Is the super volcano under Yellowstone going to erupt? What’s the difference between lava and magma? Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and volcanologist Janine Krippner, PhD, answer fan-submitted questions about volcanoes.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide our top begin right now this is start off. I'm your host, neither
Ass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist there's a cause.
Queries edition in the corona verse as we continue.
To have our guests join us from wherever they are
in the universe. But first
got my co host. Jacek nice. What's happening
Iraq's, we haven't breakfast Neil, ok,
very nice. More than I care to know about you this morning. Cuz it's
you don't care about my my new, which you are tweeting it.
Chuck nice comic. Always thank you. Sorry there, and so
these cosmic queries sauna topic. We have
yet a really jump into ha ha.
Talking about volcano. I see what you did there. You see what I did. Their business
clever me. Ok now, none of us have any such expertise, so we
combed earth to find another few of them out there
I think the Vulcan
and we found one who worked with us
Washington DC and
welcome Janine, cryptic there and you very much for having me here, I'm just about placed Ankara jumping into volcanoes, overcoming our debt, but to me and how else where we appease the gods and is an important question. Clearly, twenty twenty we have not been appeasing the gods. Actually, so
you're volcanologists, which has to also mean that you are fundamental.
Yeah. Geologists is incorrect near a different types of acknowledges. Sir gas.
But I guess I Amity Geology based vocal, sir. I look a lot of rocks
and this was Sony in global vulcan- isn't programme by what is their sources?
any programme. We would basically recording and keeping track of the world's volcanic eruption
and I'm glad somebody's doing there. That's good good
thanks for letting letting us in on this fact that somebody's taking business? Ok,
I know there are both can observatories around the world they do the day to day monitoring and making sure would try to make sure that communities the safe but weak, her late. All of that data, so that we have this wealth of knowledge about ok knows so. We can look back and studied them and look for any patterns or have a better understanding of what
Instead, I saw how many volcanoes are being actively to monitor at this moment
oh actively, monitor it. I dont know what do you guys know how many are actively erupting today?
No, not again, I'm I'm gonna say
who Mammy Rational IRAN Mary says we're,
I'm going out I'd say a hundred fifty forty
ongoing eruptions, but there are over. Fourteen hundred volcano is that we consider to be potentially act
so that means erupted within that lost him thousand years. So in the hollow saying, I'm in this sets a baby for a volcano
that's not good. The whole scene is, as that, would we,
our calling out our time, the time of Civilization IP
on the scene. The fringe of the debate on that
The whole thing is the last in the twelve thousand for this with debts when humans about agriculture and when we ve been sort of doing our Fang Creed.
Civilization right. We base there,
Isn't that age for cars in the northern hemisphere? That's when a lot of the ice sheets came down and actually removed a lot of the recent its before that I'm break with the volcanic activity, so from hinders fathers.
A thousand years onwards, we have a much better record of what appears that actually done through the ice age wiped Europe slate clean globally.
Ok interested here so now,
Where, where do you stand on the annual of jobs?
various furious? I tried pick a fight. That's why I asked the question: is what I'll get away from the microphone step away from the spokesperson today? I would ask you to stop violating a planet, but I don't care about that.
I spent a whole other showed you are talking about the UN's Racine yeah, so so with with volcano, so I can with another hundred fifty
because I think this active ones and others
but then the ones that like could blow at any moment there was actually
what my number would be, maybe so divided seconds
find the any time would be that fourteen hundred plus
nerves, I'm sorry, while they might not be showing any signs of our being today or tomorrow, even next year, that can change very quickly. So, therefore, we have to prioritize somehow which volcanoes gonna put our resources and a monitoring centre. Sir, that's a good start is looking at our cake, which finally
the rapid were written recently, trains have young magnetic systems and to make them that might start anytime soon.
Magic means just molten. Rock magnetic death is like the verb work, another the adjective.
Yes, I guess you have allowed the lamp above. The surface is the lava lamp. If you put it along, the surface is magma lamp.
A magma alarm. Very great, therefore interesting. So
so magma that hit the surface. It has a new name even was the same stuff. Yeah I mean it does. Change, occurs now as atmospheric pressure, so fast,
crystallizing lies down- and it really is a lot more gas very quickly, so they
changes, but it's the same stuff. Ok, I died.
