Join guest host planetary scientist Dr. David Grinspoon and comic co-host Leighann Lord as they answer your questions about Venus while Neil’s off working on COSMOS.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free the first is filled with secrets in industries, leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what are you are you the domain the brakes that bring us into Graham or South Nasty Brenda get lab, like like what
stop constellation I made a mad, you stars in use. Beautiful, is welcome to star talk. Radio, I'm David grinned spoon and it's it's great to meet you Leon, and then he was well have the opportunity to talk this afternoon where worse, were actually doing a segment of cosmic queries, my favorite segment, and by my co host. Liane word. Yes, you know, I'm so glad you enjoy. Sure sarcasm, sit here going Neil, you have really changed not now I remember you at all now it's I'm not fallen anybody about even going to try to nobody. Could We feel meal shoes hope. Unfortunately, nobody has to because we ve still got NEO. He's he's only gone for a while, but it's nice to have a guess who sit in the big chair
yeah! Well, it's fun to be here and it's it's great to meet you Leon, and then you as well have the opportunity to talk this afternoon where worse, were actually doing a segment of cosmic queries. My favorite segment and the topic is actually my second favorite planet, which is the planet Venus. I hear an expert on that is actually well it's it's something. I've been interested for a long time. I've written a couple of books about Venus. I've never actually been Venus you can. You can call me an expert if you wanted. I you know what, if you ve written a couple bucks, I think you ve earned the title. Why thank you thank you I'll, take it or take their again so cosmic, whereas I love you. I love. Because it off it always gives our our fans and in invokes and opportunity to write in and ass those burning questions and actually get them answered? Yes, always funding to know what people wonder and what they think about these subjects at I've been thinking about. For so long, and in our view,
while somebody stumps you are makes you got her, never thought about it. That way, and that's really fun to that. Then that's an opportunity for another study reading about somebody. Women paper needs more grant money as it does a man, that's great. Well, if you're ready, weak, gentlemen right in elections, because we have many has the start up. Vans are awesome and will will jump and with the first one from Garrick, Steamer and Garrick man. I apologise if I mispronounced your name and even reassigned your gender and gagged likes it, though story of what we know about Venus and how we came to know it too. That's right up your oh yeah, we'll gosh, you know, but ok other May luncheon, our long, but I mean, in short, we knew about Venus long before we had
thing like space science, because Venuses the brightest object in the sky after the sun and moon, and so humans have seen it and noted its motions and been fascinated by it. For you know, as long as we ve been humans, including some quite sophisticated, knowledge by people like the Mayans and other. You know indigenous people that really observe Venus very carefully. I know a lot about its motion. Something's with we ve forgotten that cited today. Don't even know we loud people knew a long time ago and then, of course, in the age of ten, scopes. We did of all kinds of observing and learned that it was bright and had clouds and was the same size, ass. The earth and you know, started sort of wit. There's this whole phase of using telescopes and learning that, at least in some ways. Venus is very much like the earth and then there's, of course, in the whole phase of spacecraft, where we visited with landers an orbit hers an entry probes and started to really learn about Venus as apply
and learned that in some ways it's not like the earth at all. It's it's the same size in nearby, but its environment has veered, often evolved in a totally different direction, as I can see from some some. These very very poignant questions here that people are asking in our go on to the next one. From
Nelson say, and he wants to known as this comes off what exactly just said, what has caused, though the runaway greenhouse effect on Venus yeah, so the runaway greenhouse effect, one of a striking things about Venus is that in some ways it so earth like it's near, buys the same size as the same mass formed at the same time. It's it's earths twin and yet its climate, its environment, is gone completely off the charge so hot there, it's nine hundred degrees, almost Fahrenheit on the surface guy. They would melt just about anything it would this microphone. We just dropped into a puddle of metal and in just so a clear we didn't have anything to do with that consumers messed up everything. We don't do that. We cannot be blamed for venuses Climate, taking credit for not getting beyond
exactly, but that the runaway greenhouse that that is referred to in the question? That's the idea that Venus started off earth, like is nearest. We can tell it, did have oceans and water and was clear when it was young and then, as the sun heated up, which the sun has been doing over its history, it passed a point where things got hot enough of the ocean started to evaporate as the oceans evaporated. There was more water vapor in the air. Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas, so water vapor in the air makes it harder at the surface, which leads to more evaporation of the oceans, more greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, its positive feedback. It runs away, it gets even hotter and the oceans evaporate markets more greenhouse end when there's nothing to stop that. It's a run away and probably got to the point where the oceans literally boiled off and all that water vapor in the atmosphere broke up by ultraviolet
the oxygen streamed off the hydrogen streamed off into space and Venus was left ultimately in its current state, which is really hot and completely dry. So to say this is delicately as possible. Venus is sort of going to menopause. Can help me stay that way. You can say it that way, handlers there's something to that, but it's it's a man, a pause that you now has a lesson for. I mean earth because it's sort of the ultimate global warming view. Vienna certainly has a fever, a really really high permanent fever, and it's sort of do not let this happen to your planet.
