waves of some happened. We think over in that direction of the sky. You know we don't. have nowhere near the the mapping precision to possibly do anything. interesting had and ally when it would come. I would give us about twenty thirty years, because what in order to do what you're saying Neil first, what we have to get a sufficient number of gravity way detectors right. now there are about for the world better one, this one, for example, in Europe there is one in Australia and there In: U S, soul as the minimum that, where you need to do, the mapping and they're not also a fully functional, so we got some die, but if any need, then you wanna get up gravitational waves. different, wavelengths, Batman and other that's not just this one. They came through get the whole spectrum. If I can borrow that word from light, and then you have this
two dimensions of information I suddenly to interpret got so you were not there yet but if we were there but would tell us a Hola about the very first moments at exactly and that's where scientists pushing toward Edison super super cool. I Roman Prescott or pick up says this: is it possible that some of the stars observed in the night sky, are duplicated or multiple duplicated, due to light building and gravity. in all fields of a massive objects like super like some super Michael. I should like kneel to agitate go ahead of you, you take that one. So the answer is yes neck next week, Those are what happens. Is that the way this unfold, by the way Einstein first predicted that you couldn't make a ring? Einstein Ring where the light would bend symmetrically
all directions around a single object and create a ring of light from that single object from behind it turns out. That's not realistic, because at that requires exact, lineup right. So that there's a perfect geometry of all sidelines, they go around. Things. Don't line up exactly, but when we do find them sort of line up. Even if not exactly you find to stop machines that resemble rings weekday arcs. They don't make a full ring, but they make art. Now, if you have one object behind that object will make a minimum of three images: they come straight through and then to come around aside and up from their can make three five seven image. So, yes, Frank fact, we ve seen some cool is uncle erratic, very ok, so referred, we found objects, Quasar cars, whose light bent around graphic Galaxy clusters that we're sort of midway from their from Einstein's gravity and but the path links. We're not
the same okay, so this this, but the path on one side is a little longer than the path and the other. You know how we know, because Quasar is very, they have explosions. They'd like varies, so we see it and varies up here. and then the scheduled time later varies over in exactly the same way. So you need to see because in the end, what he sees it s because of the change in intensity of light duty explosion. Is that what's happening, all other things go you're crazy can eat things, re Posada equally, weird things, episode of things can happen in quasar, but the fact that you have to do in pathways is extraordinary testing of the shape of the curvature of space. and how much gravity is in the cluster and how far away the the quasar is It's an amazing is an amazing thing. Is that this funny to me that you come back to this, because this is what my daughter works now we talked about the cells behind me,
Would you have rings of matter around rotating back all turkey just giving equal time here s attitude and want a piece of children is a good day. That is a good idea to repair, for we have rings of matter that glow arouse spinning by calls you can actually see the backside of ring because the grabbing bins the light on the logo. Glad that's why dont work saw it as a very cool man. I want one less quickly and both and we gotta call with with We were already down with a shock or have this is from Glenn. He says doktor gates. Do you think that why coals exists, why didn't I sign observing gave? What was Einstein observe that gave him the impression that they did I know I'm just going to answer this, for you know there. I know why calls I found was races. Like everybody else, at that time,
I just couldn't, let it being just a truck thinks it's gotta, be a black hole goods. Ok, it's a matter of course. that is just you know. I love here's. What I love about the professor he Sidney light. I have nothing to do with this. Whatever took his there right now? This is crazy because my only just met you. I think I don't know this man aren't. Goods are okay. So what make a quick generally. I was really quaint. What's really interesting, is black holes aren't black? It turns out that, because of Stephen Hawking, we know that they actually that this very slight radiation call hockey
radiation? So they are not exactly black that without a long time ago. So you don't gotta, keep up with the news of physics, but the Whitehall concept, the Y, all kinds of arab people who look. I don't know any solid scientific arguments about the existence of such things. I have an account. Ok, we'll see anything in the universe that resembles what away It would be predicted to be which would really the mathematical opposite of a black hole, regulate everything spewing out, and that should look like something specific nature of ladys: nothing, spectacular reductions in the area, but we really gotta accredited Jim. Ok, we gotta get you back for nine, others objects vessel tat. I knew it would catch on the role and I I got gay or it will get a picture from your other trial, two hundred on the next programme. Ok, all were black old jack, always good to have you always a pleasure. This has been startled
I'm nearly restoration, your personal astrophysicist as always, keep looking Do you need.
Transcript generated on 2020-10-27.