I ve never thought about tat. Okay, you
magma rivers flowing down and a volcano. Oh those lava. Rivers
the moments ago were magma coming up out of the caldera is ok, and do you
you so mad my hats, because up
in trying to fucking bad, but I just what one of those amendments have not been felt obliged to make them black Iraq once it's cool down instead of red, you have
black Janine, and I- and I want to make fun of the fact that you are different words, but in my world we have.
Ray of her words for the same thing. So, there's an asteroid moving through space. If it
visible as it descends through the atmosphere than as a meteor and then after,
hit the ground in you pick it up into meteorite you're right. You have same damn thing and it's all the same thing TAT Abraham thing out using while yet there very complicated these astrophysical.
So I start with questions this must have been a very fertile topic is who doesn't it,
above ok knows in our lives, without every day,
So you know what we normally do. We go out to our various incarnations on the internet and we asked people to send in their enquiries. We always start with the patriarch patron because they give us money and
Frankly, we just we love that transit
should we need a more or less crass way to communicate this information? That's that's why I love it so much anyway. Here we go so, let's start with Christopher appeal on page yarn, and he asked
Are there any new developments with the super volcano under Yellowstone, and I will add to Chris first question.
As an addendum. What is the super volcano under Yellowstone? I should have placed a bit at this again
First it was coming Superbowl,
It was actually when I don't like it
where'd. That means a volcano that can produce these largest style of irruptions. What we call
We have to be I'll, be ok to expose the body index which goes from smaller eruptions to the biggest back, sir. This is being
point, a super irruption, the biggest style of corruption,
Keep a volcano is evil painter that can produce a super eruption. Yellow stern has produced two of these and its entire history,
So while it may never do one again,
at the moment, these nor signs that it is even his not magma to do that in each time soon, as just a word that says that its capable- because it has in the past of producing these very large
options as far as new developments, Gar people are always trying to learn more about this for pain or basically getting more understanding of the sub surface. At the geothermal system, which has not really related to the Subsurface Yellowstone Balkan observing
which is part you is. She is part, universities, part of their organisation. Through your fears, no stage geological server, yes useless, threatens yeah, but it's not just the amateur.
Group of organizations that monitoring is volcano and constantly. Looking at
the geology to understand more solid irruptions have happened before and therefore what it might do in of
how how when when was the last russian
the last european? I think he s stern the last directionless about seventy thousand years ago, and there was just the lava floor. I am in fact the last fifty
options yellow storm. Most of them had just been love affairs, in other words its just the potential for the eruption. Is I mean it's not that
It just could have made us like it has
as and therefore it could motivate you just just admit it say we have no idea
I'm going to say: that's not really
not a really good like descriptor, because it's like me say almost super dad. I never met my kids. I don't play child support, but I could do it occurred to you it s. Not a good name rightly. Neither has in the past must irruptions much much smaller, but it's become this. It's like the adult version of the monster at this,
why does it I ok? Let's move on this question: let's go to Christopher Fowler, Doktor Thyssen and Doktor Crippen honour in regards to volcanic emissions and climate change. Does volcanic activity release more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere than human activity in a climate of
Skaters often site volcanic activity as one of the main contributors to greenhouse gases on earth. So
such anywhere volcanoes fit in the equation. In the end, the greenhouse equation summit,
carbon dioxide alarm, which, as we know it, is a very large culprits.
Humans Ridge released through fossil fuels than our activities of forty two hundred times more,
Then all our partners are under the ocean and online is a huge programme and the CAT Dick Observatory that initially looking into this.
And now we are releasing saw much more than silver,
Kay are not the problem. They shouldn't even be part of the conversation cause they're going to do
you're gonna do anyway right. They re help does get our atmosphere in the beginning, a new and very important part of the cop natural carbon cycle and our atmosphere and all those these nutrients, but as far as what we are seeing now is climate change or global warming or whatever you want to call it. They are not all right, we're
Let me inverts the question so if you could find a way to tap a volcano
releasing some of the gas pressure so that it never blows and maybe use the energy from their tapping process to drive the power needs of a city
that might otherwise be levelled under
under lava slide
You saying that's not good for the greater balance of the earth's ecosystem.