It's the rain example. That's a great title! Don't let this happen to your guidance and like Douglas Adams. Would right yeah it's the extreme example in our whole solar system of of what can happen with a really extreme case of global warming, wow, and now it did. I hear correctly that it wasn't anything that that venuses certainly did. This is the sun naturally getting hotter yeah? I mean Venus, take earth and move it. Thirty percent closer to the sun, which gives you wise as much sunlight because the son, you know the radiation goes as the square of the distance. As I know, you know how you now so that some of something clarity percent closer and it gets about twice as much sunlight. If you take earth and move into that, did Since this will happen to it, it will go through a runaway greenhouse. So it's basically what happened to an earthquake planet where there's just but more sunlight than we have well ouch, not enough son, Green. For that I now none of its it would not have been fun to go through. A few are one of those creatures living
in the young ocean of Venus, which you know what I know for you dont Keziah. You haven't seen these questions at a time that we actually have some questions about, that the possible life forms and a young Venus yeah. Well, that's a good one, and I am looking forward to that so so, when we come back, will with more star talk, radio we will get in questions about life on Venus. In the meantime, you can go to the website, which is star, talk, radio, dot net and learn more about that. Your show and learn more about what we're talking about, as if we knew and we'll be back in just a few minutes. If even when you gave me the new ten in the morning, the
river, got the beaver, breathing space inside it down to earth you're listening to start come live That's all like a lie. Welcome back to start talk, radio, I'm dead, greenspun, I'm an asteroid, biologist sitting in here for Neil Thyssen and by the way you can follow me on Twitter, at doktor, funky spoon or my website, funky science dot net and I'm joined him.
By my able comedian, CO host landlord, hey! I now I wish my twitter handle words. Coolidge oars doktor! Forgive us what it is. So we know well. My twitter handle is my name landlord and since no one, but my parents can spell that I always in people to my website which a sort of the portal to me, which is very funny, lady dot com. So funny, lady duck, That's our next question. We're we're Talkin Venus, we're talking Venus and to pick up from the last segment. We're talking sort of was their life on Mars and met II has a question: what organisms could survive on or underground in Venus? Well, ok, the basic problem with organisms on Venus, the way it is today
Is that heat the extreme hey that nine hundred degree that it's almost nine hundred degrees Fahrenheit and it's you know organic matter, the stuff that we are made out of does not survive at those temperatures at all. So life, as we know it made out of organic molecules, absolutely does not exist on the surface or underground on Venus Underground, it's worse by the way it just gets hotter. Ah, you know, planets are hot on the inside. We don't actually know the details of venuses inside, because we haven't had the kind of missions that can measure directly the geophysical measurements to know the details, but we know that it's gotta get hotter as you go underground, such as basic physics s. What Pilots do so you might have some more exotic kind of life. People have talked about science fiction, writers have considered. You know, Silicon based live my enemies as much and somewhere in years, and we thank you know because of venuses temperature and elements in and what not in our liquid or solid depending.