Because earth needs some rate of volcanoes to sustain its balances. That has had a true story
yeah. I think so I mean not that we can't. We can't stop eruptions that something we cannot enter we're very early on the scale of these enormous enormous systems, but there are hugely important part of life on this planet. Just like four
life for our soils, for the atmosphere for new trans. Soaring omission:
We support the measures what our planet does. That is part of us living here when it happens, when people are involved to close this heartbreaking and give a stating, but it is something that we have to look with. I just love
fact that the other grass ties and turned into a bond villain. Just hang our is effort as very clear, be careful. What you wish were right. It would all war can also most go happens down alone. Twenty twenty placed sayings. That's like
I write a drug,
one more question before we go to break. Ok, all right. I lost
this. This is caring Nederland from Facebook and Karen says high. This question is from Jackson, who was six years old jobs and would like to know why do volcanoes explode?
Oh, so we actually know have time to get to Jackson's question right now:
But when we return, we will find out why volcanoes blow in the first pillar.
Start off. We're cosmic worries the volcano
some equerries, I got check nice as always check. Yes, sir. Yes, sir,
and we have our volcano expert, they do exist in this way.
Janine prisoner Janine words,
it was and
If you're hurt our first segment, cod labelling accent in her.
And you hail from originally, where Janine easier
and when I am in New Zealand my accent is much stronger progress, so very tat bring down for
so we can understand your english
visited museum and a couple years ago it's beautiful place and I would return in a heartbeat
Of course, I visited hospital
We ve got a whole family went my son, didn't he wanted to move there? He just went to live inhabitants and binding
there's a foetus sort of other.
From where I live. It's a beautiful, very good, very good, so check we left off with it
pressure from a six year old kid named Jackson and what was that question? That's right and Jackson wanted to know. Why do volcanoes exe
load back to basics, Jenny. What you have for us at some really great question sorrow.
Once we get magma high enough downward
eight into deep down below its right, magma is rising to the surface, because its less dense than the rock around it. So if you point pour oil
the water, the oil rises, because its way stance same thing when you get a closer to the surface, that
magma has a lot of gas and very, very guess. He stuff a hole in a different kinds of gas shook his Jesse all the time I move.
I either it's because I need a lot of vegetables
that's it- I'm just glad burns in right now,
thanks for plain alone, there either
Serve volcanoes can be just as dangerous, if not more
You get them closely deserve as these these pressure, because his lease rock on top of the magma everything's being pulled down the gravity, sir. So if you think of a bottle of Florida, when you get a story, you can't see the gas. You know these guess ends, but their gas is under pressure. Is inside the liquid
Lucian, once you take the camp office, releasing the pressure that gas can start come out if you shake it up and take the cab horse.
Essentially what an explosive the volcanic eruption is. You have this gas coming out so quickly.
Violently, ripping apart the fluid, or in this case the magma. What's wrong,
It's not just a single pop. It's not
a single amount of pressure trying to pop a lid its once there does pop
all these gases marijuana continue coming up yeah, I can be a bit of what we think can happen as it can be a wave that goes down that conjoint magma. Once you have a warm and open systems, though it's already made its way to the safe. If you can have more discreet, irruptions or explosions before there is ok and review,
Rennie a magnet gets from Bali interruptions, but yet you have the magnet coming up as interrupted, yet its essentially like shaken up all the cart and taking the letter. So you ve classified types of Europe
yea anyway, Odin Canyon, is where you have. These have ash claims of organic ashes. Not smoke is polarized volcanic rocking gases,
So that's when you have an ash playing that comes out a minute detaches eventually, and then you arrange up to your very larger options, which we call plenty in, which is from the busiest seventy nine eighty eruption named after Pliny the elder. Who was there.
I'm going back to the other, and when we have more money and Magnus babes from bubbling irruptions Bf hawaiian irruptions, which is what we saw a white you and that was still erupt thing. I was gonna, give you kiss
the hawaiian eruptions here
What we do have plenty of other other types of options, but there is in the main ones, Hooker cool, so took you return.
Accidents like open up the ballot boxes soda outside place outside after shaking
at present only occur foreigner.
Right give me some more excellent, excellent, excellent definition very, very easily understand here we go
Is before you turn next question Janine when I visited New Zealand not to want to go to a couple of years ago I visited,
church and they were still recovering from a major earthquake that had occurred there.
And I'm just wondering just proxy
Eight two geologic activity enhance people's interests,
to want to study it
I always look volcanoes. Am I
pretty sure was born. That way. I remember when I started, but I'm the only person I know from my home town, whose awoke
Well, I'm sure does in some ways out we have an extremely active geologic country. Museum were actually on a major, have played down dream, but the plate. Andrey changes
seductions are the north,
and miss more about. So it's moving,
it's a mountain buildings are in and
I'll find a means of weird transitions are in the middle and then a little founder. Also drifting apart was a very complicated Frazier and we have the potential for a lot of different eruptions. Changes as well as earthquakes is unanimous and landslides, and
I know all related. I mean the moving plates, the existence of all Tsunami Army there, it's all a family of earth getting pissed off
big heavy family. I love you,
You wanted to be a kilometres from very early on
still have your eyebrows, so,
it seems to me- would lose those every time he leaned into a volcano to look in Elisa painted on
I've only nearly lost eyebrows or I'm here, while ones
but now I haven't leaned over crater looking into laughing yet a lily,
the IRA status after that got. You ve got your wonderful report.
That would also have at its pretty good actually that tunnel, it's a perfect headway,
to the digital attics from Instagram. His question or her question not sure says.
Hey no big fan here and hate me. Everybody seems to be asking about the volcanoes themselves, but are more interested in the equipment. What ways are there to analyze volcanoes and how far can we reach into a volcano? Thanks, love, love, star talk and I'll just say. Thank you to his last statement because it was a compliment.
I dont need to actually say it, but open compliments from years of withholding economies from myself,
failure to observe this also Janina you and full moon suit. When you gotta go
to call there is what what your standard equipment sire
going into called so this I should probably said if his rank Fraser
and a call. The earth are going into a crazed, by which time it did not have loved and at most of them don't have lobbied in it
This is called the hour. I you mention you ve been the yellow starting sir. Most all of that area within the part is the call the orange juice site that you can't see it.
By a few something lover: I'm U k
and have that space suit, looking thing which is basically protect you from the heat
If you have to be a long enough, but if you run up grab some pull out a runaway in Anderson, great for a judge, people doing that with their two thousand eighteen low, where corruption, you don't need that, so you just need to be quick
I'm a technology. I noticed that I visited Vesuvius in ITALY and the thing
I don't want it last erupted, if not palm pay, but
to address any lava, but he was heart. It was. It was hot,
I went down to get a closer picture. I can't get any closer and nothing was glowing. Nothing was flowing, so I felt like
really inadequate stuff, like I would never be helped,
you're, not you not tough enough real sorry. I've been in the lab that was so hot. My eyeballs, who drying out that's hottest. I've
Yet in the last two year, old love, ass was mostly coolants notified at that point by
they can get very dangerously hearts. So floor is lava night again, even though you to have a special driven. Do you do have like them?
you start to repel down the side of a wall that sort of stuff.
And yet, depending on the type of seal work you are doing. That is a huge range and field work with your collecting rock samples where the clicking gas, with your mapping, everything that surrounded with you. Looking at you,
richer with you, and yet there are so many different things to do and about pain on each one of them is dry specialty authority for seems to me everything you just so it can be done with drones and robots
can, I replace us with robots
now wait a minute. I believe you gotta qualify that I mean that's. That's like me. So
No, a robot cannot tell jokes. You know, like
you don't want the robot right, I dont want the robot cell geological robots can tell jugs. Why could you not? Why could you not replace you with the road? I got one.
What caused the robot goto Mycalessus with solid state
universally accessible geology, jerk
on the star there,
the things that we need to see in the field for ourselves. So I'm going out there. We basically looking at everything around us trying to understand what this populist than before
so, if you haven't ruin- and it takes event-
a resolution photographs are if they, even if it gets samples which have been very time consuming,
We do use drawings when it's dangerous. There are absolutely good uses for trains and they said
I feel that we can do as humans, with all of the experience that we have knowing what to look at when you have this huge. You re even on a crater credits, are relevant back east.