The temperature is that an argument for silicone face life as a possibility on Dena. Well, certainly, I would say that we don't know enough about the possibilities for life in the universe. To rule out. Other chemical systems is easy enough to say what life it's gotta be carbon based cause. That's the only thing we can think of that would work, but is that cause we can't think of another system like we're, not smart enough for really cause the universe. Dream up it generally. The universe surprises us with what it dreams up and then we with our intellect figure out after the fact of course, it had to be that way. So I wouldn't rule out other kinds of life and silicon. You know there's some problems. Silicon bonds tend to be really stiff the way so long as other
as though some, whereas carbon bulging. I, like other, avoiding the robot master robotic, whereas carbon molecules, carbon vans, are kind of thing you know and a flop around. That's the molecules in us take advantage of that flexible structure to do the work, the molecular work of ourselves, so I'm not sure about Silicon based life, but I wouldn't be so arrogant as to say absolutely. We can rule out any kind of life, but it would have to be a kind that we don't know about. There's other parts of Venus, not on the surface, where I suspect there might be possible life There was hotter up in that all the cars already coup and breezy and moist and the kinds of environments that life likes now in the day, Beginning our new answering the question. You made it clear that today no way You know it's just you hot, but now what.
A younger, more robust, pre, menopausal, Vien yeah exactly before Venus head. This horrible landed crisis when it was a young strapping, healthy planet. That's an interesting question: it turns out that Venus Earth Mars all three of these sort of sister brother planets had very similar beginnings, were burning that they all head oceans, war motions. They were young, so it could be the Mars earth and Venus all had the conditions for origin of life around the time: the origin of life happen on earth. So did it also happen on Venus? We don't know, but everything we know about the early environment of Venus suggests that it could have had oceans could have had the conditions for life, and so it may be that Vienna started out with a biosphere and then things you know it broke bad and, as the climate went awry for reasons we ve already.
Discussed that it got to a point where life could no longer exist and went extinct, aren't migrated up into the clouds or are they now is your fantasy? I like that so was possible not now, but maybe in the clouds yeah, absolutely it seems in a we need, Explore Venus a lot further and learn what that rural environment was like, but we have ideas and constraints and some data about that. Our environment. It seems as though it was much more earth like and Venus lost its oceans and heated up and when it was young there is every reason to believe that it could have had a biosphere call, I'm loving, as I'm learning so much talking to you. I have another question: Of course there are many, and I do believe this is from Susan Wannabe and Susan. I'm gonna go out on a limb here and say that you are a star Trek fan based on this question. I, like the sound of yeah, yeah, yeah, stodgy God Turkey's Unite with her question is: would it be possible to terror form
Venus. Is there a way to see the clouds and atmosphere and or reduce the solar radiation, to try and reduce the greenhouse effect, and I'm assuming fine Spock yeah yeah? I know it's a great crash dynamic. Terror forming the idea of engineering other planets to make them more earth like in a place where life could thrive. If it's not currently thriving is, is a very fruitful idea in science. Fiction and and in science mean that we have workshops and talk about this and how? How would you do it, I think, is a very useful thing to think about even for taking care of our own planet in a how would we engineer a plant or consciously control its climate as opposed to unconscious, wrecking its climate. You know it's a useful thing to think about with Venus. Of course, the problem is, as the question alluded to his, how do you call it off and interestingly, this is one thing I've done with some, my colleagues. We do models of the climate of Venus and there is a stable state. That's much cooler than the current climate. If you get rid of some of the sea or to the climate, can sort of collapse into a state
much less co2 and where its much cooler. So the question is: can you push Venus in a direction and make that climate collapse and people have come up with interesting schemes in oh it, and this is getting star tricky button? If you, if used, throw enough asteroids and comments at Venus and kick up enough dust than you obscure the sunlight from the surface and cool off and sort of collapse that environment to make it less intensely hot and another way people have talked about doing fact, Carl Sagan wrote a paper about this believe it or not back in the dangling cartoon, did anything that yeah, so Carl proposed that Venus could be terror formed with micro organisms. If you ve seen the clouds of Venus with the right bacteria that would sort of each car Dioxide and wow breathe out other things that you could use biology to make the planet more bio friendly. So, in the long run, as are technology,
in our command of all these, these ways of manipulating the world gets more sophisticated. Assuming we don't do ourselves, in the same way, but have always assuming that we then there will then somebody's possibilities may open up to us. In the long run we may be able to manipulate the climate of other planets and find a way to cool off Venus, of course, the problem with Venus. In that case you call it off, but there still there's no water. There is some holdings officer, yeah right right for television audience for there's. You know you'd need to find a source of water in that's another reason why you might want to think about crashing com The Venus there's a lot of water in icy storage in the outer solar system and, if you're, really at the point where you civilization can move stuff around in the solar system, you could take a bunch of those comments and see, bodies from the outer solar system crashing into Venus and Presto, you ve got
utter unless it out. I live there, s very scientific terms, Presto, young Waller and with that would somehow be easier than sort of importing it from earth. You know I'm just imagining Bob of water being GM living on them. If you want to import any from earth, you have the launch it off. Earthen, that's expensive in the sum stuffs already out in space. So when I am neither reason I said yeah yeah and you know what I think people would like to crash stuff that be a lot more fun Just looking at shipping invoices- and we might want to keep our water on earth were well if I love that still drinkable were rather fond. We have another question here from our Marco for vat and he wants to know if Venus is about our size, wise. The atmosphere so dense. Great question, because yeah Venus, earth twin same size. Why don't? They have the same atmosphere? Whelp Venus has its thick fixy or to atmosphere that
there we already mentioned and on both Venus an earth there, a lot of arcane, those that are constantly belching out co2 into the atmosphere. I didn't yeah yeah yeah, that's it that's one of the main sources. So, how do you know other other than us here on earth and on Venus its? It is the main source and on earth over the long. One co2 is removed from the atmosphere by chemical reactions that depend on water. If you remove the water, the seal, to get stuck in the atmosphere and that's what happened on Venus, we talked about the runaway greenhouse effect once the oceans boiled off the volcanoes kept going and kept pumping co2 into the atmosphere. But there was no way for the sea or two to get removed from the atmosphere by those chemical react since that happened on earth that depend on water, so other sea or two at that point got stuck in the atmosphere and if anything that just makes Venus hotter and it gets sort of pegged in the Red zone and stuck it can't escape from that condition, and that is ultimately billions of years from now what
what happened to earth as the sun continues to warm up how nothing to lose sleep over it's going to be a while, but that's the ultimate fate of our planet is what happened to Venus a long time ago, without exactly so we'll be back in a few minutes with more star talk have done you see before you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell, there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free, You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying This is starter, welcome back to start talk, radio, I'm David grinned Spoon, Astor, biologist, sittin in four Neil Thyssen. I'm here with landlord and we're Talkin about Venus, answering York since and the questions I loved as I I love that the twitter family is such an active star, talk mace, and we have a question from Richie Ryan at Richie, Underscore Ryan at Twitter,
once you know, does earth pollution have the ability to cause a greenhouse effect with atmospheric pressure on the scale of Venus like even if we burn everything you know what that come close the amount of co2, venous yeah, it's a great question, and actually it's a subject of some current debate among the community of those of us who model climate on other planets with earth models. You know if we did. The worst case scenario burned all of our call of the tar sands franked. You know the earth pieces did got every last bit of fossil fuels out frack at all and burned everything. Could we push earth to Venus like state and we actually dont know their different opinions about this and, in some sense, its academic, because even if we didn't push earth literally into runaway greenhouse with oceans went away. If we did that, we would push earth easily beyond the point where we could live.
In other words its a much narrower range of conditions where human civilization and even where life can exist on earth there and the range where you have to go to the extreme of pushing earth into a Venus like condition help. But I was at a meeting Last summer, where there were some debate about this in some of the scientists who there's a guy James Hansen, very famous NASA climate model, where whose really been sounding the alarm about global warming in his calculations, suggests that, if you put all the carbon from all the fossil fuels into earth's atmosphere, that we could trigger Vienna style run away and other scientists who said well wait a minute now, if you consider the,
in this feedback, because cards actually form more when there's more water networks forbidden that helps cool off the earth, and if you put everything correctly into the model, no, it doesn't quite go to a Venus like state. So the honest answer is we don't know, but it's a relation in question and I think by addressing and trying to answer questions like that, we sort of get smarter about how to predict climate, and how did you know we flex our climate modeling muscles and makes us better at thinking about both other planets and the future of our own planet in. But I am still should have stunned by what you said. Will you wouldn't even get that far we'd be dead? Oh yeah, yeah long, not where we really details. We could really push it big, our stance, because you're talkin, hundreds of degrees of global warming and its work in other partly amounts of global warming that were concerned about with these study.