See you looked into pursued the s s in our taking much
much bigger than that, and we are tiny you look at photos of people on credit
so there are more on this matter,
and a little cold thinking that we can do with our experience is seeing a drawing sang. Look at that. Go. Look at that. Give that simple things like collecting gas. You need to get it at the feet and the like
This is an! U can get samples using drawings higher up, but by then you have the gases that a few sang and sir trains are absolutely useful.
But it still very important that we get in the field as well. Truck sounds to me like Janine, wants to keep her job every life with you. If you want me to come and tell germ cells, good sounds good. I write
Let us move on to have and just like the main pisses Adieu, resell occurred and yourself there's from Instagram can a mountain ever form into a volcano.
Well a lot of volcanoes? There's a mountain, and if you have a mountain, the area that is
Ok, now you can grow new coins, which some people might call an evil
looking at mountain building ranges, often
there is a maid of things like all the granite or the areas that are really but Kennicott active. That might be more difficult to get a volcano to form the because the bag man to make his way through the
I'm safe as everything's under pressure down ass was gonna, find the easiest way to the surface so obvious that absolutely clear
I'm really depends on the easiest way to the MAC. It sets in that area
no amount. Opportunistic is what you're saying
I mean it's really come all this way like hundred kinda, hundreds of kilometers towards their right. Sorry, how they have gained boat when it gets to that point is like a care, do no more! I just I just can't it's over. I got
if you look at all the granted in the world that failed eruptions. Technically, that's granite is
magma reservoirs that first stopped that didn't erupt in slowly crystallized by the surface,
if you look at granitic, mountain chain ranges. All of that is magma that never manage should make its streams is in Europe.
It's about Rushworth Gretel
Rushmore made of
actually no sign,
The Romanian again yes, Mount Rushmore is made of american exception.
Listen during the last three years.
More before the break. Ok, here we go. This is
this is Diego Herrera from Instagram. He says: greetings from Colombia.
How does the temperature what he says it really, sir? He said.
Like that. That's how it is a greetings from Colombia where he says how does the temperature distribution of flow
love a change as it comes out of the eruption. Volcano specifically, how long does it take?
for the lover to solidify.
So keen I've always wondered that cause whose hand lava commanded looks like it's hardening in situ right up for the part that, but then it breaks and keeps going so
What what's going on there as this thing is flowing but pardoning at the
meantime areas. There is a really good Christian, I'm sorry
first of all starting out and Celsius is again sorry for museum.
Magma old lover at the very beginning, coming out than most sticky, more explosive sailor lovers because realise those around eight hundred degrees s and they may go all the way to resources Excelsior.
Just like a million degrees Fahrenheit basic.
Are we going glaring at either I gotta take a quick break will come back to learn more about it
future of the lava that comes out of volcanoes would start up
we'd like to give a patriarch shut out to the following patriotic patron, Joel Jericho, Joseph prolific creator of cosmic art and has been an avid supporter of star talk for years, and we thank him for his patron it. And if you would like your very own, patriotic shot out.
Got a patriotic dotcom, slow start talk, radio and support us start off we're back cause. We queries the falcon,
so we're learning about what happens to love a man
Becoming lover is freezing is flowing, what it doing and timid
temperature, that it is the today's Europe
temperature taste liquefied Iraq were temperatures, it said depends on the rock depends on the competent
the rock your lower temperatures competitions like bright light around eight hundred degrees Ashton? Will a few hundred knew it
You're looking at all, the salt is like a kill aware thousand talking for Greece Elsie S extremely hot.
So when you have those lava flows or am across the entire range of all, about, can pull modifiers when you come out when it comes out of the step, as is the crust is calling very brief, but they definite twins, two black or grey of some kind very quickly.
If you had a really and allow the of flooring will call a lot faster, I can still head
I don't see neuron when he gets days two weeks. If it's a lot of flow of a few metres.
I'm eating it love us all, a tinge of metres and those can take months, two years
I'm so really depends on how much lobby you have the thickness of the lava
how much of it is coming out, but it can take a very very long time. Some reason worked so
call them because K foot case such as this was perfectly
if lava moves so slowly. Why is it so destructive a mean that out? I guess
get out of the way is really not
not the weather had cartoon. I never understood the cartoons were there.
The ball rolling down the hill, and it is running away
if in the war rather interesting, rubbing site, but I never understood that there is a theoretical. Has its advice, my way from an ill, but you might is that because of these temperatures, is that really the big I'm sorry
from the fact that you basically have slow moving rock that's going to consume whatever's in its path, but is it the temperature, primarily that makes it so destructive and so dangerous? Some of it is pretty clear. We thought
I want the Fisher AIDS, I'm kill aware to those nineteen event that was very rapidly moving lava, but even with the very small slow moving ones you gonna usually out walk.
But it will build or is everything in its path. If you have a town in the way, it's gonna go through everything about what the fast meaning love is. A kind of Sri Rethink creates great fight,
As I can have, a lot of very dangerous gases coming off said and is also extremely hot said. Isn't there a lot of hazards that around of both to me the book? I requested the floor
I well know what you're about partners explorers love of clothes are very slow artistic flows.
Essentially, these exploding rapid avalanches of solid rock and very hot gas that racism,
the volcano or away from the pin very high speed. You cannot outrun them and they will destroy it.
A mere parts, so they are like the nightmares of all painters. These things
so it s like him them in the movies. When you see the big cloud that goes down,
side of the volcano burst. That's the problem of classic flow. Yes, like Dantes pick that actually had a really good, partly Cyclone Dantes PIG.
They are incredibly dangerous so that it,
will you too, even if not lava it, it's very hot and never kill you do so
what would you say very hot? What what's the temperature we're talking about? Am I gonna get like burned alive from how exactly my gonna die? Am I gonna be covered and encased in and ass? I am I gonna burn up and all my flesh is gonna peal of Russia and China and other itself. The death. What's gonna happen, Janine? How will truck die?
not talking about anybody else to me. I'm just talk about me
Can we can ever longer conversation about this later? If you like, better specifically, was part as far the temperature is extremely dangerous. I'm sorry,
Taste, the Asia looking at in tests integrate burns over much of your body, especially atheists expires.
I'm looking at one damage, especially if you're not wearing any kind of proper gas masks. So the damage to the London is often ask him
the very dangerous as well that can kill you
I'm injure also have a lot of rocks Emily.
A very Jesse gas, rich low rock contained part, as I wish we could have said.
If you have a very rocky kind of partly supply with a huge amount of a solid rocks, they can be quite big through these rocks and the size of a car, namely impact is very dangerous as well. So every part of these things is dangerous.
So chuckled die twelve ways. I was gonna say: I'm just die in every way that I just asked, because you do if out the outside canyon,
on every single level. Ok, good to no good to know
during a very efficient job or check. Ok, we kind of got to this work.
I think we can get into it, maybe a little deeper, because the great question from whip see doodle on Twitter and what she total says: a doktor Thyssen and Janine. I would like to ask what role does volcanoes play in our ecosystem and what do they tell us?
about the earth. We got to the ecosystem a little bit. But what are we learning about us and this planet from volcanoes he's a lot Falcandus can teach us by became.
What is Magnus thing for very deep, especially hotspot volcanoes, but will we have mental plumes coming up, so that's magma coming or at least hot rock, coming up from very very deep alone. I congratulate
If that rock and bring it up to the surface, we can actually learn about the insights of our planet. That way and looking
without having to digging, did I say
Edit. They also tell us about our atmosphere form so looking at how our planet actually evolved.
Looking at areas like geothermal areas can tell us how life a vote on this planet and how, like things like extremely files, have actually managed to survive in these areas. So there is a lot we can learn about our planet's how its evolved through time, though so how we have all through time.
Like then. I think we also learned from metals they come.
Volcanoes that harden in with,
their magnetic domains, aligned to earth's magnetic field. It tells us
Spain filled his flipped, those I think there.
Released evidence. Flip
whenever a magnetic field over the over the millennia.
Yeah. You can help us understand when things are adopted, so we can line those up with different polarities and understand the ages of irruption deposits. Do you need me
but she really want to stay employed as what it sounds like
You owe me a better job,
I would love it. Alright. This is angry scientist some at area edition of life. Ok, he says, is that red, hot glow or brightness, because a photons
and does the madmen and lava create their own photons. So it's it's light that we see coming from it. Would I
It is they take this one Janine. If yes, yes,
question about innovation. The yes. This is the answer. Not this very simple, as you.