Some people are doing and worrying about what's gonna happen or civilization, we're talking about two degrees, four degrees. You know. If you get up to six and seven, then it's like were really hosed because we're starting to melt the ice caps and do all these like really dangerous change it. So it's a much larger magnitude that we're talking about before we push it to a Venus like state, so we don't have to go there to get ourselves into trouble, but nonetheless, it's an interesting question, because if we do that by the way we are doing all life on earth- and we are like it's easy to say- we're not going to harm the earth were just harming ourselves and you know- but if you go to that extreme than actually worse go in the whole biosphere, not just human life. Well, it turns out the plot of a future x. Men movie exactly
Exactly I've got a great question here from Tommy means from Saint Charles Minnesota, and I want to know what the Russians do on their trip to Venus during the space restates. Also, the Russians actually had a lot of trips to Venus during the space race days. They were very, very successful at Venus it really. It was actually the rigours of them and picturing like Latka yeah yeah around liberally, exactly know it's it's it's kind of strange. If you look at the history, the space race, we Americans were really successful Mars and had about a trouble getting things. Ultimately, we we were successful Venus, but we were more successful mars. The Russians couldn't land a spacecraft craft on Mars to save their life. They couldn't.
Where did they couldn't explore Mars their way out of a paper bag? I mean they. They through all these spacecraft Mars and they all failed. It was it's actually very sad, the amount of resources the Russians put into Mars, but for Venus they were really successful. They had orbiters, they had incredible landers. The first landers on Venus were by the Russians and all those pictures you ve seen about pictures of of these stocks landscapes with rocks. You know going off to the horizon of this year's world. The first pictures we got anywhere from the surface of another planet work done by the Russians. Were these really successful and increase? Lee incredibly well engineered Landers Venus, so the Russians have an amazing history of success on Venus, much more so than than than we did in the early days of the space race. While I'm. I know this is the question, but you ve really now put it on my mind, link why? Why would they so good at Venus and not Mars? What's that what?
radio, I'm David Greenstone, certain infidel Thyssen, I'm joined here by Liam Lord and we're talking all things Venus. Yes, we are, as is like one of the most fun cosmic worries that I've done. This is cool. I got a question from MIKE Key Hano, which is sort of what we ve talked about a little but goes a little bit further, because I wanted to ask this myself so make an eye on the same page if we could introduce something into the atmosphere, Venus, Ino dissipate. Over and over again, and so the Russians, their approach to engineering? They did a great job. Solving certain kinds of space engineering problems and Venus was certainly a place where they were really really successful. Brute force not elegant designs, but lots of money, big spacecraft. Let's just keep throwing these massive. They were bake space, goodies, big, diving bells, not sophisticated space. Draft, but tough and dogged, let's just keep doing the same thing over and over again until we succeed and that of hang Roach that soviet approach, if you well worked well Venus and ultimately there
a very successful wow awesome, sounds great for Venus, not necessarily for dating anyways. We are, I think, need to take a break now. I think we do, but we will be back in a few minutes with more star talk, radio, Venus. The future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal this star die when a moment, Eads body welcome back to start talk, radio, I'm David Greenspan
sit an infernal Thyssen. I'm join here by a landlord and we're talking all things Venus. Yes, we are, as is like one of the most cosmic worries that I've done. This is cool. I got a question from MIKE Key Hano, which is sort of what we ve talked about a little but goes a little further, because I wanted to ask this myself so make an eye on the same page. If we could introduce something into the atmosphere, Venus, you notice the dense atmosphere that you were talking about it and reverse the greenhouse gas effect. Could it be sustained on aid it, or would it go back to actually high heat and intense doomed wasteland, we ve all come to know and love good question its tricky to sort of terror form Venus in a way that it could take care of itself, because the problem is there still that intense solar input. You now twice the solar input from the earth. Basically
And so we would have to have some thing: that's cutting that down either some layer of dust in the atmosphere or some engineer solution. You know something in orbit blocking part of the sunlight. I think it's tricky. Unless you know, if you go for the genetic engineering, biological solution. One could imagine you have some organisms who are made use of all that solar energy powering themselves that way and part of what they do part of how they live involves removing seo to varying resolutely from the atmosphere and keeping things cool. So I'm not gonna, say no impossible. I'm gonna say it's a tough engineering problem and it doesn't seem obvious to me how one would do that, but it's a problem for for the future, it's not something which even trying to do or should try to do now. I got a question here from Marco whore bat and simple question may not be.
The violence and who knows, why does Venus rotate so slowly? Why she taken her time. Yeah Venus has an odd rotation rate, its it rotates. Not only does it wrote it really slowly, but wrote it backwards from the direction of all the other planet. I yes, so on Venus. If you are on Venus and could see, the sun would rise in the West and set in the east. Opposite from earth, well because it spends around the other way and it spends around really slowly now. The question is: why does it do that? In fact, it spent so slowly tat the day on Venus is longer than the year, which is kind of weird to its Venus year goes
a quicker than a Venus day, so an circles the sun faster than it spends on its own axis. Exactly I just say that right, you said that right has been backward, so the answer is most simply expressed in three words we don't know, but of course, being scientists were not satisfied with that. We have fisheries help here. It probably has something to do with the formation of Venus? You know that this dispense of all the planets are set largely when their formed by accretion by the collision of smaller our planet testicles pieces of planets to come together and smashed together. That's how the earth formed in that's how, and the moon formed and got their rotation. That's on Mars, got its rotation and Venus probably got it's weird rotation by just the randomness of what collided with what and what orientation they were to leave at spinning in the way that it is, but the pot thickened somewhat with the thick and atmosphere of Venus that over time
atmosphere can absorb momentum from the planet in exchange momentum, and you can even have things like solar tides, where the sun Pool around that atmosphere, overtime is pulling on the solid planet and you may have tides that over billions of years changed the rotation rate of Venus. So there's some people that think that maybe that's swell rotation of Venus was not primordial. That is wasn't left over from the origin of things going, but evolved over billions of years due to the effective that thick atmosphere sort of pulling tightly on the planet. So you know again, I'm gonna go back to that. National three word answer: we don't are for we don't really know. I love that. I really do that or you can just say: venuses Dyslexic, Venuses, weird and businesses. We are- and I see a lot of anywheres alot of mystery about her but yeah. We love her anyway. She has the goddess of love after all and beauty. Ok, we have time for one more.
A quick question before the break, so the end. What do you got for me? I have a question farm United States efforts, veteran mark Esperanza and wants to know since Venuses Day is longer than the year. How does it affect any storms and erosion, and when I compare our planet which been so much more rapidly good question the fact that Venuses, a slow, rotate her compared to earth and very slow rotated does affect the weather patterns on earth. You look it ass, a satellite image space or you like, look at whether map- and you see how these spinning storm system news, I clones and just every kind of storm all the weather is spinning systems that actually has to do with the rotation of the earth and the kind of forces that it introduces Venus without, though those spinning forces has very quiet whether at the surface and very slow in spades and almost no erosion that comes from storms. So excellent question is related
the fact that it rotates so slowly and now, I think we are going to take another break and we'll be back in a few minutes with more star talk, radio. Unlocking the secrets of your world and everything orbiting around. It started Welcome back to start talk, radio! Now it's time for the lightning round, where we answer the questions that we didn't have time to get to
non lightning round, and we do them with lightning speed and quickness and hopefully cleverness too well, that's not ass for too much about. Let's go. Let's hear some lightning questions about being our re bright red wants to know. If we directed a large enough asteroid towards Venus would speed up the rotation if we directed of law, original asteroid yeah, I mean any asteroids going to affect the rotation, and most of them will be trivial, but imagine something like the moon forming impact that set earth on an entirely new course inform the moon. If you had a large enough impact shore, it would drastically alter the rotation of Venus, but it would have to be pretty large to have that kind. In fact, already next question from Stephen D at Stephen Eamon from Dublin Ireland wants to know necessary for any expression of Venus in Layman's terms, how do heat shields work? He'd shields work, partly through the obvious of just you know, being something big that blocks out the air and keeps whatever behind. It is called