Everything even at room temperature is emitting infrared light
your eyes are sensitive to this. When you turn out the lights, you can't see anything greeting
for a camera and can see which things are slightly warmer than others. If you can
raising the temperature
they become more and more visible to the infrared camera? Eventually,
The glowing object normal
Only a Miss Infrared will begin to emit red light,
What happens if you have electric stove,
you put it on low. You don't see it. If you don't
the light, but a little higher begins to glow red and the temperature,
which things glow read that suffer,
and a thousand degrees celsius. The genie was talking about, if you want to
is the temperature, some more it'll glow white hot and I don't think
it gets to white hot. Does it? Janina obviously allows
I get some yellows, ok yeah, and so
in transitioning to white hot you go through a yellow, hot phase.
And then the hottest of our hearts, his glowing blue, hot and but the power.
Are melting, these rocks and red hot, so we're good to go there and you can
Bending guess is that come up like Joseph.
That's great enemy for different reasons. Does not there, Sir,
we glowing blue.
Is there emitting blue light? Specifically the but yeah there photons their actual photons being
It is no different from the four tons of of an electric stove
the town Hall
I write you a ten out of ten for them. Ok, neurons are referred to a bucket
an honorary Volk volcanologists. Ok,
is Irene. Polly Plugin Polly, actually from Facebook is greeting. Doctors here is
they're gonna. Let me out, I fear this one question before you guys how many dormant volcanoes with potential to cause now appears to qualify air
mass devastation are there here on earth. So we know that that that excludes a lot
how's the definition. Jenny was the definition dormant online
I would say, is something that has an Iraq did recently. But really I don't. We don't really have like this- is what
dormant, as was recently mainly use to ten years, a hundred years, a thousand years
We call about, can actively rotting if something hasn't generally, there are exceptions. Does the generally that hasn't arrived within three months after that three month mark as regards aid can be considered not actively running out, and you can still have active systems, sir. We have few cross overturned by its own
The important thing there is how devastating only talking about sir, I see a lot of questions about. Can we wipe out life on earth? No
by devastating- can be extremely give us
sitting with a much smaller eruption. If you have a city on the flank of the volcano blight
clay and your own. Some cities living in volcano is like and leave the great right Mr Pompidou saw. But if you're talking about like impacting alive
ignoring how meaning we have.
So we could look at how many we, nor that ever up dead those lifestyle eruptions. I don't know either, but that doesn't it
say that ok knows that. We know now that that heavily
I made in the past, might not do that in the future.
There have been some both painters that
he wouldn't even really normal volcanoes, for they produced extremely large eruptions, infinite Toolbar and the Philippines, and she ninety one was a kind of example of that
as the locals. Didn't really really see it as a volcano is just like a low lying hill and then it had to say
it might just eruption of that of the last century. Sir
good question during early answer by way of over during Pinatubo,
I had observing time allocated for me completing my phd
pieces in Chile. In the
these mountains, and
the two bows ash crossing the Pacific Ocean
interfered with my observations.
The scope of the attic they transmit. Seventy of the air
starlight. It's been coming from the centre, the galaxy for thirty thousand years and he's got a slam into Pinatubo Ash. Piss me off:
you are too low?
I thought I was totally in charge of them in,
that is so very well there you go Irene,
and by the way, Irene is coming from Helsinki Vent Finland just one right now, and she also
Gave me a friendly little troll by say
chop. My name is pronounced a rain I so there you go.
They re not for the Czech now now she's she's marking me.
Let me also these market. Our name is Irene, appears totally marking we haven't got with that happen alone.
The charter is to learning how to read that yeah. Listen, I think, as a person who has suffered tremendous head
Roma, all my life there I do a fantastic.
Reading these names. The questions you have done great, I'm proud of you, ok, so we might. I think, just one more question check. Oh well, ok would he have ok here we go, he would go here. We go.
This is who saying that ain't right,
oh you saying says or from Twitter it this ever happened, or has this ever happened and if it does, how much are we prepare for a super eruption that would cause global darkness for months? First of all, is that possible? That's not here, but one is that possible.