There is also a more subtle factor: cod oblation, where you actually have materials that are designed to burn off purposefully. They burn, often as they burn off those reactions absorb a lot of heat. So the actual chemistry of the material is such that as it burns off ups keep what's behind it. Cool nicely dancer. Next question from Brad Mund wants to know what, with the average astronauts spacesuit need to survive. A nice stroll in the service of Venus man surviving on Venus is not an easy engineering problem for a space suit. Engineer. Because of that, he wouldn't right. It would need a lot of air conditioning, but it's also- we haven't mentioned this before it suddenly only hot, but the pressures really high. It's ninety times the surface pressure of earth, its crushing pressure and searing heat. So it would have to be a tough space suit that could not be crushed in that pressure,
and it would have to have a really really good cooling system, not an easy thing to design, but human beings are clever and crazy. So I think at some point we will go to Venus and will need to design some pretty good suits fantastic. The next question is from lake up Johnson loved letters, which did ah I've been told. Venus doesn't have tectonic plates. If so, what does it have? And how does it work? That's a really good question because, as we mention venuses, basically the same size as earth, so you would think that it would have some similar MAC as for getting rid of its internal heat, ultimately plate tectonics, which is worth being divided into all these surface plates. Their sliding around causing earthquakes, volcanoes, etc is is the way the earth gets rid of its internal heat. It's a mechanism for removing internal heat Venus you would expect, has as much internal heat. So why doesn't have plate tectonics and we're not completely shore, but it probably has
Venus being so dry, and you need a certain amount of water in the rocks to have things sort of squish around the way that plate tectonics do so. Venus may be sort of seized up. In that case, it probably loses its heat through volcanoes. What's so funny I got, because having this image of Venus being constipated us, I fucked up. Constipation is not a bad metaphor. Used probably have something like plate tectonics, we think maybe in the deep pass, but it got all dried out and couldn't move any more, and so now it probably goes this heat through a lot of volcanoes. Basically moving on next question from Gabriel Fanelli and Sao Paulo Brazil. What would be necessary you wanted to send a rover like our curiosity, to search for habitable environments that might have existed on Venus. People have talked about designing rovers for Venus and at some point we probably will want to do that, because the Russians had a couple of
Andrews, we're trying to design more. Flanders is not an easy thing: the land even just a land on Venus because of that great heat and pressure. But eventually you want to not do more than just land. You wanna have mobility. That's what's been so great. On Mars. Mars is easier as tricky as it is to explore Mars, because a surface conditions aren't is intense. It's actually a lot easier as the engineering problem. So a lot of the problems on Venus would be the same as the ones on Mars as far as mobility and communications and so forth. But you ve also got to deal with designing machines that can work in those temperatures, and so probably the electronics and all the critical components would have to be encased in some sort of structure that would be kept cool, maybe through a nuclear reactor. Maybe through some other clever means, but that's the basic things you either have to keep it cool enough. So the electronics don't just fry or you have to build a whole new kind of electronics that can operate in those temperatures
it's a tough engineering problem, but we do have people at NASA and other agencies that are working on solving that, and sooner or later we will send a rover to Venus NICE next question is from shortly. Will we ever be able to get high? Was images of the surface of Venus? That's tricky as far as it depends? What you mean by images, if we're talking about radar images, which is why we have based rough cod, Magellan that orbit Venus in the nineties and took images using where you can't see the surface with visible light, but you can with radar, so and get higher rests with radar if you're talking actual visible images than we would have to do it with some kind of roving aircraft that was close to the surface.
And flying and not getting fried in the answer is yes it will. We ever be able to do it surely, but its tricky because of the conditions do either do it from orbit with radar or if you want to use visible light, you have to do it from close to the surface below the clouds and sort of travel over the whole surface into aerial photography, so it'll take a while, but we'll do it dance. I have another question I write unforced. I think we're gonna have to wrap this up. So I want to thank you all so much for listening. I'm David grinned spoon filling in four Neil Thyssen. You can follow me on Twitter. Doktor funky spoon and I'd like to thank my co host. We onboard thank you. We thank you and you can follow me on Twitter, at landlord and even listening to star talk, radio. Followers on Twitter at STAR Talk, radio or online STAR talk radio dot net. Thank you so much for listening.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.