To do with their approval contempt. Supporters for something like the song is far is of opening up shit. I'm there's a lot of us can misunderstands about that. Sir Yellowstone is usually one people were afraid to assign that would destroy the entire United States back with the recent very large ones we have seen where I am Dixie.
Became about a centimeter only ass, a volcanic ash. So this would in caused around the world,
and that's not what brought blocks out the solar radiation ass. The gases in, as you pointed out, those can produce visibility, but no across darkness. As far as have appeared, we're
and there's a complicated question because invoke analogy what we do
we live in is much about volcanoes as we can't understand what the time and they for what they might do end where they might do it. We also put a lot of effort into it,
monitoring using technology and gilding experience to understand when volcanoes start giving us signals that hey, I might be doing something certain workers do not useful to us and which we could make up an earth reproduction. You need us
but we do, if you don't do at your, you need us, but we're not useful it. All very useful may give forecasts are just like the website,
they're, not gonna, stay like it's been a rain or be go house at three p m on Friday.
If they could hear my meteorologist, my friends in nice,
so we say like we might have an eruption of this. The style of this egg within the space of time
It is incredibly important, saves lives now, as far as is the site,
Are you ready? That's not evoke, has acknowledged question. There is a political one.
That's a community question and you can look at some of the big disasters which we have recently than the pandemic and say with all the knowledge that we have have. We been appeared Berkshire from ITALY,
go out with a slightly nuance version of that question if,
You say this could blow any minute between now and ten years from now and
and it's not very precise, but suppose ten years go by and it doesnt blow
Do you lose credibility to people,
who were trying to make big
decisions on statements that you make
a big problem in general, if you're gonna have unrest that that long, we're gonna that the longer time goes, the more information gave weakening more information, the movie monitoring as Sweden, and understand more what might happen, but you have said:
thirdly, have volcano is that our Magnum is actually moving towards the steadfastness slows down. Miss Thompson moves again and then stops, and this can go in four weeks or months. So is really important for us, for peace, for us to communicate
you didn't hear people understand the uncertainty in the matter.
Could be racing towards the surface and if it keeps going the way it could produce a rearguard action, but that concern
down they can start and not all that machnik around. So the cost
we evolving system
people need to know that they can work alone.
With you. When you make your best guess: prediction based on
I think he s salute because he is saved a lot of wives doing that annoying when people need your backing away. You know that we are more people than vacuuming and not living their homes. For weeks and months of the year that this article we want to help people not home
by giving them out of the way in time in our knocking
mother the way my told him. So no it's a very difficult area of helping community.
We'll do you a bachelor, I mean. Do you tell people like this might happen? I mean we have varied in a way.
How people everything we know since, as we know it is,
and then we get more information than updates constantly just like us Pandemic
Nation has been changing and our dismissive what might happen in changing the more data that begin and that's within sight of its people
of course, want to level of certainty that rarely the scientist condescend to sew, and sometimes we can sometimes me
can say this is probably gonna run from the next day or the next hours and dots
There's a lot of different things.
How will we know that particular volcano? They had all entering personality. How well
We ve been monitoring at to understand its backgrounds level of activity. So what's it normally doing when it's not erupting,
more. We do that, the more we can understand in things you're really ramping up when the changing. While ever
you just said, irrespective of how accurate you're predictions may be,
I hope to God that there are no volcanoes in Florida,
can predict. That is probably not a treaty of Lisbon will that's. A good idea
there is of. There is a movie about a volcano in Florida. Let everybody mean that either.
Or are we going
actually ended there. A genie give me one last words of wisdom in one sense that we can take
The gives us hope that doesn't start with you need me.
Henry is incredibly beautiful, amazing, an important part of life on this planet, sir, it's up to us to learn how to live with him and how to keep safe when they decide to do what they gonna do not lose out. Lovely were certainly mean Africa,
we'll Janine prisoner it's great to have you back on stock and for this very important topic, and maybe we can,
tapie again for some more volcanic wisdom and contribute to the show.
Chuck, always good to have you. I was a pleasant all right. This has been startled cosmic.
Where is near the here bidding to keep working out.
Transcript generated on 2020-07-27.